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BESAFEAGAINST

LIQUEFACTION

A MAJOR CAUSE OF STRUCTURAL FAILURE


DURING EARTHQUAKE
R. RAGHAVENDRA
P.HEMANTH
III B.Tech, Civil
III B.Tech, Civil
yours.raghu113@gmail.com
hemanth.perusomula@yahoo.in

FROM
J.N.T.U College of Engg.,Anantapur.
For

P.V.K.K TECHNO FEST 2K11


INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION
GROUND FAILURE RESULTING FROM SOIL LIQUEFACTION
EXPLANATION OF LIQUEFACTION
MODES OF LIQUEFACTION
ANALYSING LIQUEFACTION SUSCEPTIBLE
GEOTECHNICAL STUDY ON LIQUEFACTION

ANALYSIS OF LIQUEFACTION

HOW CAN THE RISK OF DAMAGE DUE TO SOIL LIQUEFACTION BE


REDUCED?
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
What is liquefaction?
Relation with earthquakes
Quick sand?....

Castro & Polus


"Liquefaction is a phenomenon where in a
mass of soil loses a large percentage of its
shear resistance, when subjected to
monotonic, cyclic, or shock loading, and
flows in a manner resembling a liquid until
the shear stresses acting on the mass are
as low as the reduced shear resistance."
Ground Failure Resulting From Soil
Liquefaction:

Sandboils Flowfailuresofslopes
Lateralspreads Groundoscillation
Lossofbearingcapacity Buoyantrise
Groundsettlement Failureofretainingwalls
Explanation of liquefaction
CONTACT FORCES IN SOIL
SOIL BEFORE LIQUEFACTION SOIL AFTER LIQUEFACTION
MODES OF LIQUEFACTION
FLOW LIQUEFACTION
QUASI LIQUEFACTION
SAND BOILING

LIQUEFACTION BY ROBERTSON
A. FLOW LIQUEFACTION B. CYCLIC SOFTENING
1) Cyclic liquefaction
2) Cyclic mobility
LIQUEFACTION
SUSCEPTIBLE
ANALYSING
LIQUEFACTION SUSCEPTIBLE
There are a number of different ways to evaluate the liquefaction
susceptibility of a soil deposit. Here they are organized as follows
(adopted from Kramer, 1996).

a) Historical criteria
b) Geo logical criteria
c) Compositional criteria
d) State criteria
STUDY ON LIQUEFACTION
BY

GEO TECHNICIANS
1) Flow Liquefaction

2) Limited liquefaction
GRAPHS RELATED TO
LIQUEFACTION
ANALYSIS
OFLIQUEFACTION
A. Empirical correlation

B. simplified procedure

(by SEED AND IDRISS)


SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE

MSF= Magnitude of scaling factor


Ka = Over burden scaling factor
Kc = Correction factor for sloping grouting

amax= Peak horizontal acceleration in ground when earth


quake came
g = Acceleration due to gravity

rd =stress reduction coefficient


vo and v o are the total and effective overburden
PROGRESS IN

LIQUEFACTION
FINES CONTENT
MAGNITUED CORRELATED

DURATION WEIGHING FACTORS


EFFECTIVE OVERBURDEN STRESS
FINES CONTENT AND PLASTICITY
INDEX

Applicable for
FC > 20% if PI>12%
FC > 35% if PI<12%
WEIGHTING FACTORS
SAFETY HOUSE FOR
LIQUEFACTION
Properties
CONCLUSION
We studied soil Liquefaction in Detail w.r.t. its importance,
properties of soil, details of Liquefaction, geotechnical study,
evaluation techniques and remedial measures and concluded that
liquefaction is very important phenomenon and it has not given
that much importance in India.

The detailed study of liquefaction must be undertaken for Indian


earthquake regions and the preventive measures must be
conducted in liquefaction prone area so as to avoid the failure of
structures during earthquake. So as to be safe against earthquake
failure.
REFERENCES
1) www.ce.washington.edu
2)what is soil liquefaction
- Alisha Kaplan.
3)Soil Liquefaction in Earthquake.
- Alan F. Rauch.
4) Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering.
- B. C. Punmia.
5) Liquefaction potential assessment in Chandigarh city.
- R. Dharmaraju & Gayatri Devi.
6)laboratory evaluation of dynamic properties and
liquefaction potential of sands
- Prof. T. G. Sitharam
?

RAGHAVENDRA & HEMANTH