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Load types on building

Loads that are implemented on a structural element can

differ between numerous categories and figures. Loads
can be of various types. It can be dead loads, containing
both the self weight and covering material. It can be live
loads similar to the human being load on a slab, wind
loads which are owing to the air pressure that the
building is exposed to and seismic load that are
because of an earthquake.
Load Transfer forms
In structural engineering load shifting by means of
structural elements from one element to another
element in numerous forms, it can be flexural force
because of moment, axial force like in columns, shear
forces like on shear walls and core walls.
Load Transfer through
Structural elements:
1) Load transferred to slab
The slab will hold up different types of load like the dead
loads from covering material and wall partitions and
also will support the live load which is the source largely
from human beings on this slab.
2) Load transferred from slab to beams:
The forces transfer from slab to beams generally takes
place either in one way or in two ways. The total system
completely counts on the geometrical dimensions of the
slab in which if the ratio Long side / short side < 2 it is
considered as 2 way slab, and if Longer side to shorter
side greater than 2 then it is considered as 1 way slab.
Load Transfer through
Structural elements:
3) Load transferred from beam to columns
As beams are supported on columns it will transmit the
load that it holds it already from supporting the slab to
the column itself. This load transferred will be mainly
axial force and in eccentric column it will transmit
moment also to the column. Note: in some cases like
flat slab the slab is supported directly on columns
without beams.
Load Transfer through
Structural elements:
4) Load transferred from
columns to foundation:
As the columns are sustained by
foundation; the load relocated
from the all components to attain
the columns it will be transferred
from the column through the
column necks adjacent to the
footing in the form of axial force
and in unconventional cases or
lateral loads applied it will
transfer moment and shear also
to the footing.
Load Transfer through
Structural elements:
5) Load transferred from Footing to soil:
Soil is the root support of the footing. All the forces that
come in contact with the footings will be shifted to the
soil, which will endure this force by the aspect recognized
as bearing capacity which fluctuates from one type of soil
to another in which bearing capacity, is the key factor in
calculating the footings size.