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BDA 30403

THERMODYNAMICS II

Sem 1 2016/2017

Section 5 & 6

Chapter 1

VAPOR POWER CYCLES

Contents

1. The Principle of Heat Engine and the Second Law of

Thermodynamics

2. Carnot Cylce

3. Rankine Cycle

4. Perfomance Criteria of a Steam Power Plant

5. Rankine Cycle with Superheated Steam

6. Rankine Cycle with Reheating and Regeneration

3

Objectives

1. Analyze vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is

alternately vaporized and condensed.

2. Investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor power

cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency.

3. Analyze the reheat and regenerative vapor power cycles.

4. Review power cycles that consist of two separate cycles, known

as combined cycles.

4

Thermal Power Plant

5

Thermal Power Plant

6

Sub-Systems in a Vapor/Steam Power Plant

Our focus will be on sub-system A.

7

Sub-Systems A

8

Basic Components and Working Principle of Steam P/Plant

9

10

Steam turbine

See how the steam power plant works at

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IdPTuwKEfmA

Steam (Water Vapor)

Steam is the most common working fluid used in vapor power

cycles because of its many desirable characteristics, such as:

(a) low cost,

(b) availability, and

(c) high enthalpy of vaporization#.

Steam power plants are commonly referred to as: (a) coal plants,

(b) nuclear plants, or (c) natural gas plants, depending on the type

of fuel used to supply heat to the steam.

The steam goes through the same basic cycle in all of them.

Therefore, all can be analyzed in the same manner.

given temperature or pressure, hfg.

Carnot Vapor Cycle

Steam power plant is one kind of the heat engine.

For the heat engine, Carnot cycle is the most efficient power cycle operating

between two specified temperature limits (Fig. 10-1).

We can adopt the Carnot cycle first as a prospective ideal cycle for vapor power

plants.

Sequence of Processes:

1-2 Reversible and isothermal heating (in a

boiler);

2-3 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine);

3-4 Reversible and isothermal

condensation (in a condenser); and

4-1 Isentropic compression (in a

compressor).

12

Example

The Carnot Cycle

Consider A steady-flow Carnot cycle uses water as the working fluid. Water

changes from saturated liquid to saturated vapor as heat is transferred to it from

a source at 250C. Heat rejection takes place at a pressure of 20 kPa. Show the

cycle on a T-s diagram relative to the saturation lines, and determine

(a) the thermal efficiency,

(b) the amount of heat rejected, in kJ/kg, and

(c) the net work output.

13

Is Carnot Cycle Practical?

The Carnot cycle is NOT a suitable model for

actual power cycles because of several

impracticalities associated with it:

Process 1-2

Limiting the heat transfer processes to two-

phase systems severely limits the maximum

temperature that can be used in the cycle

(374C for water).

Process 2-3

The turbine cannot handle steam with a high

moisture content because of the impingement

of liquid droplets on the turbine blades causing

erosion and wear.

Process 4-1

It is not practical to design a compressor that

14

handles two phases.

The Rankine Cycle

Many of the impracticalities associated

with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated

by: (a) superheating the steam in the

boiler, and (b) condensing the steam

completely in the condenser.

Rankine cycle, where the isothermal

processes are replaced with

constant pressure processes to

facilitate doing (a) and (b) above. This is

the ideal and practical cycle for vapor

power plants (Figure 10-2).

This ideal cycle does not involve any

internal irreversibilities.

15

State of Processes

State 1 : Water enters the pump at state 1 as

saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to

the operating pressure of the boiler.

State 2: Water enters the boiler as a compressed

liquid at state 2 and leaves as a superheated vapor

at state 3.

State 3 : The superheated vapor at state 3 enters

the turbine, where it expands isentropically and

produces work by rotating the shaft connected to

an electric generator. The pressure and the

temperature of steam drop during this process to

the values at state 4, where steam enters the

condenser. At this state, steam is usually a

saturated liquidvapor mixture with a high quality. 16

contdState of Processes

State 4: Steam is condensed at constant pressure

in the condenser, which is basically a large heat

exchanger, by rejecting heat to a cooling medium

such as a lake, a river, or the atmosphere. In areas

where water is precious, the power plants are

cooled by air instead of water.

Steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and

enters the pump, completing the cycle.

17

Sequence of Processes

The ideal Rankine cycle consists of

four processes:

1-2 Isentropic compression in a

water pump;

2-3 Constant pressure heat addition

in a boiler;

3-4 Isentropic expansion in a turbine;

4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection

in a condenser.

18

Energy Analysis of Ideal Rankine Cycle

The pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser are steady-flow devices. Thus all four

processes that make up the ideal Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady-flow

processes.

The kinetic and potential energy changes of the steam are usually small. Thus the

Steady-flow Energy Equation per unit mass of steam reduces to:

Energy Interactions

The boiler and condenser do not

involve any work but both involve

with heat interactions.

The pump and the turbine are

assumed to be isentropic and both

involve work interactions.

19

Energy Interactions in Each Device

Pump: The work needed to operate the water pump,

where,

in the steam boiler,

by the turbine,

rejected to cooling medium in the

condenser,

20

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Thermal Efficiency

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined

from,

also be interpreted as the ratio of the

area enclosed by the cycle on a T-s

diagram to the area under the heat-

addition process. 21

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Back Work Ratio (BWR)

The back work ratio (bwr) of the Rankine

cycle is determined from,

Example 10-1

The Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant operating on the simple ideal Rankine cycle.

Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350C and is condensed in the

condenser at a pressure of 75 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of this cycle

and the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle.

23

In class practice

The Simple Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the

pressure limits of 3 MPa and 50 kPa. The temperature of the steam at the

turbine inlet is 300C, and the mass flow rate of steam through the cycle is 35

kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and

determine

(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle and

(b) the net power output of the power plant

(c) the back work ratio (bwr)

Answers: (a) 27.1%, (b) 25.2MW (c) ?

24

In class practice

The Simple Rankine Cycle

Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine

cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the

condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with

respect to saturation lines, and determine:

(a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

(c) the mass flow rate of the steam.

Answers: (a) 0.793, (b) 40.2 percent, (c) 165 kg/s

25

Problem

The Simple Rankine Cycle Homework Exercise

1022 Cengel 5th Edition

Consider a steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle

and has a net power output of 45 MW. Steam enters the turbine at 7 MPa and

500C and is cooled in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa by running cooling

water from a lake through the tubes of the condenser at a rate of 2000 kg/s.

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine:

(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle,

(b) the mass flow rate of the steam, and

(c) the temperature rise of the cooling water.

Answers: (a) 38.9 percent, (b) 36 kg/s, (c) 8.4C

26

Exercise

The Simple Rankine Cycle

Test 1 Sem 1 - 2014/2015

A 50 MW steam power plant is operating near a man-made lake with a steam at

7 MPa and temperature of 500C. The steam is then cooled using the

conventional condenser at 10 kPa with cooling water flow rate of 2500 kg/s. If

the steam leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid, determine:

(a) the mass flowrate of the steam (kg/s), and

(b) the expected temperature increase for the cooling water (C and K).

27

Exercise

The Simple Rankine Cycle

Test 1 Sem 2 - 2014/2015

A power plant using steam as working fluid operates on a Rankine cycle. Steam

enters the turbine at a pressure of 6 MPa, and it leaves as a saturated vapour at

10 kPa. Heat is transferred to the steam in the boiler at a rate of 40,000 kJ/s.

Steam is cooled in the condenser by the cooling water from a nearby river, which

enters the condenser at 15C. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to

saturation lines, and determine;

a) the turbine inlet temperature,

b) the net power output and thermal efficiency, and

c) the minimum mass flow rate of the cooling water required.

Answers: (a)

28

Actual Vapor Power Cycles

The actual vapor power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle as a result of

irreversibilities in various components. Two common sources of irreversibilities are:

(a) fluid friction, and (b) heat loss to the surroundings.

boiler, condenser, and the piping between

various components. Water must be

pumped to a higher pressure - requires a

larger pump and larger work input.

steam in the boiler to compensate for the

undesired heat losses from the steam to the

surroundings.

As a result, the cycle thermal efficiency

decreases.

29

Isentropic Efficiencies

A pump requires a greater work input, and a turbine produces a smaller work

output as a result of irreversibilities.

The deviation of actual pumps and turbines from the isentropic ones can be

accounted for by utilizing isentropic efficiencies, defined as,

Pump:

Turbine:

cooled to prevent the onset of cavitation, which

may damage the water pump. Additional losses

occur at the bearings between the moving parts as

a result of friction. Two other factors are the steam

that leaks out during the cycle and air that leaks

30

into the condenser.

Example 10-2

TheActual Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on the cycle shown in figure below. If the

isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 87 percent and the isentropic efficiency of

the pump is 85 percent, determine

(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle and

(b) the net power output of the plant for a mass flow rate of 15 kg/s.

31

In class practice

The Actual Rankine Cycle

Repeat Prob. 1016 assuming an isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for both the

turbine and the pump.

10-16

Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine

cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the condenser

at a pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation

lines, and determine:

(a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

(c) the mass flow rate of the steam.

Increasing Efficiency of Rankine Cycle

Thermal efficiency of the ideal Rankine cycle can be increased by:

(a) Increasing the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working

fluid in the boiler, or

(b) decreasing the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working

fluid in the condenser.

i) Lowering the Condenser Pressure

The condensers of steam power plants usually

operate well below the atmospheric pressure.

There is a lower limit to this pressure depending

on the temperature of the cooling medium.

Side effect: Lowering the condenser pressure

increases the moisture content of the steam at

the final stages of the turbine can cause blade

damage, decreasing isentropic efficiency.

33

ii) Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures

net work output and heat input to the

cycle. The overall effect is an increase in

thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Superheating to higher temperatures will

decrease the moisture content of the steam

at the turbine exit, which is desirable avoid

erosion of turbine blades.

The superheating temperature is limited by

metallurgical considerations. Presently the

highest steam temperature allowed at the

turbine inlet is about 620C.

34

iii) Increasing the Boiler Pressure

average temperature at which heat is

transferred to the steam. This, in turns

increases the thermal efficiency of the

cycle.

Note:

For a fixed turbine inlet temperature, the

cycle shifts to the left and the moisture

content of steam at the turbine exit

increases.

This side effect can be corrected by

reheating the steam.

35

Example 10-1

The Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant operating on the simple ideal Rankine cycle.

Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350C and is condensed in the

condenser at a pressure of 75 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of this cycle

and the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle.

36

Example 10-3

Effect of Boiler Pressure and Temperature on Efficiency

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle. Steam

enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350C and is condensed in the condenser at

a pressure of 10 kPa. Determine

(b) the thermal efficiency if steam is superheated to 600C instead of

350C, and

(c) the thermal efficiency if the boiler pressure is raised to 15 MPa while the

turbine inlet temperature is maintained at 600C.

37

Example 10-3

Effect of Boiler Pressure and Temperature on Efficiency

38

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive moisture problem in turbines, and

it is commonly used in modern steam power plants. This is done by expanding the

steam in two-stage turbine, and reheat the steam in between the stages.

Note: Incorporation of the single reheat in a modern power plant improves the cycle 39

efficiency by 4 ~ 5 percent.

With a single reheating process, the total heat input and the total turbine work

output for the ideal cycle become,

40

Example 10-4

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

EXAMPLE 104 Cengel

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle.

Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 15 MPa and 600C and is condensed

in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. If the moisture content of

the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10.4 percent,

determine

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

turbine.

41

42

43

44

In class practice

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheat Rankine cycle between the

pressure limits of 15 MPa and 10 kPa. The mass flow rate of steam through the

cycle is 12 kg/s. Steam enters both stages of the turbine at 500C. If the moisture

content of the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10 per

cent, show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines. Determine,

(b) the total rate of heat input in the boiler, and

(c) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

In class practice

The Actual Reheat Rankine Cycle

1034@5th Edition, 10-33@7th Edition

Consider a steam power plant that operates on a reheat Rankine cycle and has

a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 10 MPa

and 500C and the low-pressure turbine at 1 MPa and 500C. Steam leaves the

condenser as a saturated liquid at a pressure of 10 kPa. The isentropic

efficiency of the turbine is 80 percent, and that of the pump is 95 percent. Show

the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine:

(a) the quality (or temperature, if superheated) of the steam at the turbine

exit,

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

(c) the mass flow rate of the steam.

Answers: (a) 88.1C, (b) 34.1 percent, (c) 62.7 kg/s

46

In class practice

The Actual Reheat Rankine Cycle

Test 1 Sem 2 - 2013/2014

In a reheat Rankine cycle steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 12.5 MPa

and 550C and leaves at 2 MPa. Steam is then reheated at constant pressure to

500C before it expands in the low-pressure turbine and leaves the turbine at 10

kPa. The isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and the pump are 85 percent and

90 percent, respectively. If the steam leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid,

determine:

(a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit, and

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Answers: (a) 0.97, (b) 37.2%.

47

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Heat is transferred to the working fluid during process 2-2 at a relatively low

temperature (Figure). This lowers the average heat-addition temperature and thus the

cycle efficiency.

Regeneration Process

Steam is extracted from the turbine at various

points, and is used to heat the feedwater, before

it enters the boiler. The device where the

feedwater is heated using the steam is called a

regenerator, or a feedwater heater (FWH).

A feedwater heater is a heat exchanger where

heat is transferred from the extracted steam to

the feedwater either by: (a) mixing the two fluid

streams (open FWH) or (b) without mixing them

(closed FWH) heat transfer from steam to

feedwater.

48

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Open Feedwater Heater

An open FWH is a mixing chamber, where the steam extracted from the turbine

(state 6) mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump (state 2). Ideally, the mixture

leaves the heater as a saturated liquid (state 3) at the FWHs pressure.

49

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Energy Analyses

The heat and work interactions in a regenerative Rankine cycle with one feedwater

heater can be expressed (per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler), as

follows:

Mass of Steam Extracted

For each 1 kg of steam leaving

the boiler, y kg expands partially

in the turbine and is extracted at

state 6.

The remaining (1-y) kg of the

Mass fraction of steam extracted from the steam expands to the condenser

turbine, pressure.

Therefore, the mass flow rates of

Pump work input, the steam will be different in

different components.

50

51

6

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Closed Feedwater Heater

In a closed feedwater heater, heat is transferred from the extracted steam (state 7) to

the feedwater leaving the pump (state 2) without mixing. The two streams can be at

different pressures (P7 P2). The condensate (state 3) is pumped into a mixing

chamber to mixed with the heated feedwater (state 9).

Ideally, T9 T3

52

Open vs. Closed Feedwater Heater

Open FWHs

Open feedwater heaters are simple and inexpensive. They have good heat transfer

characteristics.

For each feedwater heater used, additional feedwater pump is required.

Closed FWHs

The closed feedwater heaters are more complex because of the internal tubing

network. Thus they are more expensive.

Heat transfer in closed feedwater heaters is less effective since the two streams are

not allowed to be in direct contact.

The closed feedwater heaters do not require a separate pump for each FWH since

the extracted steam and the feedwater can be at different pressures.

53

Open & Closed FWH Combined

Most steam power plants use a combination of open and closed

feedwater heaters.

54

Another combination of open and closed feedwater heaters.

55

Example 10-5

The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

cycle with one open feedwater heater. Steam enters the turbine at 15 MPa

and 600C and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Some

steam leaves the turbine at a pressure of 1.2 MPa and enters the open feedwater

heater. Determine the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine and the thermal

efficiency of the cycle.

56

In class practice

The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450C and is condensed in the condenser at 20

kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater in an

open feedwater heater. Water leaves the feedwater heater as a saturated liquid.

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine:

(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the

boiler, and

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Answers: (a) 1017 kJ/kg, (b) 37.8 percent

57

In class practice

The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450C and is condensed in the condenser at 20

kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater in

closed feedwater heater. Assume that the feedwater leaves the heater at the

condensation temperature of the extracted steam and that the extracted steam

leaves the heater as a saturated liquid and is pumped to the line carrying the

feedwater.

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine:

(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the boiler, and

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

58

Problem

The Reheat + Regenerative Rankine Cycle

has a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 10

MPa and 550C and leaves at 0.8 MPa. Some steam is extracted at this pressure

to heat the feedwater in an open feedwater heater. The rest of the steam is

reheated to 500C and is expanded in the low-pressure turbine to the condenser

pressure of 10 kPa.

(a) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler, and

(b) thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Answers: (a) 54.5 kg/s, (b) 44.4 percent

59

In class practice

The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

A multistage steam turbine operates with two open feedwater heater. The initial

steam pressure is 10 MPa with temperature 600C and steam leaves the low

pressure turbine at 7.5 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 2 MPa and 0.2

MPa. Water leaves both feedwater as saturated liquid. By neglecting all the

pumps works, determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

60

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