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# Md Norrizam bin Mohmad Jaat

## Department of Energy and Thermofluid Engineering

FKMP
Room : FSKTM LEVEL 7
Off no : 07- 4533646
H/p no : 0137438477
norrizam@uthm.edu.my

BDA 30403
THERMODYNAMICS II
Sem 1 2016/2017
Section 5 & 6
Chapter 1
VAPOR POWER CYCLES
Contents
1. The Principle of Heat Engine and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics
2. Carnot Cylce
3. Rankine Cycle
4. Perfomance Criteria of a Steam Power Plant
5. Rankine Cycle with Superheated Steam
6. Rankine Cycle with Reheating and Regeneration

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Objectives
1. Analyze vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is
alternately vaporized and condensed.
2. Investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor power
cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency.
3. Analyze the reheat and regenerative vapor power cycles.
4. Review power cycles that consist of two separate cycles, known
as combined cycles.

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Thermal Power Plant

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Thermal Power Plant

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Sub-Systems in a Vapor/Steam Power Plant
Our focus will be on sub-system A.

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Sub-Systems A

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Basic Components and Working Principle of Steam P/Plant

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Steam turbine
See how the steam power plant works at
Steam (Water Vapor)
Steam is the most common working fluid used in vapor power
cycles because of its many desirable characteristics, such as:
(a) low cost,
(b) availability, and
(c) high enthalpy of vaporization#.
Steam power plants are commonly referred to as: (a) coal plants,
(b) nuclear plants, or (c) natural gas plants, depending on the type
of fuel used to supply heat to the steam.
The steam goes through the same basic cycle in all of them.
Therefore, all can be analyzed in the same manner.

## # The amount of energy needed to vaporize a unit mass of saturated liquid at a 11

given temperature or pressure, hfg.
Carnot Vapor Cycle
Steam power plant is one kind of the heat engine.
For the heat engine, Carnot cycle is the most efficient power cycle operating
between two specified temperature limits (Fig. 10-1).
We can adopt the Carnot cycle first as a prospective ideal cycle for vapor power
plants.
Sequence of Processes:
1-2 Reversible and isothermal heating (in a
boiler);
2-3 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine);
3-4 Reversible and isothermal
condensation (in a condenser); and
4-1 Isentropic compression (in a
compressor).

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Example
The Carnot Cycle

Consider A steady-flow Carnot cycle uses water as the working fluid. Water
changes from saturated liquid to saturated vapor as heat is transferred to it from
a source at 250C. Heat rejection takes place at a pressure of 20 kPa. Show the
cycle on a T-s diagram relative to the saturation lines, and determine
(a) the thermal efficiency,
(b) the amount of heat rejected, in kJ/kg, and
(c) the net work output.

## Answers: (a)36.3%, (b) 1092.3 kJ/kg, (c) 623 kJ/kg

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Is Carnot Cycle Practical?
The Carnot cycle is NOT a suitable model for
actual power cycles because of several
impracticalities associated with it:
Process 1-2
Limiting the heat transfer processes to two-
phase systems severely limits the maximum
temperature that can be used in the cycle
(374C for water).
Process 2-3
The turbine cannot handle steam with a high
moisture content because of the impingement
of liquid droplets on the turbine blades causing
erosion and wear.
Process 4-1
It is not practical to design a compressor that
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handles two phases.
The Rankine Cycle
Many of the impracticalities associated
with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated
by: (a) superheating the steam in the
boiler, and (b) condensing the steam
completely in the condenser.

## The modified Carnot cycle is called the

Rankine cycle, where the isothermal
processes are replaced with
constant pressure processes to
facilitate doing (a) and (b) above. This is
the ideal and practical cycle for vapor
power plants (Figure 10-2).
This ideal cycle does not involve any
internal irreversibilities.
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State of Processes
State 1 : Water enters the pump at state 1 as
saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to
the operating pressure of the boiler.
State 2: Water enters the boiler as a compressed
liquid at state 2 and leaves as a superheated vapor
at state 3.
State 3 : The superheated vapor at state 3 enters
the turbine, where it expands isentropically and
produces work by rotating the shaft connected to
an electric generator. The pressure and the
temperature of steam drop during this process to
the values at state 4, where steam enters the
condenser. At this state, steam is usually a
saturated liquidvapor mixture with a high quality. 16
contdState of Processes
State 4: Steam is condensed at constant pressure
in the condenser, which is basically a large heat
exchanger, by rejecting heat to a cooling medium
such as a lake, a river, or the atmosphere. In areas
where water is precious, the power plants are
cooled by air instead of water.
Steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and
enters the pump, completing the cycle.

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Sequence of Processes
The ideal Rankine cycle consists of
four processes:
1-2 Isentropic compression in a
water pump;
in a boiler;
3-4 Isentropic expansion in a turbine;
4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection
in a condenser.

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Energy Analysis of Ideal Rankine Cycle
The pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser are steady-flow devices. Thus all four
processes that make up the ideal Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady-flow
processes.
The kinetic and potential energy changes of the steam are usually small. Thus the
Steady-flow Energy Equation per unit mass of steam reduces to:

Energy Interactions
The boiler and condenser do not
involve any work but both involve
with heat interactions.
The pump and the turbine are
assumed to be isentropic and both
involve work interactions.
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Energy Interactions in Each Device
Pump: The work needed to operate the water pump,
where,

## Boiler: The amount of heat supplied

in the steam boiler,

by the turbine,

## Condenser: The amount of heat

rejected to cooling medium in the
condenser,
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Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Thermal Efficiency
The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined
from,

## Thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle can

also be interpreted as the ratio of the
area enclosed by the cycle on a T-s
diagram to the area under the heat-
Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Back Work Ratio (BWR)
The back work ratio (bwr) of the Rankine
cycle is determined from,

## Note: +ve quantities only!

Example 10-1
The Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant operating on the simple ideal Rankine cycle.
Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350C and is condensed in the
condenser at a pressure of 75 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of this cycle
and the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle.

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In class practice
The Simple Rankine Cycle

## 1015 Cengel 5th Edition

A steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the
pressure limits of 3 MPa and 50 kPa. The temperature of the steam at the
turbine inlet is 300C, and the mass flow rate of steam through the cycle is 35
kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and
determine
(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle and
(b) the net power output of the power plant
(c) the back work ratio (bwr)
Answers: (a) 27.1%, (b) 25.2MW (c) ?

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In class practice
The Simple Rankine Cycle

## 1016 Cengel 5th Edition

Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine
cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the
condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with
respect to saturation lines, and determine:
(a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and
(c) the mass flow rate of the steam.
Answers: (a) 0.793, (b) 40.2 percent, (c) 165 kg/s

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Problem
The Simple Rankine Cycle Homework Exercise
1022 Cengel 5th Edition
Consider a steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle
and has a net power output of 45 MW. Steam enters the turbine at 7 MPa and
500C and is cooled in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa by running cooling
water from a lake through the tubes of the condenser at a rate of 2000 kg/s.
Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine:
(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle,
(b) the mass flow rate of the steam, and
(c) the temperature rise of the cooling water.
Answers: (a) 38.9 percent, (b) 36 kg/s, (c) 8.4C

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Exercise
The Simple Rankine Cycle
Test 1 Sem 1 - 2014/2015
A 50 MW steam power plant is operating near a man-made lake with a steam at
7 MPa and temperature of 500C. The steam is then cooled using the
conventional condenser at 10 kPa with cooling water flow rate of 2500 kg/s. If
the steam leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid, determine:
(a) the mass flowrate of the steam (kg/s), and
(b) the expected temperature increase for the cooling water (C and K).

## Answers: (a) 39.97 kg/s, (b) 7.28C

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Exercise
The Simple Rankine Cycle
Test 1 Sem 2 - 2014/2015
A power plant using steam as working fluid operates on a Rankine cycle. Steam
enters the turbine at a pressure of 6 MPa, and it leaves as a saturated vapour at
10 kPa. Heat is transferred to the steam in the boiler at a rate of 40,000 kJ/s.
Steam is cooled in the condenser by the cooling water from a nearby river, which
enters the condenser at 15C. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to
saturation lines, and determine;
a) the turbine inlet temperature,
b) the net power output and thermal efficiency, and
c) the minimum mass flow rate of the cooling water required.

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Actual Vapor Power Cycles
The actual vapor power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle as a result of
irreversibilities in various components. Two common sources of irreversibilities are:
(a) fluid friction, and (b) heat loss to the surroundings.

## Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the

boiler, condenser, and the piping between
various components. Water must be
pumped to a higher pressure - requires a
larger pump and larger work input.

## More heat needs to be transferred to the

steam in the boiler to compensate for the
undesired heat losses from the steam to the
surroundings.
As a result, the cycle thermal efficiency
decreases.

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Isentropic Efficiencies
A pump requires a greater work input, and a turbine produces a smaller work
output as a result of irreversibilities.
The deviation of actual pumps and turbines from the isentropic ones can be
accounted for by utilizing isentropic efficiencies, defined as,

Pump:

Turbine:

## In actual condensers, the liquid is usually sub-

cooled to prevent the onset of cavitation, which
may damage the water pump. Additional losses
occur at the bearings between the moving parts as
a result of friction. Two other factors are the steam
that leaks out during the cycle and air that leaks
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into the condenser.
Example 10-2
TheActual Rankine Cycle
A steam power plant operates on the cycle shown in figure below. If the
isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 87 percent and the isentropic efficiency of
the pump is 85 percent, determine
(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle and
(b) the net power output of the plant for a mass flow rate of 15 kg/s.

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In class practice
The Actual Rankine Cycle

## 1017 Cengel 5th Ed.

Repeat Prob. 1016 assuming an isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for both the
turbine and the pump.

10-16
Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine
cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the condenser
at a pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation
lines, and determine:
(a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and
(c) the mass flow rate of the steam.
Increasing Efficiency of Rankine Cycle
Thermal efficiency of the ideal Rankine cycle can be increased by:
(a) Increasing the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working
fluid in the boiler, or
(b) decreasing the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working
fluid in the condenser.
i) Lowering the Condenser Pressure
The condensers of steam power plants usually
operate well below the atmospheric pressure.
There is a lower limit to this pressure depending
on the temperature of the cooling medium.
Side effect: Lowering the condenser pressure
increases the moisture content of the steam at
the final stages of the turbine can cause blade
damage, decreasing isentropic efficiency.
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ii) Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures

## Superheating the steam increases both the

net work output and heat input to the
cycle. The overall effect is an increase in
thermal efficiency of the cycle.
Superheating to higher temperatures will
decrease the moisture content of the steam
at the turbine exit, which is desirable avoid
The superheating temperature is limited by
metallurgical considerations. Presently the
highest steam temperature allowed at the

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iii) Increasing the Boiler Pressure

## Increasing the boiler pressure raises the

average temperature at which heat is
transferred to the steam. This, in turns
increases the thermal efficiency of the
cycle.
Note:
For a fixed turbine inlet temperature, the
cycle shifts to the left and the moisture
content of steam at the turbine exit
increases.
This side effect can be corrected by
reheating the steam.

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Example 10-1
The Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant operating on the simple ideal Rankine cycle.
Steam enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350C and is condensed in the
condenser at a pressure of 75 kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of this cycle
and the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle.

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Example 10-3
Effect of Boiler Pressure and Temperature on Efficiency

Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle. Steam
enters the turbine at 3 MPa and 350C and is condensed in the condenser at
a pressure of 10 kPa. Determine

## (a) the thermal efficiency of this power plant,

(b) the thermal efficiency if steam is superheated to 600C instead of
350C, and
(c) the thermal efficiency if the boiler pressure is raised to 15 MPa while the
turbine inlet temperature is maintained at 600C.

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Example 10-3
Effect of Boiler Pressure and Temperature on Efficiency

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The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive moisture problem in turbines, and
it is commonly used in modern steam power plants. This is done by expanding the
steam in two-stage turbine, and reheat the steam in between the stages.

Note: Incorporation of the single reheat in a modern power plant improves the cycle 39
efficiency by 4 ~ 5 percent.
With a single reheating process, the total heat input and the total turbine work
output for the ideal cycle become,

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Example 10-4
The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
EXAMPLE 104 Cengel
Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle.
Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 15 MPa and 600C and is condensed
in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. If the moisture content of
the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10.4 percent,
determine

## (a) the pressure at which the steam should be reheated and

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

## Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of the high-pressure

turbine.

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In class practice
The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

## 1036 5th Edition

A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheat Rankine cycle between the
pressure limits of 15 MPa and 10 kPa. The mass flow rate of steam through the
cycle is 12 kg/s. Steam enters both stages of the turbine at 500C. If the moisture
content of the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10 per
cent, show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines. Determine,

## (a) the pressure at which reheating takes place,

(b) the total rate of heat input in the boiler, and
(c) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
In class practice
The Actual Reheat Rankine Cycle
1034@5th Edition, 10-33@7th Edition
Consider a steam power plant that operates on a reheat Rankine cycle and has
a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 10 MPa
and 500C and the low-pressure turbine at 1 MPa and 500C. Steam leaves the
condenser as a saturated liquid at a pressure of 10 kPa. The isentropic
efficiency of the turbine is 80 percent, and that of the pump is 95 percent. Show
the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine:
(a) the quality (or temperature, if superheated) of the steam at the turbine
exit,
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and
(c) the mass flow rate of the steam.
Answers: (a) 88.1C, (b) 34.1 percent, (c) 62.7 kg/s

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In class practice
The Actual Reheat Rankine Cycle
Test 1 Sem 2 - 2013/2014
In a reheat Rankine cycle steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 12.5 MPa
and 550C and leaves at 2 MPa. Steam is then reheated at constant pressure to
500C before it expands in the low-pressure turbine and leaves the turbine at 10
kPa. The isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and the pump are 85 percent and
90 percent, respectively. If the steam leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid,
determine:
(a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit, and
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

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The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Heat is transferred to the working fluid during process 2-2 at a relatively low
temperature (Figure). This lowers the average heat-addition temperature and thus the
cycle efficiency.
Regeneration Process
Steam is extracted from the turbine at various
points, and is used to heat the feedwater, before
it enters the boiler. The device where the
feedwater is heated using the steam is called a
regenerator, or a feedwater heater (FWH).
A feedwater heater is a heat exchanger where
heat is transferred from the extracted steam to
the feedwater either by: (a) mixing the two fluid
streams (open FWH) or (b) without mixing them
(closed FWH) heat transfer from steam to
feedwater.

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The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Open Feedwater Heater
An open FWH is a mixing chamber, where the steam extracted from the turbine
(state 6) mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump (state 2). Ideally, the mixture
leaves the heater as a saturated liquid (state 3) at the FWHs pressure.

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The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Energy Analyses
The heat and work interactions in a regenerative Rankine cycle with one feedwater
heater can be expressed (per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler), as
follows:
Mass of Steam Extracted
For each 1 kg of steam leaving
the boiler, y kg expands partially
in the turbine and is extracted at
state 6.
The remaining (1-y) kg of the
Mass fraction of steam extracted from the steam expands to the condenser
turbine, pressure.
Therefore, the mass flow rates of
Pump work input, the steam will be different in
different components.

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## Note: The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater

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6
The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Closed Feedwater Heater
In a closed feedwater heater, heat is transferred from the extracted steam (state 7) to
the feedwater leaving the pump (state 2) without mixing. The two streams can be at
different pressures (P7 P2). The condensate (state 3) is pumped into a mixing
chamber to mixed with the heated feedwater (state 9).
Ideally, T9 T3

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Open vs. Closed Feedwater Heater
Open FWHs
Open feedwater heaters are simple and inexpensive. They have good heat transfer
characteristics.
For each feedwater heater used, additional feedwater pump is required.

Closed FWHs
The closed feedwater heaters are more complex because of the internal tubing
network. Thus they are more expensive.
Heat transfer in closed feedwater heaters is less effective since the two streams are
not allowed to be in direct contact.
The closed feedwater heaters do not require a separate pump for each FWH since
the extracted steam and the feedwater can be at different pressures.

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Open & Closed FWH Combined
Most steam power plants use a combination of open and closed
feedwater heaters.

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Another combination of open and closed feedwater heaters.

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Example 10-5
The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

## Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal regenerative Rankine

cycle with one open feedwater heater. Steam enters the turbine at 15 MPa
and 600C and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Some
steam leaves the turbine at a pressure of 1.2 MPa and enters the open feedwater
heater. Determine the fraction of steam extracted from the turbine and the thermal
efficiency of the cycle.

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In class practice
The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

## A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle. Steam

enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450C and is condensed in the condenser at 20
kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater in an
open feedwater heater. Water leaves the feedwater heater as a saturated liquid.
Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine:

(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the
boiler, and
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
Answers: (a) 1017 kJ/kg, (b) 37.8 percent

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In class practice
The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

## A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle. Steam

enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450C and is condensed in the condenser at 20
kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater in
closed feedwater heater. Assume that the feedwater leaves the heater at the
condensation temperature of the extracted steam and that the extracted steam
leaves the heater as a saturated liquid and is pumped to the line carrying the
feedwater.
Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine:
(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the boiler, and
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

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Problem
The Reheat + Regenerative Rankine Cycle

## A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheat-regenerative Rankine cycle and

has a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 10
MPa and 550C and leaves at 0.8 MPa. Some steam is extracted at this pressure
to heat the feedwater in an open feedwater heater. The rest of the steam is
reheated to 500C and is expanded in the low-pressure turbine to the condenser
pressure of 10 kPa.

## Show the cycle on a T-s diagram and determine:

(a) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler, and
(b) thermal efficiency of the cycle.
Answers: (a) 54.5 kg/s, (b) 44.4 percent

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In class practice
The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

## Final Exam Sem 1 - 2015/2016

A multistage steam turbine operates with two open feedwater heater. The initial
steam pressure is 10 MPa with temperature 600C and steam leaves the low
pressure turbine at 7.5 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 2 MPa and 0.2
MPa. Water leaves both feedwater as saturated liquid. By neglecting all the
pumps works, determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

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