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# EARTHQUAKE

EARTHQUAKE
Ground shaking
Ground rupture
Liquefaction
Earthquake-induced landslides
Tsunamis
GROUND SHAKING
Vibration
Energy built up by the application of stress to
the lithosphere released by faulting during an
earthquake
Generated by sudden slippage along a fault
zone
ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY
Strain energy builds up in the deforming
(bending) rocks on either side of the fault until
it overcomes the resistance posed by any
irregularity on the fault plane.
The elastic energy released is transported by
seismic waves that travel throughout the earth.

GROUND SHAKING
ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY

GROUND SHAKING
ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY(SEISMIC
WAVES)

GROUND SHAKING
HOW DO SEISMIC WAVES SHAKE THE
GROUND?
Three main types of seismic waves
P (Primary)
S (Secondary)
These waves are converted into surface waves that
travel outwards from the epicenter

GROUND SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING
HOW GROUND SHAKING IS MEASURED?
Frequency the number of wavelength per
second
Period the time it takes for one full cycle to
occur (1/f)

GROUND SHAKING
HOW GROUND SHAKING IS MEASURED?
Frequency

GROUND SHAKING
HOW GROUND SHAKING IS MEASURED?
Amplitude the height of the energy wave;

GROUND SHAKING
HOW GROUND SHAKING IS MEASURED?
Velocity product of frequency and wavelength
Energy wave product of frequency and amplitude
Acceleration rate of change in velocity with respect
to time
Duration how long the shaking continues

GROUND SHAKING
EFFECTS OF GROUND SHAKING
The horizontal component of seismic wave motion or
shaking is the most destructive to buildings since it is
easier to shake than to compress rocks.
Both shear (S) waves and surface (love) waves are
destructive as both have horizontal components.

GROUND SHAKING
EARTHQUAKE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS
CONTROL INTENSITY OF VIBRATION
The intensity and nature of ground shaking largely
depend on the
Size of the fault rupture
Magnitude of the earthquake, and
Distance from the earthquake epicenter

GROUND SHAKING
1990 LUZON EARTHQUAKE

GROUND SHAKING
VIBRATION HAZARD ZONING
The intensity of shaking depends not only on
earthquake source characteristics but also on the
characteristics of the materials the ground is made
of.
Various types of foundations respond differently to
seismic waves and therefore a more detailed
evaluation of the susceptibility of the ground to
shaking is in order.
Shear wave velocity of different rocks is a good
measure of ground-shaking potential. The use of
velocity in estimating ground-shaking potential is
based on the principle that seismic waves have
different speeds when traveling through different
ACTIVITY 2
(page 49-50)
OBJECTIVE: This activity will let the students to
identify from knowledge of the types of rock and
their ground shaking relevant characteristics,
which areas are shaken more intensely.
GROUND SHAKING
QUESTIONS
What would the sticks and the shaking of the
Styrofoam(block) base represent?
Which buildings would require slower shaking of the
ground to sway?
Which buildings require a faster ground shaking
frequency to sway?
What happens to a building if you shake it too fast?
Will the use of stiffer sticks or heavier clay balls
change the natural frequency of the stick and clay ball
system GROUND SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING
Natural Frequency the frequency of an object to
which it naturally vibrates; depends on the STIFFNESS
and MASS of the system
Resonance when one object vibrating at the same
natural frequency of a second object forces that
second object into vibrational motion.
Oscillation vibration of an object at regular rate
If these vibrations happen to occur at a systems
resonance frequency, then oscillation generates
excitation at an atomic level, where more and more
energy is stored. When this stored energy exceeds an
objects load limit, it will lose structural integrity.
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING
TITLE - 4

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