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OBESITY

Epidemic of the New Century

Mahwish Aurangzeb

Ruth Kelly
Definition

Obesity is chronic, metabolic disease, caused by


multiple complex factors, including increase calorie
intake and decrease physical activity & genetics

An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is


considered overweight.
An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is
considered obese.(CDC :Mar 30, 2016)
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Weight Classification & Disease Risk by Body Mass Index

BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 (severe


obesity)
BMI of 40-50 kg/m2 (morbid obesity)
Obesity Prevalenceamong Adults in US,
2014

CDC, 2015
Global Obesity Prevalence
(females)

Source: Data from World Health Organization: Global InfoBase, International comparisons, Estimated Obesity (BMI >30
kg/m2) Prevalence Females, aged 18+, Accessed at : http://www.businessinsider.com/world-health-organization-obesity-
maps-2015-1
Global Obesity Prevalence
(males)

Source: Data from World Health Organization: Global InfoBase, International comparisons, Estimated Obesity
(BMI >30 kg/m2) Prevalence Males, aged 18+, Accessed at : http://www.businessinsider.com/world-health-
organization-obesity-maps-2015-1
Obesity Rate USA (adults)
Obesity in the U.S.
NCHS Data Brief: Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity, by sex and race and
Hispanic origin, among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 20112012
(According to the CDC)
Obesity Facts About Adults
Almost 70% of adults are considered to be overweight or
obese Age 20 and Older
Approximately 35% of the U.S. population or 78.6 million
adults in the U.S. suffer from obesity
More than 1 in 20 or 6.3% suffer from extreme obesity
Almost 3 in 4 men (74 %) are considered to be
overweight or obese
Prevalence of obesity is similar for both men and
women; approximately 36 %
Around 8 % of women are considered to have extreme
obesity
Overweight and Obesity among Adults Age 20
and Older, United States, 20092010
Estimated Percentage by BMI
Demographic Statistics on
Obesity in My Environment
According to Florida Charts
adults who are obese by age
group in Broward & Florida
(2013)
18-44: 53.8% (B)
45-64: 62.2% (B) Two major obesity related
65& older: 62.2% (B) health issues
18-44: : 26.2% (F) Adult diabetes (2014): 11.2%
45-64: 30.8% (F) Hypertension (2013): 34.6%
65& older:23.2% (F)

Childhood obesity (CO)


13.1% of 2-4 y/o in low income
families suffer from CO
13.4% of 10-17 y/o in low
income families suffer from CO
Continued

Obesity related health issues of


2010 and their projected cases in
20 years

Heart disease (2010): 1,412,354

Projected Cases (2030): 6,188,174

Arthritis (2010): 4,225,438


Projected Cases (2030): 3,266,082

Obesity-related cancer (2010):


352,183
Projected Cases (2030): 869,214
Gender Differences in Obesity

The gender difference in obesity is widely recognized and has been


attributed to evolutionary pressures that predispose women to
store excess fat for reproduction and lactation (OSullivan, 2008).

Recent studies suggest that gender differences in the distribution


of body fat are largely determined by differences in sex hormones.

In postmenopausal women, abdominal/visceral adiposity increases


with the loss of ovarian estrogens whereas in men, the gradual
decline in circulating androgens with aging predisposes to the
accumulation of abdominal fat (Lovejoy et al., 2008).
Risk Factors of Obesity

Selected Determinants of Obesity


Risk Factors of Obesity

The genesis of obesity is multifactorial involving both


modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and determinants.

For any individual, the development of obesity is a result of


the interaction of behavioral, environmental, socio-cultural,
and genetic factors that collectively tip the energy balance in
favor of excess energy that is stored as fat.

The dramatic global rise in the prevalence of obesity during


the past several decades tends to rule out a genetic basis for
the obesity epidemic on the rationale that, collectively, the
population gene pool could not have changed significantly in
such a short period of time.
Obesity & Health Consequences

Health Consequences: Obesity is strongly associated with increased morbidity, mortality, disability and impaired quality of
life (ACS, 2015, CDC, 2015).

High blood pressure (Hypertension)


Type 2 diabetes
Coronary heart disease
Stroke
Some cancers (an estimated 1 out of 3 cancer deaths in the U.S. is linked to excess body weight, poor nutrition, and/or
physical inactivity)
High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides (Dyslipidemia)
Gallbladder disease
Osteoarthritis (a breakdown of cartilage and bone within a joint)
Sleep apnea and breathing problems
Mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders
Body pain and difficulty with physical functioning
Low quality of life
Hazards that Obesity Creates

Heart disease
Stroke
Type II diabetes
Certain cancer types
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Osteoarthritis
Stroke
Some leading causes of (preventable) death
Prevelance in Children

Prevalence has remained at 30-50% of the adult


population in the United States, the prevalence
in children has increased to 15-25%.

The precentage has increased from 7% to nearly


18% with in past 30 years. (Center for Disease
Control and Prevention [CDC],2013).
Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity is a medical condition that


affects children & teenagers. Everyone has
body shape just right for them but sometimes
we can store excessive body fat. If a child or
adult stores too much fat they are classified as
obese. A sign of childhood obesity is a weight
well above the average for childs height &
age.
Comparing Trends in Childhood
Obesity
2014
Burden of Obesity

The cost of obesity management in the United


States alone amounts to approximately $147
billion annually.
Childhood obesity is important factor
to address in prevention and control
CHILDHOOD OBESITY
=
PREDICTOR FOR OBESITY IN
ADULT LIFE

Obesity in children in defined or diagnosed as when a child reaches


above 95th percentile of body fat in their respective age and gender
according to the growth chart.
.

The CDC BMI-for-age growth charts are available at:


Obesity is Imbalance
Etiology

Metabolic factors Ethnic and cultural


Genetic factors/ factors
family history Socioeconomic status
Level of activity Dietary habits
Behavior Smoking cessation
Endocrine factors Pregnancy and
Race, sex, and menopause
age factors Psychologic factors
Only 2% of Kids in the U.S. Eat Healthy diet.
25% dont participate in physical activities.
Reduced Life expectancy by 5 years.
Mainly Caused by Lack of Exercise
more TV time, the more likely weight gain
Unnecessary Snacking
Miss school
70% percent risk factor for cardiovascular
incidents
52% higher risk of asthma
45% Type 2 diabetes due to being obese or
Factors Leading to Childhood
Obesity
HEALTH PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH
CHILDHOOD
Obesity OBESITY
is strongly associated with increased morbidity, mortality, disability and
impaired quality of life (ACS, 2015, CDC, 2015).

Sleep apnea
Asthma
Coronary heart disease
Type 2 diabetes/Metabolic
Stroke
syndrome
High risk of Cancers
Hypertension
Gallbladder disease
Bone & joint problems (OA)
Mental illness(depression, anxiety ,
Liver diseases depression, low self esteem)

High cholesterol Discrimination & bullying


Low quality of life
MEDICAL & SURGICAL
TREATMENT OPTIONS

Beta-methyl-phenylethylamine (Fastin)
stimulant increasing fat metabolism.
Orlistat (Xenical) blocks absorption of 30% of
dietary fat .
Metformin (Glucophage)-- mainly used to treat
type 2 diabetes but has proven to reduce weight
Orlistat is the by the FDA approved drug
adolescents 12+.
Surgical options : Gastric bypass surgery,
adjustable gastric band, verticle sleeve
gastractomy