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Job analysisis the formal process of identifying

the content of a job in terms activities involved
and attributes needed to perform the work and
identifies major job requirements.It is the
identification and description of what is
happening on the job. The process uses a number
of methods and instruments for collecting and
refining job data into job facts that can be utilized
for a variety of useful organizational purposes
Reasons for starting a job
Demand of employees or union for change
in JD
Assignment of jobs to grade pays
Development of a classification system
Organizational restructuring and redesign of

organization and jobs

Preliminary considerations
Senior management support
does management understand what is the purpose of job
have time and cost considerations fully explored? have they
been approved?
what are the implication of the changes that are going to
Will senior mgmt support the restructuring, elimination and
upgrading of jobs?
are they willing to spend money?
Workforce cooperation

all members of the organization must support the program

and be involved in all the processes.
Steps in job analysis
1. Determine the organizational use of job
content and other related data
2. Learn about the structure , operations , and
jobs of the organization
3. Identify and select methods for collecting
jib content data and other related facts
4. Schedule the necessary and logical work
STEP 1 :Determine the organizational use of job content and other
related data

Major users and uses of job analysis ::

Employment: recruiting , interviewing , job posting

Training: job-required knowledge , skills ,and abilities assist a trainer in developing

training program. Job analysis provides job knowledge and skills requirement
Organization design and staffing: review of JD assist in identifying where levels of

management can be eliminated, where jobs can be combined and where

technology can improve efficiency
Compensation: provides job information required for establishing base pay, pay

for dangerous and distressing assignments and incentive pay plans.

Performance review: promotion to new jobs, additional pay for performance

Safety and health: considers requirement of occupational safety and health act of

1970. location of sources of hazards, stressful conditions, environmental

conditions to be identified
Affirmative action planning: identifying knowledge , skills , responsibilities and

duties of each job to select , train and develop applicants.

Hiring the handicapped: organizations must hire, place and advance individuals

with evenhanded treatment and not use any criteria that screens out qualified
personnel with disabilities
STEP 2:Learn about the structure ,
operations , and jobs of the

Sources of information :
Organization chart
Process charts
Procedures manuals
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STEP 3:Identify and select methods for
collecting jib content data and other
related facts
Methods for collecting, analyzing and
job information:
STEP 4:Schedule the necessary and
logical work steps

Developing a budget
1. determine the intended use of job analysis
2. kinds of instruments to be used
3. identify jobs to be studied
4. appraising the knowledge of employees
assist in:
a)design and develop data collecting
b)collecting data
c)presenting data in valuable form
5.identifying job analysis activities and required
Gaining employee acceptance
and cooperation
All employees must understand the
responsibilities and duties of their jobs
There must be complete agreement

between employees and their supervisors

as to these responsibilities and duties
All employees must receive fair rewards for

the knowledge necessary to solve work

related problems, to make decisions and to
accept other responsibilities required for the
successful performance of their jobs.
Developing a data collection
Collecting job activity data
Editing job activity data
Collecting job specification data
Job description
A description of the job-describes the contents of the
job, the KSA required for the job. Ajob descriptionis a
list that a person might use for general tasks, or
functions, andresponsibilitiesof a position. It may
often include to whom the position reports,
specifications such as thequalificationsor skills
needed by the person in the job, or asalaryrange.
Generic job description
Narrow, specific job descriptions
A job contract
JD acts as a contract
Conveys employee rights to the job,
establishes obligations to maintain those rights
JD protects employee by letting him know what
is expected
Protects the employer by letting employee
know what needs to be done
JD differs from a contract in a way that when
job changes, JD also changes
Provides job security and trust
Functions of JD
Elements of JD

When specifications section is not present or if it doesnt

specify the job qualifications , an employment standards
should be included:
a) Levels of education
b) Levels of experience
c) Abilities and skills
d) Physical standards
e) Certification/ licensure requirements
Other kinds of information used in
describing jobs
Conditions of employment
position description
class (description) specification

Job evaluation is the process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs
systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organisation.

It is a procedure undertaken in many organizations to determine the worth
of jobs to the organization.
To gather the data and information relating to job description and job

satisfaction for various job.

To compare duties, responsibilities and demands of a job with other jobs.
To determine the place of various jobs in the organization.
Equal compensation is fixed for the jobs of equal worth or value.
To minimize discrimination in compensation based on gender, age n etc.
Evaluate job, not jobholders
Simple elements
Clearly defined
Employee participation

Managerial participation

Optimal occupation
Evaluate Jobs, Not Jobholder: rating of the job should be undertaken and no
evaluation of the employee performing the job should be done.
Simple Elements: the elements selected for evaluation should be easy and easily
understood by all concerned.
Clearly Defined: the elements should be clearly defined and selected
Buy-in: employee and manager should be educated and convinced about the credibility
of job evaluation system.
Managerial Participation: managers should be encouraged to participate in rating the
Employee Participation: secure employee cooperation by encouraging them to
participate in job evaluation process.
I. Ranking method

II. Point method

III. Factor comparison

IV. Job classification

V. Computer aided
1. Ranking method: this is the most inexpensive and the simplest method
of job evaluation.job,people or teams can be ranked from ones adding
most value to least value to organisation.jobs are easier to rank when
there is large number of people in jobs.when the large number of
jobs,people or teams are to be ranked then the method of paired
comparisons can be used.

. Simple to use if there is a small number of jobs,people or teams.
. Require little time

. Criteria for ranking not understood.
. Increase possibility of bias
. Difficult to use when there is a large number of people,jobs or teams.
2. Point method: the method start with the selection of job factor,construction of degree
for each factor and assignment of point to each degree. different factors selected for
different jobs. The more demanding the job, the higher the point value. some of the
factors are:

(I) skill based factor like education,experience,effort.

(ii) responsibility based factor like responsibility for process,material,safety.

. It is most sophisticated system
. The entire outcome is in hard fact numbers.

. It is time consuming
. Satisfying benchmark jobs for the degree are required.
3.Factor comparison method: different factors are selected which are usually five and
these are assumed to be constant for all the jobs. each factor is rank individually with other
jobs. for example, all the jobs may be compared first by the factor mental requirements
the skill factor, physical requirements,responsibility,and working conditions are ranked.
The total points are assigned to each factor.

It permits a more systematic comparison of jobs.
It is easier than point method, as a set of similar job are compared and ranked against each

It goes against the common belief that the procedure of evaluating jobs and their wages
should be kept separate.
4. Job classification: this is also known as job grading. a limited number of job grades
are established based on tasks performed,skills,experience and responsibility. clear
distinctions are made between grades. the number of grades is decided first and then
detailed grade are produced.

Jobs, people or teams can be quickly slotted into structure.
Standards to establish value are made explicit

Job grades are not quantified.
Difference between classification levels may not be equal.
5. Computer aided: job evaluation is done by using

computers. it features computerized checking of questionnaire

answer and automated output of both job evaluation and

relevant compensation reports. The advantage of this method is

the simplification of job analysis, ability to keep job

descriptions up-to-date, less time spent in committee meetings.

1. Determine objective: the objective of job evaluation programme should be determined
prior to undertaking the programme.the prime objective is to identify relative worth of
different jobs in the organization.

2. Planning acceptance: all concerned should be communicated about the purpose and the
obligations of every employee and manager to ensure its success.

3. Select jobs: due to various constraint, shop floor and office jobs are evaluated and other
jobs are evaluated later in the programme.

4. Job description and specification: job evaluation differentiates compensation amongst job
based on duties, tasks and responsibility associated with each jobs.

5. Job evaluation method: depending on the nature of the jobs to be evaluated, an

appropriated method is to be chosen.

6. Review: it is crucial to undertake periodic review once in a year. This help to update job
evaluations made and remove employees grievances pertaining to unfair pricing of their
jobs in programme.