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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership
Leadership
Theory and Practice, 3/e
Peter G. Northouse, Ph.D.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD


Presenter

SAGE Publications 2003 Jan Krieger 1


Chapter 1 - Introduction

Overview
Conceptualizing Leadership
Leadership Definition
Components of the Definition
Followers & Leadership

SAGE Publications 2003 Jan Krieger 2


Chapter 1 - Introduction

Conceptualizing Leadership
Some definitions view leadership as:
The focus of group
processes
A personality perspective
An act or behavior
In terms of the power
relationship between
leaders & followers
An instrument of goal
achievement

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership Defined

Leadership
is a process whereby an individual
influences a group of individuals
to achieve a common goal.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Components Central to the


Phenomenon of Leadership
Leadership
Is a process
Involves influence
Occurs within a group context
Involves goal attainment

Leaders
Are not above followers
Are not better than followers
Rather, an interactive relationship with followers
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Chapter 1 - Introduction

LEADERSHIP
DESCRIBED
Trait vs. Process Leadership
Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
Leadership & Power
Leadership & Coercion
Leadership & Management
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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Trait vs. Process Leadership


Trait definition of leadership:
Certain individuals
have special innate or LEADER
inborn characteristics Height
or qualities that Intelligence
differentiate them Leadership= Extroversion
Fluency
from nonleaders. Other Traits
Resides in select
people
Restricted to those
with inborn talent FOLLOWERS

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Trait vs. Process Leadership


The process definition of Leadership:
Leadership is a
LEADER
property or set of
properties possessed
in varying degrees by Leadership=
different people (Interaction)
(Jago, 1982).
Observed in
leadership behaviors
FOLLOWERS
Can be learned

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership


Assigned Emergent

Leadership based on An individual


occupying a position perceived by others as
within an the most influential
organization member of a group or
organization regardless
Team leaders
of the individuals title
Plant managers
Emerges over time
Department heads through communication
Directors Personality

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Power


Bases of Social Power
Power
French & Raven (1959)
Power is the Reward
capacity or potential to Coercive
influence
Legitimate
Two kinds of
power Referent
Position Expert
Personal
Power is a relational concern for
both leaders and followers.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Coercion


Coercion Examples of Coercive
Involves Leaders
The use of force to effect Adolf Hitler
change Jim Jones
Influencing others to do David Koresh
something via
manipulation of rewards
and penalties in the Power & restraint used
work environment to force followers to
Use of threats, engage in extreme
punishments, & negative behavior
rewards

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Management


Kotter (1990)
Management Leadership
Activities Activities
Produces order Produces change
and consistency and movement
Planning / Budgeting Establishing direction
Organizing / Staffing Aligning people
Controlling / Problem Motivating / Inspiring
Solving

Major activities of management and leadership


are played out differently; BUT both are essential
for an organization to prosper.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Leadership & Management


Zaleznik (1977)
Managers Leaders
Unidirectional Authority Multidirectional Influence
Are reactive Are emotionally active
& involved
Prefer to work with Shape ideas over
people on problem responding to them
solving
Act to expand
Low emotional
available options
involvement
Change the way people
think about what is
possible
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