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# Week 2 ME3031 Lecture Notes

## Dynamic Response of Measuring Systems

Control Loops
Process Control and Controllers
On/Off
PID,Proportional-Integral-Derivative
Fuzzy Logic
Dynamic Response of Instruments
So far we have only considered errors in the
output of instruments for static, or
unchanging inputs.
However, instruments or measuring systems
do not respond instantly to a change in
input. Therefore, we need to account for
this lag time and/or be aware of the
response time in our data analysis. (Mostly
with high speed data collection systems.)
Dynamic Response of Instruments
An instrument may produce an output with both
amplitude and phase (time lag) errors when a
dynamic input is encountered.

## Output response depends on:

Type of input
Type of transducer
Initial conditions
System characteristics
Types of Dynamic Input to Instruments

## X=0 t<0 X=0 t<0 X=0 t<0

X=Xo t>0 X=at t0 X=Xsin(t) t>0
General Instrument Response
Traditionally, differential equations are used to
describe instrument output. (Linear DE)
n n- 1
d y d y
an n an - 1 n- 1 +... +ao y(t ) =bo x(t ),
dt dt
y=instrument output
x(t)=input (forcing) function
n= order of the instrument
t=time
Response to Step Change in Input

Step
Increase

Step
Decrease
Response to Ramp Input
Response to Sinusoidal Input

## Example: Vibrating Devices

Dynamic Response
We will only be concerned with linear first
order systems.
dy
dy
y Kx(t)
a1 a o y(t) bo x(t), or dt
dt

a1 dy b
where
y o x(t)
a o dt ao ( a 1 / a 0 )isthetimeconstant
and
K(= b/a 0 )isthestaticgain
(orsensitivity).
First Order Linear Differential Equations
dX
p (t ) X q (t ) General form for 1st order linear eq.
dt

given
P(t) = p(t)dt

then

X (t ) e P (t ) e P ( t ) q (t )dt C General Solution

## apply Initial Conditions to solve for constant

First Order Response to Step Input
An example is a
thermometer or
thermocouple
suddenly immersed in
a constant temperature
bath.
Thermometer/Thermocouple Example
m=mass of sensing element (kg)
cp=specific heat (W/(kgC))

## h = convective heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2C))

T = surrounding fluid temperature (C)

## Q hA(T T ) convective heat transfer

dU dT
mc p rate of increase in internal energy
dt dt
Governing Equations
dU
Q by conservation of energy
dt

dT
h A(T - T) = mc p
dt

mc p dT
T T
h A dt
mc p

hA
General Form
dT dT T T
T T or
dt dt
T
p(t) 1 andq(t) =
Solve Step Input using General Solution
t
P(t) = p(t)dt and q (t ) T

t T dt C
T (t ) e t
e

General Solution

= e t T e t C
Using Integral
Tables
= T Ce t
apply Initial Conditions T = To at t=0
C = To - T

T(t) = T To - T e t
Use Algebra to change equation form.
T(t) = T To - T e t

T (t ) T
e t
To - T
T (t ) T To T
e t 1
To - T To - T
T (t ) To
e t 1
To - T
Valid for
Thermometers, T (t ) To
1 e t Lab manual result
thermocouples, T - To
and RTDs.
Step Input
X(t) X i
t/
X Final X i
1 0.632
2 0.865 Definition
3 0.950 of time
constant
4 0.982
5 0.993

## Shows that you need 5 time constants before you can

consider output to be steady-state.
Discuss the effect of time constant on system
response.
How can we get faster response? Damping?
RC Circuit Example
i
Q Vc CCapacitorCharge

R
Vs Vc
Vs VS VC VR = VC + IR ===> I =
R
C VC
dQ
I Definitionofrateofchargeforcapacitor
dt

dVc
RC Vc Vs
dt
Ramp Input
dy
y Kt
dt

y(0) 0

## Again, use general

solution method,
t
integral tables, and T(t) K e K(t )
initial conditions to
response
Instrument Lag Time = time constant
Sinusoidal Inputs (Vibrating Devices)
dy
y A sin(t)
dt

y(0) 0

A A
y(t) e t
sin(t )
1 ( )2
1 ( ) 2

response
where
arctan( )"phaseerrororphaseshift"
Sinusoidal Input/Output
As increases the deviation from perfect
response becomes greater.
Amplitude of output decreases.
Phase shift increases
Dynamic Response Summary
Time delays exist for step and ramp inputs.
Amplitude and Phase errors exist with
sinusoidal inputs.
By understanding these errors you can
minimize by using or designing systems with
appropriate time constant and natural
frequency.
Time constant for RC circuit and thermal
system.
Lab 2 Time constant
Determine the time constant of thermal and electrical RC
circuit.
=mcp/hA(thermal system) or RC (electrical system)
Estimate time to respond to step input (63.2% rule)
Plot data (ln (X-Xs/Xi-Xs)) vs time and find slope.

Uncertainty Analysis

Excel Example
System Control
System Response
Rise time
Slight delay in output
response.
Time to pass from 10%
to 90% of final value
Setting time
Time to reach the final
value.
Gain=
Output/Input
Open-Loop (feed-forward) control
An open-loop system uses a controller to obtain a desired output. They have no
feedback. Therefore, they cannot react to changes in conditions (temperature).

Often called percent power controls. That is they maintain a given output level
Desired
Outputregardless of the load on the system.
Response Output
controller process
Open-loop Control Example??

T???

Discharge coil control (see figure above) is a classic example of open loop control systems. In
discharge control, the coil's air side outlet temperature is used as a variable to control the cooling or
heating source input to coils tubes. Typically this is done by modulating a control valve (for water and
steam coils) or turning on and off solenoid valves (in refrigerant coils). The whole goal of the
discharge controller is to maintain a certain "discharge air" set-point. Examining the system, you see
that the space temperature, which the discharge air is ultimately used to control, has no direct affect
seen by the sensor (placed just after the coil). For this reason, this system is clearly open loop.
Open-Loop Reaction curve
Deadtime, d is the time
the process waited before
reacting.

## Zone T, shows how fast the system

responded to the step input.
Inverse of the lines slope is the process
time constant. Tset
K=process gain
Droop droop
=set temperature-process temperature.
Open-Loop Pros and Cons
Inexpensive
Simple
System instabilities will not occur

Lose accuracy
Need accurate model of system.
No assurance that process is controlled to set value.
(no feedback)
Cannot handle disturbances or variations.
Modeling systems
Steps in Modeling Systems
Physical model
Governing equations (differential eqns)
Laplace transforms (transfer functions)
Determine system response to inputs

Software Tools
MATLAB
Open-Loop Thermal System (Lab 17)
dT
mc p hA(T Ta ) Qelectric
dt

mc p dT Q
(T Ta ) electric
hA dt hA

Let T - Ta (subsitute and chain rule) and K 1/hA (open - loop gain)
dT
KQelectric
dt

solve
t

KQelectric (1 e )
Closed Loop Control
A closed loop controller uses sensor information
(or feedback) to adjust controller output.

Desired
Output
Response Output
Comparison controller process

Measurement
Closed-Loop Pros and Cons
Can handle disturbances,variations, model
uncertainties, and non-linear systems.
Improved accuracy in set process value

Instabilities may occur with incorrect gain
values.
Thermal System/Hot Water Heater
How do we control
the temperature in sensor
this system with a Work
Heat Source

Temperature
Control
Device
Control Options
ON/OFF Example:
Thermostat, Relays
Low Accuracy, Inexpensive
Applications
EMR (Electromechanical
relay) or SSR (solid state
relays)
It is essential to have
hysteresis band to prevent
frequent on/off control action
from shortening control life.
PID Control
PID - Proportional-Integral-Derivative
High Accuracy Control
Depending on nature of process, P, PI, PD or PID
controller may be used.
where
(t ) error or deviation (set value - measured value)
and
C(t) = controller output
P = produces a control action proportional to error
I = produces a control action proportional to the integral of the error
D = produces a control action proportional to the derivative of the error
Proportional Control
Sets up a Proportional
Band below set point
temperature
% of temperature range.
Gain=100%
output/proportional band
Inside the band, power
turns on and off within
certain period of time.
100% on

Droop increases as
proportional band increases.
Integral Control (Reset)
Purpose of the integral is to eliminate droop.
Rather than require a manual reset or adjustment of
gain the Integral control results in an automatic reset
by adjusting the bias term when there is an error
between set value and process value.
Controller must be or is often tuned for a particular
system or a particular operating condition.
Derivative (Rate) Control
Derivative control has the main job of preventing
or greatly reducing overshoots and undershoots
during system operation.
Measures the rate of temperature change.
Sample Temperature Control Loop
Autotuning PID Controllers
Controller starts out as ON/OFF control. (2
to 3 cycles in on/off mode)
The controller then calculates the correct
PID settings for the thermal system.
(typically sufficient in 90%+ systems)
Caution: Changes in the thermal system
components or operating conditions often
require another autotune process.
Fuzzy Logic Controllers
Means to handle non-linearities and
unmeasured disturbances. Where the
system would have to be continually tuned.
(multiple operating conditions)
Mimics human reasoning.
Flexible set of if-then rules