Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

P545 and P546

Protection for SONET/SDH Systems

2 > Title of presentation - Date - References 2


P545 and P546
Protection for SONET/SDH Systems

td P541 to P544 assume tp1 = tp2


t2 t3 End B

Cur
So, propagation delay tp is given by:-

rent
(t4 - t1 - t d )
t1

t p = tp1 =tp2 =
vect
2
or
tors

st d t 3
This value is used to realign vectors,
ec

thus allowing phase and magnitude


nt v

information to be compared at line ends


t1
re
Cur

BUT: For SONET systems, tp1


t1 t4 End A can be different than tp2
tp1 tp2

3 > Title of presentation - Date - References 3


SONET/SDH Ring
Configuration

Node Node
1 2

Node Standby Node


6 path 3

tp2
tp1
Node Node
5 4 tp1
tp2 Worker path

P545/6 P545/6
End A End B

Line

4 > Title of presentation - Date - References 4


Normal Communications:
Propagation Delays Equal

Node Node
1 2

Node Standby Node


6 path 3

tp2
tp1
Node Node
5 4 tp1
tp2 Worker path

P545/6 P545/6
End A End B

Line

5 > Title of presentation - Date - References 5


One Worker Channel Lost:
Part Routing via Standby Channel

Node Node
1 2

Node Node
6 Now, tp2 > tp1 3

tp2
tp1
Node Node
5 4 tp1
tp2

P545/6 P545/6
End A End B

Line

6 > Title of presentation - Date - References 6


SONET/SDH Ring
Failure of Comms Path

Normally comms. data is sent via the worker path


If one worker channel is lost, the affected messages are
routed via the standby path
As the worker and standby propagation delays are not
equal, time alignment of vectors could be lost
Error in time alignment gives higher differential current
which may give an unwanted trip
P541 to P544 provide stability until both Tx and Rx
channels switch to the protection path
P545 or P546 may be required where a split routing can
be prolonged

7 > Title of presentation - Date - References 7


SONET/SDH ring
Limitations of P541-P544 Algorithm

Conventional LFCB/P540 algorithm may not be suitable


for systems where a semi-permanent differential comms.
delay can be present
Operation is not impaired if the propagation time difference
(Standby path - Worker path) is less than 1ms
Operation is not affected if Tx and Rx are both switched to
the protection path in less than 10ms*, or for longer (up to
500ms) when using the transient bias feature
If neither of the above criteria are satisfied, the P545 or
P546 with GPS synchronism must be used

(Key: * = 10ms on 50Hz system, half cycle)


8 > Title of presentation - Date - References 8
P540 Current Differential Relays -
GPS or Conventional Applications

P545 Differential for Plain Feeders with Backup Distance


Protection and 1/3 Pole Autoreclose, (80TE / 19)

P546 Differential for Mesh Corner/Breaker and a Half with


Backup Distance Protection, (80TE / 19)

9 > Title of presentation - Date - References 9


MiCOM P594

Incorporates a GPS receiver


Indicates the number of
satellites being tracked
P545/546 have fallback
strategies in case of GPS
failure

AC/DC auxiliary supply

4 x 850nm outputsto
synchronise up to 4 x
P545/546 relays
Synchronises differential
every 1 second (1 PPS)
Self monitoring
10 > Title of presentation - Date - References 10
Typical Configuration

P594 P594
1 1
4
4

1sec 1sec

P591 P591
/P592 MUX MUX /P592
/P593 /P593

Relay at End A Relay at End B

11 > Title of presentation - Date - References 11


MiCOM P594
Synchronising Pulse

Output 200ms
+/- 1ms
Site 1
Light ON

Leading edge is
timing point

Light OFF
Time
Output
<100 ns
Site 2
Light ON

Light OFF
Time

12 > Title of presentation - Date - References 12


MiCOM P594
Calculating Propagation Delay Time

1 PPS from P594


Leading edge is
timing point

Time

Ta1 Tb1
Ta2 Tb2
Sample 1 Ta3 Tb3 Sample
1*
Ta4 tp2 Tb4
Ta5
Tb5
Arrive 1 * Ta6 tp1
Ta7 Tb6
Tb7
Tb8
Relay A Tb9 = Arrive 1

Relay B

Tp2 = Ta6 - Ta3 Tp1 = Tb9 - Tb3

13 > Title of presentation - Date - References 13


Fallback Technique

ASYNCHRONOUS SYNCHRONOUS MODE (WORKING WITH


MODE (NON GPS) GPS),
Besides the calculation of tp1 and tp2, the
relay calculates continuously:

(t4 - t1 - td)
tp = tp1 =tp2= Overall propagation delay time = tp1 + tp2
2
If GPS is lost and Overall propagation delay
time doesnt change significantly, this means
comms path has not been switched and relays
keep working with the latest calculated
propagation delay times tp1 and tp2 to align
vectors
If GPS is lost and Overall propagation delay time
has later change, then Current differential
becomes inhibited as is not possible to align
vectors anymore

14 > Title of presentation - Date - References 14


GPS Technology

1 PPS over fibre

15 > Title of presentation - Date - References 15


GPS Technology
TOA (Time of Arrival)
Distance Calculation

1 PPS over fibre

16 > Title of presentation - Date - References 16


Sources of Error
Atmospheric and Satellite Errors

Multi-Path Errors

Criteria for Gating 1 PPS 1 PPS over fibre

17 > Title of presentation - Date - References 17


GPS Technology

Buildin
g

Buildin
g

18 > Title of presentation - Date - References 18


GPS Technology

Errors in 1 PPS Signal can occur due to:


Incorrect Gating of 1 PPS signal from GPS receiver
Minimum satellite count allowed to go too low
Satellite Masking angle too low
Atmospheric/Satellite Errors
High Solar Activity - Delay of signal corrupts TOA Calculation
Smog - Iron Ore dust particles in fog causing reflections
Clock Errors On Satellite
Signal Reflections
Multipath Errors due to Incorrect mounting of antenna and/or poor filtering
in Receiver

19 > Title of presentation - Date - References 19


Satellite Masking angle

20 > Title of presentation - Date - References 20


GPS Technology

P594 has:
Secure Gating Criteria of 1 PPS signal from GPS receiver
Minimum satellite count required is always 4
Satellite Masking set to 8
New GPS receiver - Motorola M12 + Timing
Multipath filtering
Position Fix to give high timing Accuracy
Purpose-designed Antenna - Motorola Timing 2000
Multipath filtering
Clear mounting instructions to ensure correct installation

21 > Title of presentation - Date - References 21


P594 Features

Motorola
M12 + Timing
Satellite mask angle 8
Position fix 1)

Work down to: 4 satellites


Resolution 100 ns
Antenna Motorola Timing

Note : 1) 21/2 hour start up to obtain automated co-ordinates for position fix

22 > Title of presentation - Date - References 22


GPS Technology

GPS technology is dependable for precise timing provided:


The antenna is correctly sited
Multipath errors and inospheric interference effects are
removed

Design of P594 satisfies the above criteria


Precise 1 PPS on fibre 100 ns accuracy

23 > Title of presentation - Date - References 23


MiCOM P545 / P546
Summary

P545 Differential for Plain Feeders with Backup Distance


Protection and 1/3 Pole Autoreclose
P546 Differential for Mesh Corner/Breaker and a Half with
Backup Distance Protection
Compatible models:
P546
P545
P544
P543
One P594 covers GPS time synchronising for up to 4 relays in a
substation

24 > Title of presentation - Date - References 24