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RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Who

Whom

Whose

Which

That

What

Whoever

Whatever
You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when:

they are followed by a prepositional phrase.


the main verb in the relative clause is
progressive.
A. The man who is in the house is my father.
A. The man who is swimming in the lake is my father.
The man in the house is my father.
The man swimming in the lake is my father.
B. The books that are on the desk are mine
B. The books that are lying on the floor are mine.
The books on the desk are mine.
The books lying on the floor are mine.
The relative pronoun can be deleted if there is a new
subject and verb following it:

A. This is the place where I A. This is the house that Jack


live. built.

B. This is the place I live. B. This is the house Jack built.

A. I don't know the reason why A. The person whom you see is
she is late. my father.

B. I don't know the reason she B. The person you see is my


is late father.

(Also : I don't know why she is


late. )
Active tenses are replaced with a present participle (-ing
form). Note that the present participle can replace
various active tenses, not only present continuous

Anyone wanting a ticket for the Final see me.


(who wants - present simple)
The train now arriving at Platform 3 is the 4.20 to
Paddington
(which is now arriving - present continuous)
Passive tenses are replaced by the past participle (-ed
forms) and being + past participle. When I say -ed forms,
I'm including irregular form such as seen, broken etc.
The past participle replaces passive simple forms while the
being form replaces passive continuous forms

The student chosen as winner will get a prize.


(that is chosen - present simple)
The progress made yesterday will give us a head start.
(which was made - past simple)
You may NOT delete the relative pronoun and
the be verb when :

1. they are followed by an


2. they are followed by a
adjective:
noun:
The man who is angry is my
The man who is a doctor is
father
my father.
X The man angry is my
X The man a doctor is my
father
father.
(However, you may switch
the positions of the adjective
and noun.)
Do not delete a relative pronoun that is followed by a verb
other than be:

The man who likes lasagna is my father.


X The man likes lasagna is my father.

Never delete the relative pronoun whose:

The man whose car broke down went to the station.

X The man car broke down went to the station.