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Chapter 1 Transport

1.1 The Importance Of Having A Transport System In Source


Multicellular Organisms

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport
The Importance Of Having a Transport System in
Source Multicellular Organisms

LivingOrganisms
Living Organisms

Receive oxygen and nutrients from external environment for


cellular activities.

Eliminate toxic waste products from their bodies through


diffusion.

Smaller organisms with large total surface area to volume


(TSA / V) ratio enable waste products to diffuse easily.
Amoeba Hydra Planaria

TSA / V Ratio Organisms

In larger organisms, TSA/V ratio decreases. Exchange of


substances by simple diffusion is too slow. To survive, an
internal transport system is needed.

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Kepentingan Sistem Pengangkutan dalam
Organisma Multisel

OrganismaHidup
Organisma Hidup

Menerima oksigen dan nutrien daripada persekitaran luaran


untuk aktiviti sel.

Menyingkirkan bahan kumuh toksik daripada badan melalui


resapan.

Organisma kecil mempunyai nisbah luas permukaan per


isipadu (JLP/I) yang besar, membolehkan bahan kumuh
diresap dengan mudah.
Amoeba Hydra Planaria

Nisbah (JLP/I) Organisma

Organisma besar mempunyai nisbah luas permukaan per


isipadu (JLP/I) yang kecil, menyebabkan pertukaran bahan
melalui resapan ringkas amat perlahan dan sistem
pengangkutan dalaman diperlukan untuk terus hidup.

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Chapter 1 Transport

1.2 Concept Of The Circulatory System

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Circulatory System
Has 3 components

Blood Fluid/medium that flows in the system

Vessels carries the fluid

keeps the fluid moving through


Pump (heart)
the vessels

Blood is a type of connective tissue consisting of 55%


plasma and 45% blood cells.

Human
The blood passes into vessels such as arteries,
Circulator
arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins.
y system

The heart pumps blood continuously around the body.

What is blood?

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Sistem Peredaran
Mengandungi 3 komponen:
Medium bendalir mengalir di dalam sistem

Salur membawa bendalir

memastikan bendalir mengalir


Pam (jantung)
melalui salur

Darah merupakan sejenis tisu penghubung yang


terdiri daripada 55% plasma dan 45% sel darah.

Sistem
Darah mengalir ke dalam salur seperti arteri, arteriol,
Peredaran
kapilari, venul dan vena.
Manusia

Jantung mengepam darah secara berterusan ke


seluruh badan.

Apa itu Darah?

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Composition Of Human Blood

Blood

Cell (45%) Plasma (55%)

Platelets

Contains water, protein,


glucose, lipids, amino
Erythrocytes acids, salts, enzymes,
antigens, hormones, urea.

Leucocytes

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran Darah

Komposisi Darah Manusia

Darah

Sel (45%) Plasma (55%)

Platelet

Mengandungi air, protein,


glukosa, lipid, asid amino,
Eritrosit garam mineral, enzim,
antigen, hormon, urea.

Leukosit

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Functions
FunctionsOf
OfBlood
Blood

Transport of materials Defense against diseases

Gases Food
Eg. amino Waste
eg; Co2, O2 products
acids,
glucose

Hormones Heat

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Fungsi
FungsiDarah
Darah

Pengangkutan Bahan Melawan Penyakit

Gas Bahan
makanan
Bahan
Cth: Co2, O2 Cth: asid
kumuh
amino,
glukosa

Hormon Haba

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Human Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are tubes that transport


blood from one part of the human body to
another.

The structure and function of


The structure and function of
human blood vessels
human blood vessels

Arteries Veins

Capillaries

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Salur Darah Manusia

Salur darah merupakan tiub yang


mengangkut darah daripada satu bahagian
ke bahagian badan lain.

Struktur dan Fungsi Salur


Struktur dan Fungsi Salur
Darah
Darah

Arteri Vena

Kapilari

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Structure And Function Of The Human Heart

The heart is situated between the lungs and behind the sternum in the thorax
It is the size of a clenched fist
2 upper thin-walled atria
There are 4 chambers
2 lower thick-walled ventricles
The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the wall of the right ventricle because
the left ventricle pumps blood to all parts of the body while the right ventricle only
pump blood to the lungs
The heart is divided into right and left side by a wall called the septum
The valve between the left atrium and ventricle has 2 cup-shaped flaps called the
bicuspid valve
The right atrio-ventricular valve has 3 cup-shaped flaps called tricuspid valve
The atrio-ventricular valves prevent back flow of blood into the atria when the
ventricles contract
Semi-lunar valves are located at the point where the pulmonary artery and aorta
leave the heart. This is to prevent the back flow of blood into the ventricle when
they relax.

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Struktur dan Fungsi Jantung Manusia

Jantung terletak di antara peparu dan berada di belakang sternum pada toraks.
Bersaiz buku lima.
2 ruang atas yang lebih nipis iaitu atria
Terdiri daripada 4 ruang
2 ruang bawah yang lebih tebal iaitu ventrikel
Dinding ventrikel kiri adalah lebih tebal berbanding dinding ventrikel kanan kerana
ventrikel kiri mengepam darah ke seluruh badan manakala ventrikel kanan hanya
mengepam darah ke peparu sahaja.
Jantung terbahagi kepada bahagian kiri dan kanan yang dipisahkan oleh dinding
yang dipanggil septum.
Terdapat injap di antara atrium kiri dan ventrikel kiri yang dipanggil injap bikuspid.
Atrium kanan dan ventrikel kiri pula dipisahkan oleh injap trikuspid.
Injap di antara atrium dan ventrikel ini memastikan tiada pengaliran balik darah ke
antrium semula apabila ventrikel mengecut.
Injap sabit pula terletak pada pangkal arteri pulmonari dan aorta. Ini untuk
mengelakkan aliran balik darah ke ventrikel kiri dan kanan apabila jantung
mengendur.

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System


PumpingOf
Pumping OfThe
TheHeart
Heart

Atrial Systole
The sino-atrial node
generates electrical
impulses. The electrical
Auricle impulses spread over the
contracts walls of both auricles
Semi
Ventrical causing them to contract.
sino-atrial lunar valves
contracts
node (SA) Purkinje
(pacemaker) tissue Ventricular Systole
The electrical impulses reach
atrio-ventricular the AV node, bundle of His
node (AV) fibres and Purkinje fibres
conduct the impulses to the
apex of the heart. The
The heart at rest electrical impulses spread to
the ventricles causing them
to contract

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran


PengepamanJantung
Pengepaman Jantung

Sistol Atrium
Nodus sino-atrium
menghasilkan impuls
elektrik. Impuls elektrik
atrium akan disebarkan ke
mengecut seluruh dinding atrium dan
ini menyebabkan dinding
injap sabit atrium mengecut.
nodus ventrikel
sino-atrium Sistol Ventrikel
mengecut Ketika impuls elektrik sampai
(SA) tisu
(perentak) ke nodus atrioventrikel (AV),
Purkinje sekumpulan gentian dan
nodus gentian Purkinje akan
atrio-ventrikel menghalakan impuls ke
(AV) hujung jantung. Ini
menyebabkan impuls elektrik
Pengenduran jantung tersebar ke seluruh ventrikel
dan menyebabkannya
mengecut.

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System


Regulation Mechanism Of Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is maintained by a negative feedback mechanism.


Baroreceptors located in the arch of the aorta and the walls of the carotid
arteries detect changes in blood pressure.

Baroreceptors in Cardiovascular
arch of aorta and increased rate centre in Medula
carotid arteries are of nerve impulses sent to Oblongata in the
stimulated brain

Increase in impulses sent


blood pressure to effectors

Action of effectors
weaker cardiac
Normal blood Blood pressure muscle contraction
pressure decreases lower resistance of
blood flow in the
blood vessels

ITeach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran


Mekanisme Pengawalaturan Tekanan Darah

Tekanan darah dikekalkan oleh mekanisma suapbalik.


Baroreseptor yang terletak pada aorta dan dinding arteri karotid dapat
mengesan perubahan pada tekanan darah.

Baroreseptor yang
Meningkatkan kadar Pusat kardiovaskular
terletak pada aorta
pada medula
dan arteri karotid impuls saraf yang dihantar kepada
oblongata di otak
dirangsang

Tekanan darah Impuls dihantar


meningkat ke efektor
Tindakan efektor
Melemahkan
pengecutan otot
Tekanan darah Tekanan darah kardium
normal menurun Mengurangkan
rintangan aliran
darah dalam salur
darah

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Blood Circulatory System

Closed Open
blood is confined to vessels or in blood is contained in the
some cases sinuses body cavity known as a
haemocoel
Single Double insects have this type of
blood flows only circulation
once through the blood flows only
heart for every once through the
complete heart twice for
circulation every complete
fish have this circulation
type of circulation

Complete Incomplete

Oxygenated and deoxygenated Oxygenated and deoxygenated


blood are separated blood are inextricably mixed
mammals and birds have this amphibians and reptiles have
type of circulation this type of circulation

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Sistem Peredaran Darah

Tertutup Terbuka
Pengaliran darah terbatas Darah mengalir di dalam
kepada salur darah atau sinus rongga badan yang dikenali
sebagai hemoselom
Tunggal Ganda dua Serangga mempunyai
Darah hanya sistem peredaran jenis ini
mengalir ke dalam
Darah mengalir ke
jantung sekali
dalam jantung dua
sahaja dalam satu
kali dalam satu
peredaran lengkap
peredaran lengkap
Ikan mempunyai
sistem jenis ini

Lengkap Tidak lengkap

Darah beroksigen dan darah Darah beroksigen dan darah


terdeoksigen adalah terasing terdeoksigen bercampur
Mamalia dan burung Amfibia dan reptilia
mempunyai sistem jenis ini mempunyai sistem jenis ini

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Open Circulation Of An Insect

ostia
chamber of heart
pericardial membrane

haemocoel

Haemolymph flows forward in the dorsal tubular heart by waves of


contraction which begins at the rear and work its way toward the anterior
end
The haemolymph then leaves the heart and enters the haemocoel
The haemolymph is returned to the heart via the ostia
The ostia are equipped with valves that allow blood to enter but not leave
the heart

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Peredaran Darah Terbuka Serangga

ostia
ruang jantung
membran perikardial

hemoselom

Hemolimfa mengalir ke dalam jantung yang berbentuk tiub di bahagian


dorsal melalui siri pengecutan yang bermula daripada belakang jantung
dan bergerak hingga ke hujung anterior.
Hemolimfa kemudiannya meninggalkan jantung dan memasuki bahagian
hemoselom.
Hemolimfa kembali ke jantung melalui ostia.
Ostia dilengkapi dengan injap yang membenarkan darah untuk masuk ke
jantung dan tidak meninggalkan jantung.

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Closed, Single Circulation In Fish

blood flows only once through the heart for


every complete circulation

The heart has only one atrium and one


ventricle

Deoxygenated blood is pumped to the gills,


flows to various parts of the body and then
returns to the heart.

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Peredaran Darah Tunggal Tertutup Ikan

Darah hanya mengalir ke dalam jantung


sekali sahaja dalam satu peredaran lengkap

Jantung ikan hanya mempunyai satu atrium


dan satu ventrikel sahaja

Darah terdeoksigen akan dipam ke dalam


insang dan mengalir ke semua bahagian
badan sebelum kembali semula ke jantung

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Closed, Double And Incomplete


Circulation In Amphibians

Blood is returned to the heart after passing


through the lungs

It has two atria but the ventricle is not


completely divided

Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood would


be mixed in the single ventricle

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Peredaran Darah Tunggal Ganda Dua


dan Tak Lengkap Amfibia

Darah dikembalikan ke dalam jantung selepas


melalui peparu

Ia mempunyai dua atria tetapi ventrikelnya


tidak terbahagi sepenuhnya

Darah beroksigen dan darah teroksigen akan


bercampur di dalam satu ventrikel

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Closed, Double And Complete


Circulation In Mammals

Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs,


whence it returns to the heart and is then re-
pumped to the body.

The heart is divided into right and left sides,


the right side deals with deoxygenated blood
and the left side with oxygenated blood.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Peredaran Tertutup, Ganda Dua dan


Lengkap Mamalia

Darah dipam daripada jantung ke peparu di


mana darah akan dikembalikan ke jantung
dan kemudiannya dipam semula ke seluruh
badan.

Jantung terbahagi kepada bahagian kiri dan


kanan. Bahagian kanan jantung menjadi
laluan darah terdeoksigen dan bahagian
sebelah kiri pula menjadi laluan darah
beroksigen.

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Concept of The Circulatory System

Human Circulatory System

Pulmonarycirculation
Pulmonary circulation Systemiccirculation
Systemic circulation

Flow of blood from the heart Flow of blood from the heart
to the lungs and back to the to all parts of the body and
heart back to the heart

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Konsep Sistem Peredaran

Sistem Peredaran Darah Manusia

PeredaranPulmonari
Peredaran Pulmonari PeredaranSistemik
Peredaran Sistemik

Darah mengalir dari jantung


Darah mengalir dari jantung
ke seluruh bahagian badan
ke peparu dan kembali semula
dan kembali semula ke
ke jantung
jantung

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

1.3 Understanding The Mechanism Of Blood Clotting

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Chapter 1 Transport
Understanding the Mechanism of Blood Clotting

Necessity For Blood Clotting

Prevents excessive blood loss from the body through a wound

Prevents blood pressure from falling to a lower level

Prevents the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles into the body through
a wound

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Memahami Mekanisme Pembekuan Darah

Keperluan Pembekuan Darah

Mengelakkan kehilangan darah berlebihan daripada badan akibat luka

Mencegah tekanan darah daripada jatuh ke tahap yang sangat rendah

Mengelakkan kemasukan mikroorganisma dan bendasing ke dalam badan


melalui luka

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Memahami Mekanisme Pembekuan Darah

Mekanisme Pembekuan Darah

Pencerutan salur darah

Pembentukan plak platlet

Penggumpalan darah

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Understanding the Mechanism of Blood Clotting

Blooding Clothing Mechanism

Blood lining
42 Platelets
Endothelial flows out
clump and blood
1together
A cut intoaform
avessel
plug
of blood toconstricts
prevent blood
vessel bloodloss
vessel When a blood vessel is injured, platelets
begin to collect at the site on injury, forming a
barrier called the platelet plug.
An enzyme, thrombokinase is released.

Vitamin K
Calcium ions
3 Platelets on exposure to air,
Erythrocyte
breakBlood
downvessel Prothrombin
and release 5 Platelets release Thrombin
constricts
chemicals to cause other thrombokinase Thrombokinase
and
platelets to stick to each otherother clotting factors
Fibrinogen Fibrin
(soluble) (insoluble)

Clot forms to stop further blood loss

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Memahami Mekanisme Pembekuan Darah

Mekanisme Pembekuan Darah

4
2 Platelet berkumpul bersama
1keluar
Salur darah
Lapisan Endotelium
Darah mengalir
membentuk penyumbat dan
yang Apabila salur darah terluka, platelet akan
veselvesel
darahdarah mengecutterluka berkumpul dan melekat pada dinding salur
menghalang kehilangan darah
darah membentuk penghalang yang
dipanggil plak platelet.
Enzim trombokinase dibebaskan
Vitamin K
Ion kalsium
Eritrosit
Vesel darahterdedah kepadaProtrombin
3 Apabila platelet udara, ia Trombin
akan mengecut
terurai dan membebaskan bahan kimia Trombokinase
5
menyebabkan platelet lain untukPlatelet
melekatmembebaskan
bersama trombokinase dan faktor
Fibrinogen Fibrin
pembekuan lain
(protein larut) (protein tak
larut

Darah beku terbentuk untuk


memberhentikan kehilangan darah

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Chapter 1 Transport

1.4 The Lymphatic System

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

The lymphatic System

The Formation Of Lymph

As a result of high pressure, water and dissolved substances diffuse from the
capillaries and bathe the tissue, forming tissue fluid or interstitial fluid.

Importance of the interstitial fluid

- Oxygen and nutrients diffuse from the blood through the interstitial fluid.
- Excretory waste (carbon dioxide, urea) diffuse out of the cells through the
interstitial fluid
Some of the tissue fluid returns to the capillaries (90%) while the rest (10%)
drains into the lymphatic vessels.

The fluid is known as lymph.

The composition of lymph is similar to plasma except that it has no


erythrocytes and large protein molecules of the blood.
The lymph flow takes place in only one direction from the tissues to the heart.
Semilunar valves within the lymphatic vessels keep the flow of lymph in one
direction.

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Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Sistem Limfa

Pembentukan Limfa

Disebabkan oleh tekanan tinggi, air dan bahan terlarut akan meresap keluar
daripada kapilari dan membasahi tisu membentuk bendalir tisu atau bendalir
interstis
Kepentingan bendalir interstis

- Oksigen dan nutrien meresap keluar dari darah melalui bendalir interstis.
- Bahan kumuh(karbon dioksida, urea) meresap keluar dari sel melalui bendalir
interstis.
Sebahagian daripada bendalir tisu kembali semula ke dalam kapilari (90%)
sementara lebihan bendalir tisu (10%) disalurkan ke dalam salur limfa.

Bendalir ini dikenali sebagai limfa.

Komposisi limfa adalah lebih kurang sama dengan komposisi plasma kecuali
ia tidak mempunyai eritrosit dan molekul protein yang terlalu besar.
Aliran limfa berlaku dalam satu arah iaitu dari tisu ke jantung. Injap sabit yang
terdapat di antara salur limfa memastikan aliran limfa bergerak dalam satu
arah.

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Composition of interstitial fluid
Water
Dissolved nutrients
Hormones
Waste product
Gases
Small proteins from the blood
leucocytes
Dont contain
- plasma proteins (albumin, globulin,
fibrinogen)
- erythrocytes
- platelets

(too large to pass through the capillary


walls)
Blood plasma (at venous end) is hypertonic
compared to the surrounding interstitial fluid.
Blood P is lower at venous end

results = water, mineral, salts and waste product


flow back into the capillary (90%)
why?
The fluid must be returned to the
circulatory system to maintain normal
blood volume.
10% of fluid that still remain in interstitial
fluid returns to the blood through lymphatic
system.
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

The structure of lymphatic system


Collects excess interstitial fluid and return
it to circulatory system
A network of lymph capillaries, larger
vessel
Lymph capillaries blind end tubes
- located in the spaces
between the cells
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Interstitial fluid which is not absorbed into


bloodstream drains into lymph capillaries
known as lymph
Lymph: - transparent yellowish fluid

Lymphatic vessel: - lymphatic capillaries


unite
- have one-way valves
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Lymph nodes
intervals along lymphatic vessel
produce and store lymphocytes
- help to defend the body against infection
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Thoracic duct and right lymphatic


duct
main channels
R.L.D receive lymph from right arm,
shoulder area, right side of the head and
neck.
Thoracic duct receives lymph from left of
head, neck and chest, left upper limb,
entire body below the ribs
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Thoracic duct empties lymph into left


subclavain vein
R.L.D empties lymph into right subclavain
vein.

Result = lymph drains back into the blood


Chapter 1 Transport

The lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System

the point where


lymph returns
right lymphatic duct to the blood
empties its contents into
the right subclavian vein anterior vena
cava

lacteal in the villi of small thoracic duct


intestine empties its
contents into the
left subclarian vein

lymph nodes
the lymphatic system is a Produce lymphocytes
network of lymphatic vessels Remove particles of
and capillaries, numerous debris and ingest
lymph nodes and two bacteria
organs, thymus and spleen.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Sistem Limfa

Sistem Limfa

titik di mana
limfa kembali ke
duktus limfa kanan dalam darah
menyalurkan bendalir
limfa ke dalam vena anterior vena
subklavikel kanan kava

duktus toraks
lakteal di dalam vilus usus
menyalurkan
kecil
bendalir limfa ke
dalam vena
subklavikel kiri

nodus limfa
Menghasilkan limfosit
sistem limfa merupakan satu
jaringan salur limfa dan Menyingkirkan bendasing
kapilari, nodus limfa, dua serta menelan dan
organ, timus dan limpa. mencernakan bakteria

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Lymphatic system
Do not have own pump to move lymph
Moves with the help of
- 1-way valves
- muscular contraction
- intestinal movement
- pressure changes (inhalation and
exhalation)
Chapter 1 Transport

The lymphatic System

Role Of The Lymphatic System

Transports interstitial
Transports
interstitial fluid
fluidback
backto
tothe
thebloodstream.
bloodstream.
Blockage of the lymphatic system causes the body tissues to swell with
excess fluid, a condition called oedema.

Transports absorbed
Transports
absorbed fats
fats and
and fat
fat soluble
soluble vitamins
vitamins from
from the
the small
small intestine
intestine
intothe
into thebloodstream.
bloodstream.

Defends the
Defends
the body
bodyagainst
against infection
infection by
byproducing
producing lymphocytes
lymphocytes and
and antibodies
antibodies
tofight
to fightand
anddestroy
destroybacteria
bacteriaandandviruses.
viruses.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Sistem Limfa

Peranan Sistem Limfa

Mengangkut bendalir
Mengangkut
bendalir ruang-antara
ruang-antara balik
balik semula
semula keke dalam
dalam aliran
aliran darah.
darah.
Sistem limfa
Sistem limfa yang
yang tersumbat
tersumbat boleh
boleh menyebabkan
menyebabkan tisu tisu badan
badan menjadi
menjadi
bengkakdengan
bengkak denganlebihan
lebihanbendalir.
bendalir.Keadaan
Keadaaniniinidipanggil
dipanggiledema.
edema.

Mengangkut lemak
Mengangkut
lemak yang
yang diserap
diserap dan
dan vitamin
vitamin larut
larut lemak
lemak daripada
daripada usus
usus kecil
kecil
kedalam
ke dalam aliran
alirandarah.
darah.

Mempertahankan badan
Mempertahankan
badan daripada
daripada jangkitan
jangkitan penyakit
penyakit dengan
dengan menghasilkan
menghasilkan
limfosit dan
limfosit dan antibodi
antibodi yang
yang dapat
dapat melawan
melawan dandan memusnahkan
memusnahkan bakteria
bakteria dan
dan
virus.
virus.

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan5


Chapter 1 Transport

Oedema
An excessive accumulation of interstitial
fluid in the space between the cell
May caused by a blocked lymphatic vessel
Chapter 1 Transport

1.5 Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Bodys Defence Mechanism

First line of Second line of Third line of


defence defence defence

Antibodies
Mucous Phagocytosis
Skin produced by
membranes by phagocytes
lymphocytes

Sweat Secretion of
Sebum mucus

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Barisan
Barisan pertama Barisan
Pertahanan
pertahanan pertahanan kedua
ketiga

Antibodi yang
Membran Fagositosis
Kulit dihasilkan
mukus oleh fagosit
oleh limfosit

Sebum Rembesan
peluh mukus

ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Bodys Defence Mechanism - First Line Of Defence

Consists of physical and chemical barriers that prevent pathogens from the body

The skin serves as a physical barrier

Sebum from the sebaceous glands provides a protective waterproof layer

Sweat from the sweat gland contains lyzozyme, an antibacterial enzyme.

Teach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

The first line defence (skin)


Physical barrier (outer layer)
- impenetrable to bacteria and viruses,
- dead skin makes it difficult for bacteria to growth
Chemical barrier (sebum)
- protective film over the skin
- acids and oils prevent the growth of
microorganism
Chemical barrier (sweat)
- contain lysozome capable breaking down the
cell wall of certain bacteria
Chapter 1 Transport

The first line defence (others)


Tears and saliva
- contain lysozome, helps protect from
bacterial invasion
Hydrochloric acid
- destroys pathogens
Blood clotting mechanism
Chapter 1 Transport

The first line defence (mucous


membrane)
Line the trachea, digestive and urinary
tracts
Stop the entry of potentially harmful
microorganism
Secretes mucus (contain lysozome)
traps and destroys bacteria
Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan- Barisan Pertahanan Pertama

Mengandungi halangan kimia dan fizikal yang menghalang patogen dari badan

Kulit berperanan sebagai halangan fizikal

Sebum daripada kelenjar sebum menyediakan satu lapisan perlindung yang


kalis air.
Peluh daripada kelenjar peluh mengandungi lisozim yang bertindak sebagai
enzim antibakteria.
ITeach Biologi Tingkatan 5
Chapter 1 Transport

The second line defence


Used for the pathogen that may still gain
entry into the body (penetrate the 1 st line
defence)
Non-specific
Phagocytes can form phagocytosis
Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Bodys Defence Mechanism - Second Line Of Defence

Starts when a pathogen is able to get past the bodys first line of defence

The ingestion and destruction of the pathogen is carried out by a process


known as phagocytosis.

Lysine enzyme digests the bacteria. Digested substance is absorbed into the
The bacteria
Phagocyte extends
is recognised
portions of
by its
theplasma
phagocyte.
membrane,
Phagocyte
wrapping
is close
around
to the
cytoplasm. Some
Bacteria
areisexcreted
trapped and swallowed
some may by
be the
used
phagocyte.
in the metabolism of
bacteria.
the phagocyte.

Teach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Phagocytes
Neutrophils and monocytes
Migrate to the infected area
Enter the interstitial fluid by squeezing
through capillary walls
During migration, monocytes enlarge and
develop into macrophages, found in
interstitial fluid
Chapter 1 Transport

Phagocytes engulfs and ingests the


pathogen in a process phagocytosis
Phagocytes contain lysozome destroys
the phatogen
Chapter 1 Transport
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan- Barisan Pertahanan Kedua

Bermula apabila patogen berjaya menembusi barisan pertahanan pertama


badan

Proses penelanan dan pemusnahan patogen dikenali sebagai fagositosis.

Enzim lisin bertindak mencernakan bakteria. Bahan yang telah dicerna


Fagosit memanjangkan bahagian membran plasmanya dan mengelilingi
Bakteria terlibatdiserap
kemudiannya Bakteria
dikenalpasti
diperangkap
ke oleh
dalam
fagosit.
sitoplasma.
dan Fagosit
ditelan oleh
menghampiri
Sebahagian
fagosit. bakteria.
daripadanya
bakteria.
dirembeskan dan sebahagian lagi digunakan di dalam metabolisma fagosit.

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

The third line defence


Involves the immune system
Specific or targeted defence (recognises
specific phatogen)
Chapter 1 Transport

The third line defence


Immunity: body resistance to the pathogen
which causes a specific disease
Antigen: substances (proteins) that
immune system recognise as a foreign of
the body. Found in the outer surface of
microorganism
Chapter 1 Transport

Antibodies: proteins found on the surface


of lymphocytes or proteins released by the
lymphocytes into the blood plasma
Immune response: interaction between
antibody and antigen which result in the
elimination of the antigen from the body
Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Bodys Defence Mechanism - Third Line Of Defence

Involves lymphocytes which produce antibodies to fight diseases and


infection.

The antibodies produced can defend the body in the following ways

Neutralisation Lysis

Third Line Of Defence

Opsonisation Agglutination

Teach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Lymphatic system
Also helps defend the body against
invasion by pathogens
When infection, pathogens and
lymphocytes collect in a great numbers in
the lymph nodes
Lymph nodes become swollen
Lymph nodes contain macrophages, dead
tissue, other foreign substances through
phagocytosis and lymphocytes
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan- Barisan Pertahanan Ketiga

Melibatkan limfosit yang menghasilkan antibodi untuk melawan jangkitan


dan penyakit.

Antibodi yang dihasilkan dapat melindungi badan dengan cara berikut

Peneutralan Lisis

Barisan Pertahanan Ketiga

Pengopsoninan Aglutinasi

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism Chapter 1 Transport

Types Of Immunity
Immunity is the ability of the human body to use antibodies to fight against the
invasion of pathogens

Immunity

Nature Artificial

Active Passive Active Passive


Immunity Immunity Immunity acquired Immunity
acquired after acquired through by vaccination acquired by
recovery from maternal A vaccine is a injection of
infection antibodies and preparation of mild or antiserum
mothers milk weakened form of
pathogen

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan
Jenis Keimunan
Keimunan adalah keupayaan badan manusia menggunakan antibodi untuk
melawan serangan patogen
Keimunan

Semulajadi Buatan

Aktif Pasif Aktif Pasif


Keimunan Keimunan Diperolehi melalui Diperolehi
diperolehi diperolehi suntikan vaksin daripada
selepas sembuh daripada antibodi Vaksin terdiri suntikan
daripada ibu melaui susu daripada patogen antiserum
jangkitan ibu yang telah
dilemahkan

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Structure Of HIV

enzymes

RNA
capsid

viral viral
envelope proteins

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Struktur HIV

enzim

RNA
kapsid

sampul
viral protein
viral

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Effect HIV On The Bodys Defence Mechanism

Effects Of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

HIV attacks the immune system by reproducing inside the lymphocytes and
killing them

HIV causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

AIDS is a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail,


leading to various life threatening infections.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Kesan HIV terhadap Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Kesan HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

HIV menyerang sistem pertahanan dengan membiak di dalam limfosit dan


memusnahkannya

HIV menyebabkan AIDS (Sindrom Kurang Daya Tahan)

AIDS merupakan keadaan di mana sistem keimunan gagal berfungsi dan ini
membawa kepada pelbagai jenis jangkitan yang boleh mengancam nyawa.

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Effect HIV On The Bodys Defence Mechanism

Transmission Of HIV

Unprotected sexual contact with an HIV infected person

Reusing and sharing contaminated needles

Transmission from an infected mother to infants during pregnancy, delivery or


breastfeeding.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan
Badan
Kesan HIV terhadap Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Cara Jangkitan HIV

Mengadakan hubungan seks tanpa perlindungan dengan pasangan yang


telah dijangkiti HIV.

Perkongsian dan penggunaan semula jarum suntikan yang telah tercemar

Jangkitan daripada ibu kepada anaknya sewaktu kehamilan, melahirkan atau


penyusuan badan.

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Role Of Circulatory System In Body Defence Mechanism

The Effect HIV On The Bodys Defence Mechanism

Prevention Of Aids

Avoid unprotected sexual contact

Do not have sex with any individual whose background and health status is
unknown

HIV positive mothers should not breastfeed their babies

Screening of blood products for HIV has eliminated transmission through blood
transfusions

Never reuse or share needles or syringes

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Peranan Sistem Peredaran dalam Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Kesan HIV terhadap Mekanisme Pertahanan Badan

Cara Pencegahan AIDS

Menjauhi hubungan seks tanpa perlindungan

Tidak melakukan hubungan seks dengan individu yang tidak dikenali latar
belakang dan status kesihatannya (seks rambang)

Ibu yang merupakan pembawa HIV positif tidak seharusnya menyusukan anak
mereka

Jangkitan melalui pemindahan darah dapat dielakkan melalui penapisan dan


saringan darah yang dijangkiti HIV

Jangan berkongsi dan guna semula jarum dan picagari yang telah digunakan

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

1.6 Appreciating A Healthy Cardiovascular System

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Appreciating A Healthy Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular diseases

Disorder of the heart and the blood circulatory system

Hypertension Embolism Heart attack

Thrombosis Angina Atherosclerosis

Risk Factor

High levels of blood cholesterol Diabetes mellitus

Age Family history

Smoking Sedentary lifestyle

Obesity

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Menghargai Sistem Kardiovaskular yang Sihat

Penyakit Kardiovaskular

Gangguan sistem peredaran darah dan jantung

Hipertensi Embolisme Serangan Jantung

Trombosis Angina Aterosklerosis

Faktor Risiko

Kandungan kolestrol dalam darah Diabetes mellitus (kencing manis)


yang tinggi

Umur Sejarah keluarga

Merokok Cara hidup setempat

Obesiti

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Appreciating A Healthy Cardiovascular System

Healthy Cardiovascular System

Diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol

Diet high in unsaturated oils

Diet with sufficient green leafy vegetables and fruit

Avoid excessive intake of salt

Avoid smoking

Regular exercise

Stress-free lifestyle

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Menghargai Sistem Kardiovaskular yang Sihat

Sistem Kardiovaskular yang Sihat

Mengurangkan pengambilan lemak tepu dan kolestrol dalam diet

Meningkatkan pengambilan minyak tak tepu dalam diet

Memasukkan sayuran berdaun hijau dan buah-buahan yang


secukupnya dalam diet

Mengelakkan pengambilan garam secara berlebihan

Tidak merokok

Kerap bersenam

Mengamalkan gaya hidup bebas tekanan

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

1.7 Understanding The Transport Of Substances In Plants

ITeach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Memahami Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Keperluan Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Air dan garam mineral perlu diangkut ke seluruh bahagian tumbuhan

Air diperlukan sebagai pelarut dan bahan tindak balas dalam metabolisma
sel

Ion mineral diperlukan dalam sintesis klorofil serta untuk perkembangan


dan pertumbuhan tumbuhan

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Memahami Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Tisu Vaskular dalam Batang, Akar dan Daun

Tumbuhan mempunyai dua sistem pengangkutan

Xilem Floem

Memberi sokongan serta Mengangkut bahan makanan


mengangkut air dan ion organik yang disintesis oleh
mineral dari akar ke bahagian daun semasa proses
atas tumbuhan, menentang fotosintesis ke bahagian lain
daya graviti tumbuhan.

Adakah xilem dan floem mengangkut oksigen dan karbon dioksida?

TIDAK. Pertukaran gas adalah melalui resapan

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Memahami Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Struktur Xilem dalam Pengangkutan

Xilem

Salur Trakeid Parenkima

Panjang Tidak mempunyai


saluran kosong Sel mati yang
yang panjang dan menyimpan
Kosong
berterusan makanan

Satu saluran
berterusan Sel mati yang
banyak liang
pada
dindingnya

Salur dan trakeid membentuk dua bahagian utama dalam unsur pengaliran
air dan bahan makanan

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Memahami Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Salur vilem

Salur dibentuk daripada satu siri sel


panjang yang berbentuk silinder
dinding berlignin
yang bersambung dari hujung ke
hujung
lumen
Hujung mengufuk dinding sel akan pit tepi Pit
terurai bagi memudahkan dan berbirai berbirai
melancarkan pergerakan air untuk sempadan
diangkut ke bahagian atas pit pada
torus (injap) keratan
perliangan penebalan
Setiap sel kehilangan protoplasma anulus
pada hujung
(sel mati) dan berlignin dinding Perliangan
tunggal
dalam
Penebalan lignin menghalang hujung
dinding daripada runtuh, dinding
meningkatkan perlekatan molekul vesel
air dan membantu air untuk naik ke
atas melalui kapilari
Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5
Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Memahami Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Trakeid

Trakeid lebih kurang sama dengan salur xilem kecuali ia berbentuk


poligon jika dilihat daripada keratan rentas

Hujung dinding menirusnya berliang disebabkan oleh pit

Pit merupakan tempat di mana air dapat lalu dari sel ke sel

Hujung dinding Dinding berlignin


menirus berliang diperkuatkan oleh
dengan pit with bars of lignin
berbirai

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Memahami Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Struktur Floem dalam Pengangkutan

Translokasi Pengangkutan bahan organik terlarut dalam floem

Floem

Tiub tapis Gentian Sel rakan Parenkima

Tiub tapis Sel rakan


Tiub tapis- satu tiub panjang yang
berbentuk silinder yang
Sel rakan mempunyai nukleus,
bersambung dari hujung ke
hujung. vakuol, sitoplasma dan banyak
mitokondria.
Hujung dinding pada setiap tiub
Membekalkan tenaga kepada tiub
tapis mempunyai liang seni yang
tapis.
dipanggil plat tapis. Sel rakan menyediakan sokongan
Bebenang sitoplasma yang metabolik untuk sel tiub tapis
merentasi liang plat tapis dalam pengangkutan bahan
membantu mengangkut bahan organik.
dari sel ke sel.

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

1.8 Transport Of Substances In Plants

ITeach Biology Form 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Transport of Substances in Plants

Translocation

Transportof
Transport ofthe
thesoluble
solubleproducts
productsof
ofphotosynthesis
photosynthesis

The following
The following experiments
experiments have
have been
been done
done to
to show
show that
that translocation
translocation
occursin
occurs inthe
thephloem.
phloem.

The Ringing Experiment

Technique using compounds of 14C as tracers

Analysis Of The Content Of The Phloem Tubes

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Translokasi

Pengangkutanbahan
Pengangkutan bahanterlarut
terlarutdari
dariproses
prosesfotosintesis
fotosintesis

Experimen berikut
Experimen berikut telah
telah dijalankan
dijalankan untuk
untuk membuktikan
membuktikan translokasi
translokasi
berlakudalam
berlaku dalamfloem.
floem.

Eksperimen Pergelangan Batang

Teknik Menggunakan Kompaun 14C sebagai Penyurih

Analisis Kandungan Tiub Floem

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport
Transport of Substances in Plants
Transpiration

Is the loss of water vapour from a living plant


About 90% of transpiration takes place through stomata, 10% through the cuticle
and very little through the lenticels of stems.
Air movement-The movement of air carries away water molecules
that have diffused from the leaves. Hence, the faster the air
movement, the greater the rate of transpiration.
External
Temperature-Increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of
factors
water molecules and so increases the rate of evaporation.
Affecting The
rate Of Light intensity-Light intensity increases, the rate of evaporation
Transpiration increases
Relative humidity-The lower the relative humidity of the surrounding
atmosphere, the faster the water vapour escapes from the stomata.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan
Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan
Transpirasi

Merupakan proses kehilangan air dalam bentuk wap air dari tumbuhan hidup.
Kira-kira 90% proses transpirasi berlaku melalui stoma, 10% daripada kutikel dan
sangat sedikit daripada lentisel yang terdapat pada batang.
Pergerakan udara- Membawa bersama molekul air yang telah
diresap daripada daun. Oleh itu, lebih laju pergerakan udara lebih
tinggi kadar transpirasi.
Faktor
Suhu- Peningkatan suhu meningkatkan tenaga kinetik molekul air
luaran yang
dan seterusnya meningkatkan kadar penyejatan.
mempengaruhi
kadar Keamatan cahaya- Apabila keamatan cahaya meningkat, kadar
transpirasi sejatan juga meningkat.
Kelembapan relatif- Semakin rendah kelembapan relatif
persekitaran atmosfera, semakin cepat wap air terbebas dari
stomata

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Transport of Substances in Plants

Pathway Of Water From The Soil To The Leaves

The cytoplasm
The cytoplasm of
of the
the root
root hair
hair cell
cell is
is hypotonic
hypotonic to
to the
the surrounding
surrounding
soilwater
soil water

Waterenters
Water entersthe
thecell
cellby
byosmosis
osmosis

Water is
Water isthen
thendrawn
drawn from
fromcell
cell to
to cell
cellby
byosmosis
osmosis until
untilititreaches
reaches the
the
xylemvessels
xylem vessels

mineral ions
mineral ions are
are activity
activity secreted
secreted into
into the
the xylem
xylem and
and this
this increases
increases
the osmotic
the osmotic pressure.
pressure. This
This generates
generates aa pressure
pressure known
known as as root
root
pressure.
pressure.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Pengaliran Air dari Tanah ke Daun

Sitoplasma dalam
Sitoplasma dalam sel
sel rambut
rambut akar
akar adalah
adalah hipotonik
hipotonik terhadap
terhadap
persekitaranair
persekitaran airtanah
tanah

Airmemasuki
Air memasukisel
selsecara
secaraosmosis
osmosis

Air diangkut
Air diangkut dari
dari sel
sel ke
ke sel
sel secara
secara osmosis
osmosis sehingga
sehingga air
air sampai
sampai di
di
veselxilem
vesel xilem

Ion mineral
Ion mineral dirembeskan
dirembeskan secara
secara aktif
aktif ke
ke dalam
dalam xilem dan
xilem dan ini
ini
meningkatkan tekanan
meningkatkan tekanan osmosis.
osmosis. Tindakan
Tindakan iniini menghasilkan
menghasilkan
tekananyang
tekanan yangdikenali
dikenalisebagai
sebagai tekanan
tekananakar.
akar.

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5


Chapter 1 Transport

Transport of Substances in Plants

Pathway Of Water Up The Stem And Then The Leaves

Root pressure provides a force which pushes water up the stem


but it is not enough to account for the movement of water to the
top of tall trees.

Transpirational pull is the main phenomenon driving the flow of


water in the xylem vessels of plants.

Transpirational pull draws water from the leaves and stems and
eventually from the xylem in the roots.

The water column in the xylem vessels does not break due to
capillary action.

Capillary action is caused by the cohesion between water


molecules and an adhesion between water and the cell wall of
xylem vessel.

Teach Biology Form 5


Bab 1 Pengangkutan

Pengangkutan Bahan dalam Tumbuhan

Laluan Air Menaiki Batang dan Meninggalkan Daun

Tekanan akar memberikan satu daya yang membolehkan air ditolak


naik ke atas batang tetapi daya ini tidak mencukupi untuk
menggerakkan air sehingga ke puncak batang pokok yang tinggi.

Tarikan transpirasi merupakan faktor utama yang membantu


pengaliran air dalam vesel xilem daun.

Tarikan transpirasi menarik air keluar daripada daun dan batang


dan akhirnya dari xilem pada akar tumbuhan.

Turus air dalam vesel xilem bergerak disebabkan oleh tindakan


kapilari.

Tindakan kapilari disebabkan oleh daya lekitan antara molekul air


dan daya lekatan antara air dan dinding sel vesel xilem.

Teach Biologi Tingkatan 5