Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

LEACHING

Bantugon, Jo-anne
Catacutan, Ronalyn
Fusi, Genina Joy
LEACHING
It is concerned with
The method used for the extraction of a
the extraction is soluble constituent
determined by the from a solid by
proportion of soluble means of a solvent.
constituent present,
its distribution
throughout the solid,
the nature of the
solid and the Leaching can be batch,
particle size. semibatch, or continuous.
Calculations involve three
component (solid, solvent,
solute) systems.
GENERALLY, THE PROCESS
CAN BE CONSIDERED IN
THREE PARTS:

The change of phase of the solute as it dissolves in


the solvent;

Its diffusion through the solvent in the pores of the


solid to the outside of the particle; and

The transfer of the solute from the solution in contact


with the particles to the main bulk of the solution.
TYPICAL USERS

In the metals industry for In the sugar industry In the oilseed industry for
removing mineral from ores for removing sugar removing oil from
(acid solvents). from beets (water is soybeans, etc. (hexane or
solvent). similar organic solvents).
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RATE
OF EXTRACTION

PARTICLE SIZE AGITATION OF


SOLVENT TEMPERATURE
LIQUID
REPLACEMET PROCESS:
The extraction material is
contacted with fresh solvent and
extraction takes place. Afterwards the
EXTRACTI underflow is settled and the miscella is
withdrawn. The underflow is contacted
ON again with fresh solvent and so on.

PROCESSE
ENRICHMENT PROCESS:
S AND This method is used if the raw
material offers the necessary percolation
APPARATU properties. In most cases the solvent flows
counter current to the underflow through
S the apparatus and by this way very high
concentrations of the extract in the
miscella are performed.
DISCONTINUOUS
EXTRACTION

POT
EXTRACTO
R2
The extractor has a volume of
to 10 m3 and the installed mixer
is necessary to guarantee good
mixing for treatment of fine
materials.
The extractor is filled with extraction

ROTATING material and solvent and starts then


to rotate. The installation of heating
worms and the use of a double
EXTRACTOR jacket gives the possibility to
evaporate the solvent at the end of
the extraction cycle.
Simple
Robust construction of
apparatus

ADVANTAGES

Limited capacity
discontinuous output of
product

DISADVANTAGES
CONTINUOUS
EXTRACTION

PERCOLATING
PROCESS
The solvent passes through the non
moving solid material and extracts
the soluble substances. The basic for
this process is that the material has
good percolating properties, which
means that the solvent can pass
easily the solid material.
IMMERSION METHOD

For this process, the solid materials


dip completely into the solvent and
are mixed with this. Therefore, no
special percolation properties of the
solid material are necessary.
Low content of fine solid
ADVANTAGES particles in the extract solution
so that this solution has not be
filtrated before further
Large amount of solid material can treatment
be treated in apparatus of compact
size An optimal heat balance is
achieved if for evaporation of
Even at low residual content of the solvent the heat amount of
active agents in the residual the exhaust vapour is used
material extract solutions with high
active agent concentrations are
produces with a low amount of
solvent

Short extraction times because no DISADVANTAGE


dead times arise as for the
discontinuous process S
The solid material is given
into baskets and is contacted
CONTINUOU by the percolation method
with solvent. The flow of the
S solvent through the extractor
is counter current to the solid
HORIZONTAL material flow

EXTRACTOR
HILDEBRAN
DT
EXTRACTOR
The solid material is extracted
according to the immersion
method. Screw conveyors are
installed in the extractor for
transporting the solid material.
Again, the solvent flows counter
current to the solid materials
through the extractor.
Continuous
Extraction

BONOTTO
EXTRACTOR
used for counter current extraction following the immersion
method. The solid material is transported by the mixer on the
tray until it reaches the open sector where the solid material
falls down on the next tray. The screw conveyor at the outlet
withdraws the extracted solid material (underflow) and
prevents the following out of the solution from the extractor.
BOLLMANN
EXTRACTOR
The fresh solvent is added during
the upward movement of the
baskets so that this part operates
counter current.
The solid material is
KENNEDY transported by paddles
form one chamber to the
EXTRACTOR next and this in counter
current way ti the
solvent. The chamber
where the miscella is
withdrawn is used as
filtration step, whre fine
particles are separated
from the extract solution.
ROTOCELL- OR
CAROUSEL
EXTRACTOR
This extractor exists of a fixed tray
and of a rotating star wheel, which
produces the single extraction
chambers.
This extractor exists of a frame belt
LURGI EXTRACTOR which lays in the upper and lower
section of the extractor on a sieve
belt.
The input of the solid material is
done by a pressure lock and the
DESMET solid material lay on a sieve belt.

EXTRACTOR
FOOD INDUSTRY

Production of instant coffee


Decaffeination of coffee and tea
Production of flavour and fragrances
Sugar production
Edible oil production
PHARMACEUTICAL AND
COSMETIC INDUSTRY
Active ingredients from natural materials
High quality fats from animal cadaver utilisation

ENVIRONMENTAL
TECHNOLOGY
Decontamination of soils
Recycling of resources

MINING,
METALLURGY
Metal production of ores