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Professor & HOD
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

What is under water welding?

Wet welding
Dry welding
1.Wet welding
Wet welding is simply means job is performed directly
under water
It involves using special rods and is similar to that of
ordinary welding
Principle of operation
The work to be welded is connected to one side of electric circuit, and
the metal electrode to the other side.
These two parts of circuit are brought together and separated with
slight gap the electric current jumps the gap and causes a sustained
spark, which melts the bare metal, forming the weld pool.
At the same time, the top of electrode melts, and metal droplets are
projected into the weld pool.
During this operation, the flux covering the electrode melts to provide
a shielding gas, which is used to stabilize the arc column and shield the
transfer metal.
The arc burns in the cavity formed inside the flux covering, which is
designed to burn slower than the metal barrel of the electrode.
The versatility and low cost of wet welding makes this
method highly desirable.
Other benefits include the speed with which the
operation is carried out
It is less costly compared to dry welding
The welder can reach portions of offshore structures
that could not be welded using other methods
No enclosures are needed and no time is lost building.
Rapid quenching of the weld metal by the surrounding
Welders working under water are restricted in
manufacturing etc.,
Hydrogen embrittlement causes cracks.
Poor visibility due to water contamination.
2. Dry welding
In this the welder dives inside the water while the part to be
welded, is enclosed in small dry chamber.
In this technique, specially designed enclosures are being used to
keep the welding equipment and components to be welded, in dry
Pressure of shielding gas is kept high as per requirement of
working level in water in order to provide adequate protection and
also to expel water out to avoid any contact.

It produces high quality arc welding process is used mostly

for pipe works.
Good quality welds.
Surface maintenance.
Non destructive testing
Offshore construction for tapping sea resources.
Temporary repair work caused by collisions, unexpected
Salvaging vessels sunk in the sea
Repair and maintenance of ships.
Construction of large ships beyond the capacity of existing docks.
Power supply : DC 300 OR 400 AMP
Polarity : straight polarity
Requirements for under water
Power supply requrements-400 amp or larger. DC
generators, motor generators and rectifiers are acceptable
power supplies
Power converters.
Welding Generator, Pre-Setup
Diesel Driven Welding Generator Amperage and Voltage
Gas Manifolds.
Underwater Oxygen-Arc Welding
Collet or grip
Oxygen valve
Flash arrester
Waterproofing Surface Electrodes.
Epoxy 152
Lee lac 30-l2093
Developments in Under Water Welding

Wet welding has been used as an underwater welding

technique for a long time and is still being used. With recent
acceleration in the construction of offshore structures
underwater welding has assumed increased importance. This
has led to the development of alternative welding methods like
friction welding, explosive welding, and stud welding.
Sufficient literature is not available of these processes.
Scope for further developments
Developments of diver less Hyperbaric welding system is an
even greater challenge calling for annexe developments like
pipe preparation and aligning, automatic electrode and wire
reel changing functions, using a robot arm installed. This is
in testing stage in deep waters. Explosive and friction
welding are also to be tested in deep waters.
Safety measures

Start cutting at the highest point and work downward

By withdrawing the electrode every few seconds to
allow water to enter the cut
Gases may be vented to the surface with a vent tube
(flexible hose) secured in place from the high point
where gases would collect to a position above the
Thank you