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Riddle?!

Q:What's the difference


between a cat and a
comma?
Q:What's the difference between a cat
and a comma?

paw
claws
/klz/
A: A cat has claws at paw
the end of its paws,
/pz/
/pz/
and a comma is a pause
at the end of a clause.
/klz/

claws
CLAUSES
GRAMMAR 4
Group members

1.DNH122283 Trn Thanh Huy


2.DKQ112116 Nguyn Hoi Anh Th
3.DNH122316 ng Ngc Kim Ngn
Subordinate clauses

subordinate clause
sbrd()nt klz/
noun
plural noun:subordinate clauses
a clause, typically introduced by a
conjunction, that forms part of and
is dependent on a main clause
e.g., when it rang in she answered
the phone when it rang.
Subordinate clauses

a) noun clauses
e.g. He told me (that) the film was
interesting.
b) relative clauses
e.g. Tom, who is her brother, left early.
c) adverbial clauses
i.e. time clauses, clauses of manner /
place / reason / purpose / result /
comparison / concession / condition
e.g. He is taller than his sister.
Subordinate clauses

A. Time Clauses
B. Clauses of Purpose
C. Clauses of Result
D. Clauses of Concession
E. Exclamations
F. Clauses of reason
G. Clauses of place
1.
A. Time Clauses
Lets start with the first type of clauses.
A. Time Clauses

Time Clauses are introduced by time


conjunctions or expressions such as:
After Immediately Then
As No sooner than The sooner the
As soon as Now that sooner

Before Once Till / until

By (ever) since On / upon

By the time The minute (that) When


Hardly The moment Whenever
when (that) While
e.g. He waited for an hour before he was
interviewed by the manager.
A. Time Clauses

follow the rule of the sequence of tenses:


1. Main verb:present /future
Verb (subordinate clause): present/ future
2. Main verb: past tense
Verb (subordinate clause): past
e.g. Ill watch TV after I have finished
doing my homework.
She left before he came.
A. Time Clauses

e.g. They will leave in an hour. Ill do


the washing up then.
Ill do the washing up when /
after they leave / have left.
(not will leave or will have left)

Never use a future form or
conditional tense in a time
clause;
Use a present tense instead.
A. Time Clauses

Note: Never use a future form or conditional tense in a


time clause;
Use a present tense instead.
When + present tense When I find it, Ill tell you.
(time conjunction)
When + future When will John get back
(question word) from Austria?
2.
B. Clauses of Purpose
Lets move on to the second type of clauses.
B. Clauses of Purpose

so that + will / can (reference


in order that to the present)
+ infinitive
+ would / could
(informal construction)
(reference to the past)

e.g. We bought more food so that we would have enough


for the extra guests.
so that + may / might + infinitive
in order that + shall / should (formal construction)
e.g. The President left early so that he should not be late
for his next meeting.
Negative purpose

can be expressed by:


1. so as not to + infinitive
(when the subject of the verb is also the
subject of the infinitive)

e.g. We are staying in this weekend so as not


to spend any money.
Negative purpose

can be expressed by:


2. so that + cant/couldnt/wont/wouldnt
(when the subject of the verb is either
different or the same as the subject of the
infinitive)
e.g. Theyve locked the gate so that we
cant get in.
He left an hour ago so that he
wouldnt be caught in the traffic.
Negative purpose

can be expressed by:


3. for fear + might or should
lest + (might/should) + infinitive (formal)
for fear of sth / doing sth
e.g. They asked their neighbours to keep an eye on
the house for fear burglars might break in.
e.g. She banned smoking lest the house should
catch fire.
e.g. She didnt make a noise for fear of waking her
parents.
Negative purpose

can be expressed by:


Present (refers to the present/future)
4. in case + Past (refers to the past)

e.g. Take an umbrella in case it rains.


They set off early in case the traffic was heavy.

Note: will/would are never used with in case


e.g. Take your coat in case it gets cold.

Take your coat in case it will get cold.


Negative purpose

can be expressed by:


5. prevent + noun / pronoun + (from)
gerund
e.g. Its impossible to prevent the cat (from) scratching
the furniture.
Negative purpose

can be expressed by:


6. avoid + gerund

e.g. You should avoid carrying heavy bags if you have a


bad back.
Clauses of Purpose

Clauses of Purpose follow the rule of


the sequence of tenses.

e.g. Ill leave early so that Ill be


home before they come.
He avoided mentioning it so that
he wouldnt offend her.
3.
C. Clauses of Result
Lets continue with the third type of clauses.
Clauses of Result

Clauses of Result are introduced by


such (a) that as follows:
so that
Clauses of Result

Such a(n) + (adjective) + singular e.g. It was such a thrilling novel


countable noun that I couldnt put it down.
Such + (adjective) + e.g. He played such moving music
uncountable or plural that many in the audience felt close
noun to tears.
Such + a lot of + noun e.g. There was such a lot of noise
that the children couldnt hear what
the teacher was saying.
So + adjective / adverb e.g. We were so pleased with their
present that we rang them
immediately.
He sang so beautifully that he
won the contest.
So + much, many, little, few e.g. We had so little time that we
(+noun) didnt manage to visit all our
friends.
So + adjective + a(n) + e.g. So beautiful a girl was she that
noun the prince fell in love with her at
Clauses of Result

Clauses of Result follow the rule of the


sequence of tenses.
e.g. He is so tall that he can reach
the top shelf.
She was such a good actress that
everyone admired her.
4.
D. Clauses of Concession
Lets continue with the next type of clauses.
Clauses of
Concession

Clauses of Concession follow the rule of


the sequence of tenses.
e.g. Much as I like her, I disapprove
of her teaching methods.
Sensible as/though he is, he has
acted foolishly in this case.
Even though he studied, he
failed his tests.
Clauses of Concession

Clauses of Concession are introduced by:

as even so much as * but


although even if in spite of howeve
r
though while despite yet
even whereas nevertheles still
though s admire, enjoy etc.
* used with verbs such as (dis)like,
Clauses of Concession follow the rule of the sequence of tenses.
Clauses of Concession

e.g. Much as I like her, I disapprove


of her teaching methods.
Sensible as/though he is, he has
acted foolishly in this case.
Even though he studied, he
failed his tests.
Clauses of Concession

1. In spite of / Despite + noun or


gerund or the fact that + clause
e.g. In spite of / Despite being ill,
she went to work.
In spite of / Despite her ill
health, she still takes care of the
house and children.
Clauses of Concession

2. However / No matter how +


adjective / adverb + subject (+may) +
verb
e.g. No matter how hard I try, I can
never solve crosswords.
However hard he may try, he
wont succeed.
Clauses of Concession

3. Whatever / No matter what + clause


e.g. No matter what the time is, ring
me when you arrive at the station.
Clauses of Concession

4. Even if + should + infinitive


(unlikely to happen)
e.g. Even if it should rain, Im still
going swimming.
Clauses of Concession

5. Adjective / Adverb + though +


subject + verb
Adjective / Adverb + though +
subject + may + infinitive
e.g. Rich though he is, he is not
happy.
Late though he stayed, he
didnt finish the work.
Clauses of Concession

6. Adjective / Adverb + as + subject


+ verb
e.g. Tall as he is, he couldnt reach
the branch of the tree.
Fast as he ran, he didnt catch
the bus.
5.
E. Exclamations
Lets continue with what exclaimations!
Exclamations

Exclamations are not subordinate


clauses and are introduced by what or
how as follows:
What + (a/an) What an interesting
(adjective) + noun lecture!
What awful furniture!
How+ How beautiful she is!
adjective/adverb/verb How slowly he walks!
How I loved him!
How + adjective + How beautiful a girl (she
a/an + noun (not is)! (archaic)
common)
Exclamations

Exclamatory sentences can also be expressed:


1. With such (a/an) + (adjective) + (noun) or so +
adjective/adverb.
E.g. She is such a beautiful girl! Or She is so
beautiful!
1. By beginning the sentence putting the verb of
the sentence into the interrogative negative
form.
E.g. Isnt she sweet!
Doesnt he eat a lot!
1. By beginning the sentence with an adverb or
an adverbial particle (away, up, out, etc.) with
a verb of movement.
E.g. Off he went!
6.
F. Clauses of reason
Lets move to the next type of clause!
Clauses of reason

Clauses of reason are introduced by


as, since, seeing that, because, for
and follow the rule of sequence of
tenses.
E.g. Since she hasnt got any money she
cant go shopping.
He failed his test because he wasnt
well prepared.
Clauses of reason

Because and for can both be used to


introduce a Clause of Reason. However, for
cant be used at the beginning of a sentence
or as an answer to a why-question. If used,
there is always a comma before it in written
speech or a pause in oral speech.
E.g. Because I didnt know how, I didnt do
it.
I didnt do it because I didnt know how.
I didnt do it, for I didnt know how.
7.
G. Clauses of reason
This is the last type of clause!
Clauses of Place

Clauses of Place are introduced by where,


wherever, as far as, as high as, as low as,
as near as, etc., as follows:
Where + Present tense or Or present
Wherever may future
As high as E.g. No matter where
As low as I go, I always bump
As far as into him.
As near as + Past tense or might past
E.g. The dog went
wherever I went

Note: Simple Future is not normally used in Clauses



Thanks you for your attention!!
Any questions?

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