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STATIC RELAYS

BATCH 11
K.S.BHARATHWAJ 107114042
K.S.LAHARI 107114043
K.SREEDHAR BABU 107114044
KAUSHIK RAAM A.G 107114045
RELAYS: A RECAP

A relay (protective) is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation
of the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system.
The relays detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuits by constantly
measuring the electrical quantities which are different under normal and fault
conditions.
Electrical Relayscan be divided into mechanical action relays called
Electromechanical Relays and those which use semiconductor transistors,
thyristors, triacs, etc, as their switching device called Solid State Relays or
SSRs.
WHAT ARE STATIC RELAYS ?

Solid State Relay (Static Relay) is anelectrical relayin which


the response is developed by electronic/magnetic/optical or
other components, without mechanical motion of components.
A static relay consists of :
An input circuit that measures the value of desired property
Acomparatorcircuit that compares the measured value to a pre-set
threshold
An optional time delay circuit that controls the timing of the switch
action after the input has reached the threshold
A power supply for the static relay circuits
The static components of a
static relay are shown in the
figure beside. Here the
relaying quantity, i.e., the
output of a CT or PT of a
transducer is rectified by the
rectifier. The rectified output
is given to a measuring unit
constitute of comparators,
level detectors, and logic
circuits. The output is
actuated when the dynamic
input, i.e. the
The output of relaying
the measuring unit is fed to the output unit devices after it is
quantity
amplifiedattains
by the the threshold
amplifiers. The output unit activates the trip coil only when the
value.
relay operates. The relaying quantity such as the voltage and current is rectified
and measured. When the quantity under measurement attains certain well-
defined value, the output device is energized and hence, the circuit breaker trip is
triggered.
The static relay can be arranged to respond to electrical
inputs. The other types of input such as heat, light, magnetic
field, traveling waves, etc., can be suitably converted into
equivalent analog and digital signal and then supplied to the
static relay
Bridge rectifiers convert a sinusoidal
voltage into full-wave rectified pulses at
twice the input frequency. The problem here
is that these voltage pulses start and end
from zero volts which means that they will
fall below the minimum turn-on voltage
requirements of the SSRs input threshold
causing the output to turn on and off
every half cycle.
The electrical separation between the input
control signal and the output load voltage is
accomplished with the aid of an opto-
With no input signal applied, no load current flows through the SSR as it is effectively
OFF (open-circuited) and the output terminals see the full AC supply voltage. With the
application of a DC input signal, no matter which part of the sinusoidal waveform,
either positive or negative the cycle is going through, due to zero-voltage switching
characteristics of the SSR, the output only turns-on when the waveform crosses over
the zero point.
When the DC input voltage signal is removed,
the output does not suddenly turn-off as once
triggered into conduction, the thyristor or
triac used as the switching device stays ON
for the remainder of the half cycle until the
load currents drops below the devices holding
current, at which point it switches OFF. Thus
the high dv/dt back emfs associated with
switching inductive loads in the middle of a
sine wave is greatly reduced.
Then the main advantages of the AC solid state relay over the
electro-mechanical relay are its zero crossing function which turns
ON the SSR when the AC load voltage is close to zero volts, thus
suppressing any high inrush currents as the load current will
always start from a point close to 0V.
ADVANTAGES

1.More accurate and fast in operation


2. No moving parts.
3.VA ratings of CT and PT is comparatively lower.
4.Low power consumption.
5.Resetting time and overshoot can be reduced.
6.Very compact.
7.Superior characteristics and accuracy.
8.Several functions can be accommodated in a static relay
DISADVANTAGES

1.Reliability cannot be predicted


2.Construction is not very robust.
3.Easily affected by surrounding interference.
4.Auxiliarty DC supply is required
5.Affected by voltage transients

For integrated protection and


monitoring systems
programmable microprocessor
controlled static relays are
preferred.
COMPARISON WITH ELECTRO-MAGNETIC
RELAY
While the solid state relay and electro-mechanical relay are
fundamentally similar in that their low voltage input is
electrically isolated from the output that switches and controls
a load, electro-mechanical relays have a limited contact life
cycle, can take up a lot of room and have slower switch
speeds, especially large power relays and contactors. Solid
state relays have no such limitations.
Low powerconsumption as low as 1mW.
No moving contacts; hence associated problems of arcing, contact bounce,
erosion, replacement of contacts.
No gravity effect on operation of staticrelays. Hence can be used in vessels, i.e.,
ships, aircrafts etc.
A single relay can perform several functions like over current, under voltage,
single phasing protection by incorporating respective functional blocks. This is not
possible in electromagneticrelays.
Static relay is compact.
Superior operating characteristics and accuracy.
Static relay can think,programmableoperation is possible with static relay.
Effect of vibration is nil, hence can be used in earthquake-prone areas.
Simplified testing and servicing. Can convert even non-electrical quantities to
electrical in conjunction with transducers.
APPLICATIONS

1.Ultra high speed protection of EHV AC transmission lines


utilizing distance protection.
2.In over current and earth fault protection schemes
3.As main element in differential relay

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