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MECHANICAL

PROPERTIES

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Chapter Outline

Terminology for Mechanical Properties


The Tensile Test: Stress-Strain Diagram
Properties Obtained from a Tensile Test
True Stress and True Strain
The Bend Test for Brittle Materials
Hardness of Materials
Questions to Think About
Stress and strain: What are they and why are they
used instead of load and deformation?
Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
Plastic behavior: At what point do dislocations
cause permanent deformation? What materials are
most resistant to permanent deformation?
Toughness and ductility: What are they and how do
we measure them?
Ceramic Materials: What special provisions/tests
are made for ceramic materials?
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Strain Gage [Gage Factor = (R/R)/(L/L)
& Youngs Modulus = (P/A) / (L/L) ]
Periodic Wave and its Spectrum
Stress-Strain Test

specimen

machine
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Tensile Test

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Important Mechanical Properties
from a Tensile Test
Young's Modulus: This is the slope of the linear
portion of the stress-strain curve, it is usually
specific to each material; a constant, known value.
Yield Strength: This is the value of stress at the
yield point, calculated by plotting young's modulus
at a specified percent of offset (usually offset =
0.2%).
Ultimate Tensile Strength: This is the highest
value of stress on the stress-strain curve.
Percent Elongation: This is the change in gauge
length divided by the original gauge length.
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Terminology
Load - The force applied to a material during
testing.
Strain gage or Extensometer - A device used for
measuring change in length (strain).
Engineering stress - The applied load, or force,
divided by the original cross-sectional area of the
material.
Engineering strain - The amount that a material
deforms per unit length in a tensile test.
Elastic Deformation
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

bonds
stretch

return to
initial

F F Linear-
elastic
Non-Linear-
Elastic means reversible. elastic

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Plastic Deformation (Metals)
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload
bonds
stretch planes
& planes still
shear sheared

plastic
elastic + plastic
F
F
linear linear
elastic elastic
Plastic means permanent.
plastic
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Typical stress-strain
c07f10ab
behavior for a metal
showing elastic and
plastic deformations,
the proportional limit P
and the yield strength
y, as determined
using the 0.002 strain
offset method (where there
is noticeable plastic deformation).
P is the gradual
elastic to plastic
transition. 12
Plastic Deformation (permanent)
From an atomic perspective, plastic
deformation corresponds to the breaking of
bonds with original atom neighbors and
then reforming bonds with new neighbors.
After removal of the stress, the large
number of atoms that have relocated, do
not return to original position.
Yield strength is a measure of resistance
to plastic deformation.
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c07f25

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(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Localized deformation of a ductile material during a


tensile test produces a necked region.
The image shows necked region in a fractured sample
Permanent Deformation
Permanent deformation for metals is
accomplished by means of a process called
slip, which involves the motion of
dislocations.
Most structures are designed to ensure that
only elastic deformation results when stress
is applied.
A structure that has plastically deformed, or
experienced a permanent change in shape,
may not be capable of functioning as
intended. 16
Yield Strength, y

Elastic+Plastic
tensile stress,
tensile stress, at larger stress
y
Elastic
initially
permanent (plastic)
after load is removed

p engineering strain,

plastic strain
engineering strain,
p = 0.002

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Stress-Strain Diagram
ultimate
tensile
strength
UTS 3 necking
E
Slope=
Strain
yield Hardening Fracture
strength
y 5
2
Stress (F/A)

Elastic region
Plastic slope =Youngs (elastic) modulus
Region yield strength
Plastic region
ultimate tensile strength
Elastic strain hardening
E Region fracture
4
1
E
E
y
Strain ( ) (L/Lo)
2 1
Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)
Elastic Region (Point 1 2)
- The material will return to its original shape
after the material is unloaded( like a rubber band).
- The stress is linearly proportional to the strain in
this region.

E or E

: Stress(psi)
E : Elastic modulus (Youngs Modulus) (psi)
: Strain (in/in)
- Point 2 : Yield Strength : a point where permanent
deformation occurs. ( If it is passed, the material will
no longer return to its original length.)
Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)
Strain Hardening
- If the material is loaded again from Point 4, the
curve will follow back to Point 3 with the same
Elastic Modulus (slope).
- The material now has a higher yield strength of
Point 4.
- Raising the yield strength by permanently straining
the material is called Strain Hardening.
Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)

Tensile Strength (Point 3)


- The largest value of stress on the diagram is called
Tensile Strength(TS) or Ultimate Tensile Strength
(UTS)
- It is the maximum stress which the material can
support without breaking.
Fracture (Point 5)
- If the material is stretched beyond Point 3, the stress
decreases as necking and non-uniform deformation
occur.
- Fracture will finally occur at Point 5.
The stress-strain curve for an aluminum alloy.

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.
Stress-strain
behavior
found for
some steels
with yield
point
phenomenon.

23
T
E
N
c07tf02
S
I
L
E

P
R
O
P
E
R
T
I
E
S
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Yield Strength: Comparison
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
2000
Steel (4140)qt

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since


1000
Yield strength, y (MPa)

since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.


Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)a

in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.


700 W (pure)
600 Cu (71500)cw
500 Mo (pure)
400 Steel (4140)a
Steel (1020)cd

Hard to measure,
300
Al (6061)ag
Hard to measure,

200 Steel (1020)hr



Ti (pure)a
Ta (pure)
Room T values
Cu (71500)hr
a = annealed
100 hr = hot rolled
dry ag = aged
70 PC cd = cold drawn
60 Al (6061)a Nylon 6,6
50 PET cw = cold worked
humid
40 PVC qt = quenched & tempered
PP
30 HDPE

20

LDPE
Tin (pure) 25
10
Tensile Strength, TS
After yielding, the stress necessary
to continue plastic deformation in
metals increases to a maximum point
(M) and then decreases to the
eventual fracture point (F).
All deformation up to the maximum
stress is uniform throughout the
tensile sample.
However, at max stress, a small
constriction or neck begins to form.
Subsequent deformation will be
confined to this neck area.
Fracture strength corresponds to the
stress at fracture.
Region between M and F:
Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are aligned and about
26 to break.
In an undeformed
thermoplastic polymer
tensile sample,
(a) the polymer chains
are randomly
oriented.
(b) When a stress is
applied, a neck
develops as chains
become aligned
locally. The neck
continues to grow
until the chains in the
entire gage length
have aligned.
(c) The strength of the
polymer is increased
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Tensile Strength: Comparison
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
5000 C fibers
Aramid fib
3000 E-glass fib
Tensile strength, TS(MPa)

2000 Steel (4140)qt


AFRE (|| fiber)
1000 W (pure) Diamond GFRE (|| fiber)
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)aa CFRE (|| fiber)
Steel (4140)
Cu (71500)cw Si nitride
Cu (71500)hr Al oxide
Steel (1020)
300 Al (6061)ag
Ti (pure)a
200 Ta (pure) Room T values
Al (6061)a
100 Si crystal wood(|| fiber) Based on data in Table B4, Callister 6e.
<100> Nylon 6,6 a = annealed
Glass-soda PC PET
PVC GFRE ( fiber) hr = hot rolled
40 Concrete PP
30 CFRE ( fiber) ag = aged
AFRE( fiber) cd = cold drawn
HDPE
20 Graphite cw = cold worked
LDPE
qt = quenched & tempered
10 AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
composites, with 60 vol%
wood( fiber) fibers.
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1
Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, : Shear stress, :
Ft Ft F

Area, A Area, A Fs

Fs
Ft Ft
Fs F Ft

Ao Ao
original area
before loading

Stress has units: N/m2 or lb/in2 29


VMSE

http://www.wiley.com/college/callister/0470125373/vmse/index.htm
http://www.wiley.com/college/callister/0470125373/vmse/strstr.htm

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Example 1
Tensile Testing of Aluminum Alloy
Convert the change in length data in the table to engineering
stress and strain and plot a stress-strain curve.
Example 1 SOLUTION
Ductility, %EL
Ductility is a measure of the l f lo
plastic deformation that has % EL x100
been sustained at fracture: lo
smaller %EL
Engineering (brittle if %EL<5%)
tensile Ao
stress, larger %EL Lo Af Lf
(ductile if
A material that %EL>5%)
suffers very
little plastic Engineering tensile strain,
deformation is
brittle. Ao A f
Another ductility measure: % AR x100
Ao
Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation (%
plastic strain at fracture) or percent reduction in area.
%AR > %EL is possible if internal voids form 33 in neck.
Toughness is Toughness
c07f13
the ability to
Lower toughness: ceramics
absorb
energy up to Higher toughness: metals
fracture (energy
per unit volume of
material).

A tough
material has
strength and
ductility.

Approximated
by the area
under the
stress-strain
curve. 34
Toughness
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.
Engineering smaller toughness (ceramics)
tensile larg er toughness
stress, (metals, PMCs)

smaller toughness-
unreinforced
polymers

Engineering tensile strain,

21
F
Linear Elastic Properties
c07f05
Hooke's Law: =E
F
Poisson's ratio: xy simple
tension
metals: ~ 0.33 test
ceramics: ~0.25
polymers: ~0.40


E
1 Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(Young's modulus)
Linear-
elastic
Units:
E: [GPa] or [psi] 36
: dimensionless
c07prob Engineering Strain

Strain is dimensionless.
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Axial (z) elongation (positive strain) and lateral (x and y)
c07f09(negative strains) in response to an imposed
contractions
tensile stress.

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True Stress and True Strain
True stress The load divided by the actual cross-sectional
area of the specimen at that load.
True strain The strain calculated using actual and not
original dimensions, given by t ln(l/l0).

The relation between the true stress-


true strain diagram and engineering
stress-engineering strain diagram.
The curves are identical to the yield
point.
Stress-Strain Results for Steel Sample

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Example 2: Youngs
Modulus - Aluminum Alloy
From the data in Example 1, calculate the modulus of
elasticity of the aluminum alloy.
Example 2: Youngs Modulus - Aluminum Alloy - continued
Use the modulus to determine the length after
deformation of a bar of initial length of 50 in.
Assume that a level of stress of 30,000 psi is applied.
Youngs Moduli: Comparison
Graphite
Metals Composites
Ceramics Polymers
Alloys /fibers
Semicond
1200
1000
800
Diamond E ceramics
600
400 Tungsten
Molybdenum
Si carbide
Al oxide Carbon fibers only >E metals
Si nitride
E(GPa) 200
Steel, Ni
Tantalum <111>
Si crystal
CFRE(|| fibers)*
>>Epolymers
Platinum
Cu alloys <100> Aramid fibers only
100 Zinc, Ti
80 Silver, Gold
Glass -soda AFRE(|| fibers)*
60 Aluminum Glass fibers only
Magnesium, GFRE(|| fibers)*
40 Tin
Concrete

109 Pa 20 GFRE*
CFRE *
Composite data based on
Graphite GFRE( fibers)* reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
10
8 of aligned carbon (CFRE),
CFRE( fibers)*
6 AFRE( fibers)* aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE)
Polyester
4 PET fibers.
PS
PC Epoxy only
2
PP
1 HDPE
0.8
0.6 Wood( grain)
PTF E
0.4
LDPE 43
0.2
Example 3: True Stress and True Strain
Calculation
Compare engineering stress and strain with true stress and
strain for the aluminum alloy in Example 1 at (a) the
maximum load. The diameter at maximum load is 0.497
in. and at fracture is 0.398 in.
Example 3 SOLUTION
c07f17 Strain Hardening

An increase in y due to
plastic deformation.

large hardening
y
1
y small hardening
0

hardening exponent:


T C T
n n=0.15 (some steels)
to n=0.5 (some copper)
true stress (F/A) true strain: ln(L/L
o)
Strain Hardening (n, K or C values)

hardening exponent:


T C T
n n=0.15 (some steels)
to n=0.5 (some copper)
true stress (F/A) true strain: ln(L/L
o)
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c07f12
c07f33
Mechanical Behavior - Ceramics
The stress-strain behavior of brittle
ceramics is not usually obtained by a
tensile test.
1. It is difficult to prepare and test
specimens with specific geometry.
2. It is difficult to grip brittle materials without
fracturing them.
3. Ceramics fail after roughly 0.1% strain;
specimen have to be perfectly aligned.

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The Bend Test for Brittle Materials

Bend test - Application of a force to the center of a bar


that is supported on each end to determine the
resistance of the material to a static or slowly applied
load.
Flexural strength or modulus of rupture -The stress
required to fracture a specimen in a bend test.
Flexural modulus - The modulus of elasticity calculated
from the results of a bend test, giving the slope of the
stress-deflection curve.
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

The stress-strain behavior of brittle materials compared with


that of more ductile materials
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

(a) The bend test often used for measuring the strength
of brittle materials, and (b) the deflection obtained by
bending
Flexural Strength
c07f18
Schematic for a 3-
point bending test.
Able to measure the
stress-strain behavior
and flexural strength
of brittle ceramics.
Flexural strength
(modulus of rupture or
bend strength) is the
stress at fracture.
See Table 7.2 for more values.

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MEASURING ELASTIC MODULUS
Room T behavior is usually elastic, with brittle failure.
3-Point Bend Testing often used.
--tensile tests are difficult for brittle materials.
cross section
F
L/2 L/2
d R
b = midpoint
rect. circ.
deflection
Determine elastic modulus according to:
F F L3 F L3
x E
F 4bd3 12R 4
slope =
rect. circ.
cross cross
section section
linear-elastic behavior
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MEASURING STRENGTH
3-point bend test to measure room T strength.
cross section F
L/2 L/2
d R
b
rect. circ.

location of max tension

Flexural strength: Typ. values:


Material fs(MPa) E(GPa)
fail 1.5FmaxL FmaxL
fs m Si nitride 700-1000 300
bd2 R3 Si carbide 550-860 430
F rect. Al oxide 275-550 390
Fmax x glass (soda) 69 69
Data from Table 12.5, Callister 6e.


max 24
Stress-Strain Behavior: Elastomers
3 different responses:
A brittle failure
B plastic failure
C - highly elastic (elastomer)

(MPa)
60 xbrittle failure

plastic failure
40 x

20 x
elastomer
final: chains
0
0 2 4 6 8
are straight,
still
cross-linked

initial: amorphous chains are Deformation


kinked, heavily cross-linked. is reversible!

--brittle response (aligned chain, cross linked & networked case)


--plastic response (semi-crystalline case) 56
Hardness of Materials

Hardness test - Measures the resistance of a material to


penetration by a sharp object.
Macrohardness - Overall bulk hardness of materials
measured using loads >2 N.
Microhardness Hardness of materials typically measured
using loads less than 2 N using such test as Knoop
(HK).
Nano-hardness - Hardness of materials measured at 1
10 nm length scale using extremely small (~100 N)
forces.
Hardness
Hardness is a measure of a materials resistance
to localized plastic deformation (a small dent or
scratch).
Quantitative hardness techniques have been
developed where a small indenter is forced into
the surface of a material.
The depth or size of the indentation is measured,
and corresponds to a hardness number.
The softer the material, the larger and deeper the
indentation (and lower hardness number).

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Hardness
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
--better wear properties.
apply known force measure size
e.g., (1 to 1000g) of indent after
10mm sphere removing load

Smaller indents
D d mean larger
hardness.

most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided


plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness
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Adapted from Fig. 6.18, Callister 6e. (Fig. 6.18 is adapted from G.F. Kinney, Engineering Properties and Applications of Plastics, p. 202, John Wiley and Sons,
1957.)
Hardness Testers

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Conversion
c07f30 of
Hardness
Scales

Also see: ASTM E140 - 07


Volume 03.01
Standard Hardness Conversion
Tables for Metals Relationship
Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell Hardness,
Superficial Hardness, Knoop
Hardness, and Scleroscope
Hardness
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Correlation
c07f31
between
Hardness and
Tensile
Strength
Both hardness and
tensile strength are
indicators of a metals
resistance to plastic
deformation.
For cast iron, steel and
brass, the two are roughly
proportional.

Tensile strength (psi) = 63


500*BHR
Summary
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches y.
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

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