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Unit V

Series Compensation
Series Compensation
Advantages of Series over shunt compensation:
Fixed-Series Compensation:
With series capacitors, the reactive power increases as the
square of line current, whereas with shunt capacitors, the
reactive power is generated proportional to the square of bus
For achieving the same system benefits as those of series
capacitors, shunt capacitors that are three to six times more
reactive power rated than series capacitors need to be
shunt capacitors typically must be connected at the line
midpoint, whereas no such requirement exists for series
Advantages of Series Compensation
1. Increase in transmission capacity
2. Improvement of System Stability
3. Load Division between Parallel Circuits
4. Less installation Time
Advantages of Series Compensation
1. Increase in transmission capacity:
The power transfer capacity of a line is given by
P sin

where, E is sending end voltage

V is receiving end voltage
X is reactance of line
is phase angle between E and V
Power transfer without and with compensation:
P1 sin
P2 sin
(X L XC )
P2 XL 1 1

P1 ( X L X C ) (1 X C / X L ) 1 K

where K is degree of compensation.

The economic degree of compensation lies in the range of 40-70%
(K < 1, i.e. 0.4-0.7)
Advantages of Series Compensation
2. Improvement of System Stability:
For same amount of power transfer and same value of E
and V, the in the case of series compensated line is less
than that of uncompensated line. E.V
P sin 1
P sin 2
(X L XC )
sin 2 ( X L X C )

sin 1 XL
A lower means better system stability
Series compensation offers most economic solution for
system stability as compared to other methods (reducing
generator, x-mer reactance, bundled conductors, increase
no. of parallel circuits
Advantages of Series Compensation

3. Load Division between Parallel Circuits:

When a system is to be strengthen by the addition
of a new line or when one of the existing circuit is
to be adjusted for parallel operation in order to
achieve maximum power transfer or minimize
losses, series compensation can be used.
It is observed in Sweden that the cost of the series
compensation in the 420 kV system was entirely
recovered due to decrease in losses in the 220 kV
system operating in parallel with the 420 kV
Advantages of Series Compensation
4. Less installation Time:
The installation time of the series capacitor is
smaller (2 years approx.) as compared to installation
time of the parallel circuit line (5 years approx.)
This reduces the risk factor.
Hence used to hit the current thermal limit.
The life of x-mission line and capacitor is generally
20-25 years.
1. Increase in fault current
2. Mal operation of distance relay- if the degree
of compensation and location is not proper.
3. High recovery voltage of lines- across the
circuit breaker contacts and is harmful.
4. Problems of Ferro-resonance :
When a unloaded or lightly loaded transformer is
energized through a series compensated line, Ferro-
resonance may occur.
It is produced due to resonance occurred in between the
iron-created inductance (i.e., due to iron parts in the
transformer) and in the reactance of the compensated
This will cause a flow of high current.
It rarely happens and may be suppressed by using shunt
resistors across the capacitors or by short circuiting the
capacitor temporarily through an isolator or by-pass
5. Problems due to sub-synchronous resonance:
The series capacitors introduces a sub-synchronous
frequency (proportional to the square-root of the
compensation) in the system. In some case this
frequency may interact with weak steam turbine
generator shaft and give rise to high torsional stress.
In hydro-turbine generators, the risk of sub-
synchronous resonance is small because the
torsional frequency is about 10 Hz or even less.
Sub-Synchronous Resonance
We know that, with the series compensation
used, the power handling capacity of line is
P sin
X ( X L X C ) X L (1 K )

where, K = XC/XL is degree of compensation

and reactances are at power frequency f0
Sub-Synchronous Resonance
(continued )
XC = K. XL
1/ C = K L (1)

As at certain resonant frequency (fr) it is possible that

X Cfr ; X Lfr 2f r L
2f r C
2f r L
2f r C
2 LC
Replacing LC = 1/K(2f)2 from (1)
K (2f ) 2 As K is 0.4-0.7; fr < f
fr f K
2 Hence called sub-synchronous
Location of Series Capacitor
The choice of the location of the series
capacitor depends on many technical and
economical consideration.
In each case, a special system study
concerning load flow, stability, transient
overvoltage, protection requirements, system
voltage profile etc. is necessary before the
optimal location is chosen.
1. Location along the line
In this method the capacitor bank is located at
the middle of the line (if one bank) or at 1/3 rd
distance along the line (if two banks).
This has advantage of better voltage profile
along the line, lesser short circuit current
through the capacitor in the event of fault and
simpler protection of capacitor.
The capacitor stations are generally
2. Location at one or both ends of line
section on the line side in the switching
The main advantage of this location is that the
capacitor installation is near the manned sub-
However, requires more advanced line
For the same degree of compensation, more
MVAr capacity is needed as compared to
method 1.

3. Location within bus bars within Switching Stations

Degree of series compensation
We know that the surge impedance

L jL
ZC xxL
C j C

Suppose Cse is the series capacitance per unit length for series compensation.
Therefore total series reactance will be
j j j L
jL' jL j L .
Cse C se jL
1 X

jL 1 2 jL 1 cse jL1 se
LC se XL

where se is known as degree of series compensation. Therefore, virtual

surge impedance jL(1 se )
Z C' Z C (1 se )
j C