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BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE

MODULE 1+ 2

Self Concpet
Introduction
The term self-concept is a general term used to
refer to how someone thinks about or perceives
themselves.

The self-concept is the accumulation of


knowledge about the self.

The self-concept is composed of relatively


permanent self-assessments such as beliefs
regarding personality traits, physical
characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles.
Continued.

Beginning in infancy, children acquire and


organize information about themselves as a way
to enable them to understand the relation
between the self and their social world.

The self-concept is not restricted to the present. It


includes past selves and future selves. Future
selves or "possible selves" represent individuals'
ideas of what they might become, what they
would like to become, and what they are afraid of
becoming.
Definition
Self-concept is a multi-dimensional construct that
refers to an individual's perception of "self" in
relation to any number of characteristics,
such as academics, gender roles and
sexuality, racial identity, and many others.
Bums (1980) defines it as, 'the set of attitudes
a person holds towards himself."
Gross: 1992:607: Me self-concept is basically
each person's own subjective -view or image of
him- or herself as a person. "
continued
Self-concept is a relatively enduring set of
attitudes and beliefs about both the physical
self and the psychological self.
Self-concept is not a static state but one that
develops and changes over time with life
experiences and relationships that influence
beliefs about the self.
It includes the persons self-knowledge, self
expectations and self evaluation.
Self concept guides our actions, motivations,
expectations and goals for future.
Self Concept Circle

The person I think I am.


The person others think I am.
The person others think I think I am.

As I See
Myself

Others My
Reaction Actions
s To Me

As Others See
Dimensions of Self-
Concept
Self-knowledge Who am I?
Self-expectation Who or what do I
want to be?
Social self How person perceived by
others?
Self-evaluation How well do I like
myself?
Self knowledge

Global self: is the term used to describe the


composite of all basic facts, qualities, traits,
images and feelings one holds about oneself.
It includes:
1. Basic facts: sex, age, race, occupation,
cultural background, sexual orientation
2. Persons position with social groups
3. Qualities or traits that describe typical
behaviours, feelings, moods and other
characteristics (generous, hot-headed ,
ambitious, intelligent, sexy
Self expectations

Expectations for self flow from


various sources.
The ideal self constitutes the self one
want to be.
Self expectations develop
unconsciously early in childhood and
are based on image of role models
such as parents
Self evaluation

Self esteem is the evaluative and


affective component of self concept
Maslows Subsets of Esteem Needs:
1. Self-esteem (strength, achievement,
mastery, competence, ..)
2. Respect needs or the need for esteem
from others
Positive Self-
Concept
I can do I have
anything I definite
really want strengths
to do. and
I am an
abilities.
okay
person.
I see There are
myself as many ways
being as to solve a
good as my problem.
friends.
of people with
POSITIVE

As
ks
qu Pe
est e t rs
ion g
s l ed tsfi ryi ist
o w en n ng en
k n hm th ds t
ac li s in ne ke
to p g s w ep
e o m w
i m c c S a s
t la e ys
k e na g ts to
a
T rs o o al
e do
p s
Characteristic of
Negative Self-Concept
Why try? I I am not
could never nearly as
do it anyway. good as
my
I am a jerk. friends.

I knew my I cannot do
plans would anything
not work. right.
NEGATIVE

You feel uncertain


and uncomfortable
about yourself - - -
you fear possible
rejection
of people with
NEGATIVE

Jump to Look at only one detail


conclusions and disregard the big
picture

Magnify faults Minimize achievements

Blaming others. What better way to Being an overly nice


deny our weaknesses than to blame
others for our problems or for the people-pleaser or
world's problems? rescuer or self-
sacrificing martyr.
COMPONENETS OF SELF-CONCEPT
Self-Esteem

Self-esteem can be defined as the degree to which


one has a positive evaluation of ones self, based
on ones perceptions of how one is viewed by
others as well as ones views about self.

Self esteem refers to the extent to which we like


accept or approve of ourselves or how much we
value ourselves.Self esteem always involves a
degree of evaluation and we may have either a
positive or a negative view of ourselves.
Development of Self-esteem

Two schools of thoughts of development of Self-esteem:

1. First: self-esteem forms early in life, is based primarily


on relationships with early caregivers, and is relatively
fixed throughout life.

2. Second: self-esteem fluctuates whenever life


transitions, crises, or illnesses challenge the self-
concept or alter the persons status or role. - (Arnold &
Boggs, 2006)
Building Self Esteem
Associate with people who build.
Build others, sincere compliments.
Set and achieve goals.
Eat correctly, look your best.
Observe self-confident people.
Ask for help.
Improve yourself, learn something new.
Do not say negative things about yourself. Think
positively.
Important facts
Having a high self-esteem leads to a high level of
satisfaction with oneself.

People who possess high self-esteem tend to be


more content, in control, confident, accountable,
and capable.

Lack of self-esteem can result in lack of confidence,


and inability to act in own interest, feeling of being
over-whelmed, having decreased activity or energy,
powerlessness, and reduced ability to function.
High self-esteem vs Low self-
esteem
Passive who cares attitude
Assertive
Excessively Dependent
Self-directed
Hesitant to express views
Makes
decisions Overly Critical of self
Praises self Monotone voice lack of
Speaks clearly emotion & energy
Neglects own needs
Attends to
needs Difficulty making decisions
Overly apologetic
Avoidance of eye contact
Feeling
POSITIVELY
about yourself,
your actions,
and your
future
of people with
HIGH
Mor ng e
e am a l le
e c h nd
in w bitio t h i a
l e ls
hat us k s h
hop one See orthw g goa
exp e
erie s to of w andin
nce
in li dem
fe Mor
havi e capa
e n t ng o ble o
o n f i d and pen, f
c
Self- to be with t com
appr hones
n ts id e n o pr iate t
w a - c o n f mun
r s e l f with ication
oth e p le . othe s
pe o rs
Feeling
NEGATIVELY
about yourself,
your actions,
and your
future
of people with
LOW
o f
Fearf ai n ts
ul of rt ugh
seeks chan e
c ho s
the s ge n
U nt ng
the fa a f e ty e l i
mi l i a of w
o d f e
unde r and an
mand
ing
People with low self-
n x i o u s esteem are often drawn to
Feels a he
about t each other these
te n e r s relationships are often
lis
po n s e destructive hurtful rather
res
than helpful
Seek to understand whatever has an
influence on your life be aware of the
world around you

Be respectful toward yourself refuse to


reject yourself

Recognize that you are the source of your


own choices, actions YOU make your life
what it is
Stand up for your values and feelings
find appropriate ways to express them

Take responsibility for identifying your


goals

Exhibit your principles of behavior to others.


Keep your promises and honor your
commitments
Contd..

Mens Self- Womens Self-


Esteem Esteem
more likely to base their more likely to base their
self-esteem on their self-esteem on the
personal achievements in adequacy of their social
life. support system.
Often greatly affected by Often affected by whether
having a sense of well- they are content with
being, a positive outlook their lives and have a
on life, and an ability to feeling that they are
perform activities of daily needed.
living.
2. Personal Identity
Personal identity is the organizing principle of the
personality that accounts for the unity, continuity,
consistency and uniqueness of a person. (Carpenito,
2005)
The composition of personal identity are emotional
images, cognitive images and perceptual images.
Emotional images are those feelings about oneself
that one experiences as being consistent with the self
and that feel familiar and normal.
Cognitive images involves intelligence, past
experiences, educational experiences and the process
of thinking.
Perceptual images are derived from the external
sensory data and are translated into mental pictures
3. Role Performance
It refers to a persons fulfillment of the roles &
current responsibilities in that persons life, and it
includes the actions, thoughts, and feelings.
A role is a homogenous set of behaviors,
attitudes, beliefs, principles and values that are
normally defined and expected in a given social
position in a group
Role is defined in terms of relationship to others &
prescribed by age, sex or position in the family
and society. The ability to fulfill prescribed role
behaviors can affect the self-concept.
4. Body Image
Body image is the perception of ones own body.
It is the physical dimension of self-concept, or how
one perceives and evaluates ones appearance
and function. It is closely related to personal
identity, role performance and self-esteem.
People can perceive their bodies as fat or thin,
ugly or beautiful, etc.
Body images changes with the conditions like
physical growth, illness, aging, accidents and
social/cultural influences.
Factors Affecting Self-Concept
Factors Across the Life Span
Infants to Preschoolers to School-Age Children to
Adolescents to Young Adults to Middle AdultsOlder
Adults
Past behaviors and achievements
Others perceptions
Parents
Siblings
Peers
Own perceptions about achievements and
comparisons to others
Development of Sense of Self
Infancy
view self as a distinct individual
ability to imitate others
Early childhood
autobiographical self
language reflects self: I, me, mine
Describes self by physical characteristics &
interests
overconfidence, high self-esteem
Development of Sense of Self
Middle childhood
describes self in physical and psychological terms
aware of strengths and weaknesses
self-esteem generally high
compares self with peers
structures self-esteem into different
competencies
academic
social
physical
physical appearance
Development of Sense of Self
Early adolescence
belief in imaginary audience
belief in personal fable
self-esteem drops (especially girls)
begin to use abstract values to describe
themselves
social comparisons continue
Development of Sense of Self
Late adolescence
develop a more complex understanding of self,
with contradictory descriptions
identity develops over time
identity diffusion
foreclosure
moratorium
identity achievement
Physiological Factors

Fatigue
Trauma
Chronic illness
Surgery
Disability
Obesity
Psychological Factors
Depression
Stress
Loss
Abusive relationships
Cultural and Lifestyle Factors
Culture
Socioeconomic status
Living conditions
Set ATTAINABLE
List and develop YOUR
goals based on your
personal strengths
WANTS and NEEDS
and abilities

LOOK FOR Recognize what YOU


positive relationships have accomplished
with others each step of the way
Rest in Peace:
The I Cant
Funeral
List your I cant characteristics on a sheet of paper.
Add things your parents say you do wrong.
Add things others say you do wrong.
How do you feel?
Shred your paper (RIP)
Treat yourself in honor of the occasion. (Im glad Im
me!)

The decision you make to love


yourself is the most important
Personal History
Assignment
This is a five page paper about YOU! You need to
include at least one page about your preschool
years, grade school years, junior and senior high
school years, your family, and your goals and
dreams. The final draft must be typed, double
spaced, with the font no larger than 12. Including
pictures is wonderful, but cannot take up more than
of each page.
Outline due: _______
Rough draft due: ______
Final due: ______
Assessing Self-concept

Developmental and chronological age

Assessing includes questions on


identity body imageself esteem
roles

Patients strengths/weaknesses
Self-Concept Questionnaire
Describe yourself.
What are your personal characteristics?
What are your strengths?
What are your fears or weaknesses?
Describe your body.
What do you like most about your body?
What do you like least about your body?
Tell me about some things you do or have done
in the past that give you a sense of
achievement or accomplishment.
Describe the primary roles you fill.
How do you feel about your ability to
perform these roles?
Are these roles satisfying to you?