Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

Concepts to Learn

What are the ideas of the Greeks on the atom?

How did Dalton contribute to the concept of the atom?

What is an atom and what does it look like?

How did we come to the idea that the smallest particle of any matter is an atom?

ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF THE ATOM

Greek Concepts of the Atom Modern Development of the Concept of the Atom
Greek Concepts of the Atom
Modern Development of the
Concept of the Atom

Greek Origins of the Atomic Idea

Leucippus Democritus
Leucippus
Democritus

Democritus

All matter is composed of atom.

Atoms cannot be divided further into smaller portions.

Democritus • All matter is composed of atom. • Atoms cannot be divided further into smaller

ource: http://www.chemteam.info/AtomicStructure/Greeks.html)

Greek followers’ Idea on the Atom

Atoms are small, and cannot be seen.

Atoms are always moving and can be combined.

Atoms are solid and hard. Atoms are homogenous (made of the same material) Atoms have different sizes, and shapes. Atoms are infinite in numbers

Modern Development of the Idea of the

Dalton’sAtom

Atomic Theory
Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Ideas on the Atom

  • 1. Chemical elements are composed of

atoms.

  • 2. Atoms of an element were identical in

weight

  • 3. Atoms of different elements had

different weights.

  • 4. Atoms combined only in small whole-

number ratios to form compounds.

  • 5. Atoms either combine, separate or re-

arrange in a chemical reaction.

How did the scientists know the physical structure of the atom?

Physical Structure of an Atom

Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element.

Physical Structure of an Atom Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that retains the

Atomic Structure

Development of the Atomic Models

John Dalton JJ Thomson Ernest Rutherford Niels Bohr Wave Model

John Dalton

1803

An atom is hard and spherical in its physical appearance.

It is the smallest, indivisible particle of matter.

John Dalton • 1803 • An atom is hard and spherical in its physical appearance. •

JJ Thomson

1897 “Plum-pudding Model”

An atom is a positively charged sphere studded with negatively charged electrons.

Cathode-ray Tube Experiment

Discovered the electrons

JJ Thomson • 1897 • “Plum-pudding Model” • An atom is a positively charged sphere studded

Ernest Rutherford

1908 “Nuclear Model”

The atom is mostly empty space that has a dense positively charged center which repels the positively charged alpha particles.

Ernest Rutherford • 1908 • “Nuclear Model” • The atom is mostly empty space that has

Gold Foil Experiment Discovered the “nucleus”

Niels Bohr

1913 “Planetary Model”

Electrons move around in specific orbits (energy levels) that are placed at specific distances from the nucleus of an atom.

Discovered the Energy Levels of the atom

Niels Bohr • 1913 • “Planetary Model” • Electrons move around in specific orbits (energy levels)

Wave Model (Schroedinger)

1926

Electron Cloud Model/Wave Model

Electrons can only exist at specific energy states.

Orbitals – the region around the nucleus where the electrons can be found

Wave Model (Schroedinger) • 1926 • Electron Cloud Model/Wave Model • Electrons can only exist at

Learning Check

Discuss the 2 concepts of the atom according to Democritus.

Discuss the Greek followers’ (alchemists) ideas on the atom. Explain Dalton’s 5 postulates on the atom. Describe an atom and its parts.

Draw on the board the atomic models of the following scientists: JJ Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schroedinger