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Joining & Assembly

Lecture 9-10

1. Overview of Welding Technology
2. The Weld Joint
3. Features of a Fusion Welded Joint

Joining and Assembly Distinguished
Joining Coupling of parts through non-
mechanical means.
welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding
These processes form a permanent joint between
Assembly Coupling of parts through mechanical
Usually done through fastening of parts together
Some of these methods allow for easy
disassembly, while others do not

Joining process in which two (or more) parts are
coalesced at their contacting surfaces by
application of heat and/or pressure
Many welding processes are accomplished by
heat alone, with no pressure applied
Others by a combination of heat and pressure
Still others by pressure alone with no external
In some welding processes a filler material is
added to facilitate coalescence (merging)

Why Welding is Important
Provides a permanent joint
Welded components become a single entity
Usually the most economical way to join parts
in terms of material usage and fabrication
Mechanical fastening usually requires additional
hardware components (e.g., screws and nuts)
and geometric alterations of the parts being
assembled (e.g., holes)
Not restricted to a factory environment
Welding can be accomplished "in the field"

Categories of Welding Processes
1. Fusion welding processes
Joining processes that melt the base metals
In many fusion welding operations, a filler metal is
added to the molten pool to facilitate coalescence
and to provide bulk and added strength to the
welded joint
A fusion welding operation in which no filler metal
is added is called an autogenous weld
2. Solid-state welding processes
Coalescence results from application of pressure
alone or combination of both pressure and heat.
If heat is applied, temp must be below melting point

Some Fusion Welding Processes
Arc welding (AW) melting of the metals is
accomplished by electric arc
Resistance welding (RW) melting is
accomplished by heat from resistance to an
electrical current between faying surfaces
held together under pressure
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) melting is
accomplished by an oxyfuel gas such as

Some Solid-state Welding Processes
Diffusion welding (DFW) Two surfaces are
held together under pressure at an elevated
temp and the parts coalesce by solid-state
Ultrasonic welding (UW) A tool vibrating at
ultrasonic frequency generate shear stresses
to remove surface films and achieve atomic
bonding of the surfaces held under moderate

The Weld Joint
The junction of the edges or surfaces of parts
that have been joined by welding
Two issues about weld joints:
Types of joints
Types of welds used to join the pieces that form
the joints

Five Types of Joints- a joint define the shape
of junction

1. Butt joint
2. Corner joint
3. Lap joint
4. Tee joint
5. Edge joint

Butt Joint

Parts lie in same plane and are

joined at their edges
Corner Joint

Parts in a corner
joint form a right
angle and are
joined at the corner
of the angle
Lap Joint
Consists of two
Tee Joint

One part is
perpendicular to
the other in the
shape of the letter
Edge Joint

Parts in an edge
joint are parallel
with at least one
of their edges in
common, and the
joint is made at
the common
Types of Welds
Each of the preceding joints can be made by
Other joining processes can also be used for
some of the joint types
There is a difference between joint type and
the way it is welded the weld type

Fillet Weld
Used to fill in the edges of plates created by corner,
lap, and tee joints
Filler metal used to provide cross section in
approximate shape of a right triangle

Various forms of fillet welds: (a) inside single fillet

corner joint; (b) outside single fillet corner joint;
(c) double fillet lap joint; and (d) double fillet tee
joint. Dashed lines show the original part edges.
Groove Welds
Usually requires part edges to be shaped into
a groove to facilitate weld penetration
Edge preparation increases cost of parts
Grooved shapes include square, bevel, V, U,
and J, in single or double sides
Most closely associated with butt joints

Groove Welds
Some groove welds: (a) square groove weld, one
side; (b) single bevel groove weld; (c) single Vgroove
weld; (d) single Ugroove weld; (e) single Jgroove
weld; (f) double Vgroove weld for thicker sections.
Dashed lines show original part edges.
Spot Weld
Fused section between surfaces of two plates
Used for lap joints
Closely associated with resistance welding
Plug & Slot Welds
The hole/slot is filled with metal in these welds

Plug Slot
weld weld
Physics of Welding: power density
Heat density is defined as the power transferred to
work per unit surface area (W/mm^2). P/A---- (1)
PD requirement: 10 to 10^5 W/mm^2. Less than 10 does
not cause melting and conducts away from metal as
rapidly as it transfers into metal. Higher than 10^5
causes vaporization of the metal at local region.
The PD is not as simple as shown in Eq 1. There are 2
complications regarding PD:
a) The power source in most of case is moving: which
results in preheating ahead of operation and post heating
behind it.
b) Power density is not uniform throughout the
affected surface
Physics of Welding: Example

Observation: PD is high enough for melting the inner

surface, but probably not sufficient for melting the surface
outside the inner ring
Heat Balance in Fusion Welding
The amount of heat required to melt a given volume of metal
depends on:
a.Heat to raise temp of solid metal to its m.p (depend on vol specific heat)
b.Heat to transform the metal from solid to liquid phase at m.p (depends
on metals heat of fusion)
c.m.p of the metal

Energy needed for melting/unit vol= Um= KTm^2 (1)

Um is the heat required to melt unit volume of material from room temp;
Tm is the mp of metal in kelvin; K is constant (3.33*10^-6)
Net heat available for welding= Hw= f1f2H (2)
f1= heat transfer factor (ratio of actual heat received by the w/p at
surface divided by total heat generated at the source)
f2= melting factor (heat used in melting divided by heat received at work
H= total heat generated by welding process (or at source)
Heat Balance in Fusion Welding
Heat balance between energy input and energy needed for
From Eqs 1 & 2: Hw= Um. V (3) V is vol of
metal melted
As net heat energy Hw is delivered at given rate, and the weld
bead is made at a certain travel velocity, hence it is
appropriate to write above Eq in rate form:

f1f2RH = UmAwv (4) RH is the rate of input energy

generated by welding power source ( in W); Aw is x-section
area of weld, and v is the welding speed (in mm/sec)
Heat Balance: Example

Um= KTm^2

f1f2RH = UmAwv
Physics of Welding
Fusion is the most common means of
achieving coalescence in welding
To accomplish fusion, a source of high density
heat energy must be supplied to the faying
surfaces, so the resulting temperatures cause
localized melting of base metals (and filler
metal, if used)
For metallurgical reasons, it is desirable to
melt the metal with minimum energy but high
heat densities

Typical Fusion Welded Joint
Metal cooling in weld is similar to cooling in casting
Fusion Zone: Base metal and filler metal melt
Structure is Columnar. Loss of original composition
during melting and due to addition of filler metal that
has addition of elements with better weld ability
Weld interface: A boundary (thin layer) that separates
fusion zone and HAZ. It has chemical composition same
as that of base metal.

Cross section of a typical fusion welded joint: (a) principal

zones in the joint, and (b) typical grain structure.
Heat Affected Zone
Metal has experienced temperatures below melting
point, but high enough to cause microstructural
changes in the solid metal
Chemical composition same as base metal, but this
region has been heat treated so that its properties
and structure have been altered
Effect on mechanical properties in HAZ is usually negative,
and it is here that welding failures often occur
The base metal beyond HAZ does not undergo
structural change. However has thermal stresses
because of temp gradient during cooling of weld

Two Categories of Welding Processes
Fusion welding - coalescence is accomplished
by melting the two parts to be joined, in some
cases adding filler metal to the joint
Examples: arc welding, resistance spot welding,
oxyfuel gas welding
Solid state welding - heat and/or pressure are
used to achieve coalescence, but no melting
of base metals occurs and no filler metal is
Examples: forge welding, diffusion welding,
friction welding

Arc Welding (AW)
A fusion welding process in which coalescence
of the metals is achieved by the heat from an
electric arc between an electrode and the
Electric energy from the arc produces
temperatures ~ 10,000 F (5500 C), hot
enough to melt any metal
Most AW processes add filler metal to increase
volume and strength of weld joint

Arc Welding
A pool of molten metal is formed near electrode
tip, and as electrode is moved along joint,
molten weld pool solidifies in its wake

Basic configuration of an arc welding process.

Two Basic Types of AW Electrodes
Consumable consumed during welding
Source of filler metal in arc welding
Nonconsumable not consumed during
welding process
Filler metal must be added separately

Arc Shielding
At high temperatures in AW, metals are
chemically reactive to oxygen, nitrogen, and
hydrogen in air
Mechanical properties of joint can be seriously
degraded by these reactions
To protect operation, arc must be shielded from
surrounding air in AW processes
Arc shielding is accomplished by:
Shielding gases, e.g., argon, helium, CO2

A substance that prevents formation of oxides and
other contaminants in welding, or dissolves them
and facilitates removal
It melts into slag to cover the surface of weld.
Solidifies onto the weld and is broken into chips on
Provides protective atmosphere for welding
Stabilizes arc
Reduces spattering
Reduces cooling rate to improve weld toughness
Application methods:
- In the form of grains
- In coating form on the consumable electrode
- In the core of consumable electrode
Power source in AW
AC- mostly used for ferrous metals (less conductive)
DC- used for all types of metals, and offer better arc
stability and energy input; expensive than AC
CE processes has higher f1 (because 1st heat is used
in melting & later molten metal transfers same
heat into metal)
Tungsten Arc Welding has least f1 (0.7)


f1f2RH = UmAwv

Consumable Electrode AW Processes
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Gas Metal Arc Welding
FluxCored Arc Welding
Submerged Arc Welding

CE Welding Processes Fusion
1. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Uses a consumable electrode consisting of a
filler metal rod coated with chemicals that
provide flux and shielding
Sometimes called "stick welding"
Power supply, connecting cables, and
electrode holder available for a few thousand

CE Welding Processes Fusion
1. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW).

CE Welding Processes Fusion
1. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Composition of filler metal usually close to base metal
- powdered cellulose (wood/cotton powder) mixed with
oxides, carbonates, and other ingredients, held together
by a silicate binder
- Gases on melting of coating protects/stablizes the arc
and slag covers the molten pool to prevent its oxidation
- Metal powders sometime is also included to increase
deposition rate
Welding stick is clamped in electrode holder connected
to power source
Current depends on the metal thickness, metal type and
electrode diameter

CE Welding Processes Fusion
1. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
- Used to weld ferrous metals and a few non metals. Not used for Al
- Electrode needs to be changed periodically, reducing productivity
- Variation in electrode length/diameter affects the resistance and
hence heating
- This is relatively cheaper welding

CE Welding Processes Fusion
2. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW).

CE Welding Processes Fusion
2. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
Uses a consumable bare metal wire as electrode and
shielding is accomplished by flooding arc with a gas
Wire is fed continuously and automatically from a
spool through the welding gun
Shielding gases include inert gases such as argon
and helium & CO2 OR Mixtures of gases
Inert gas is used for non ferrous alloys & SS; Co 2 is
used for steels
Bare electrode wire plus shielding gases eliminate
slag on weld bead - no need for manual grinding
and cleaning of slag
High production rates as compared to SMAW

CE Welding Processes Fusion
3. Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

Fluxcored arc welding. Presence or absence of externally supplied shielding gas

distinguishes the two types: (1) selfshielded, in which core provides ingredients
for shielding, and (2) gasshielded, which uses external shielding gases.

CE Welding Processes Fusion
3. Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

Adaptation of shielded metal arc welding, to

overcome limitations of stick electrodes
Electrode is a continuous consumable tubing
(in coils) containing flux and other ingredients
(e.g., alloying elements) in its core
It is noted for its high quality welds and also
can provide high production , may be higher
than GMAW
Spatter forms

CE Welding Processes Fusion
4. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Submerged arc welding.

CE Welding Processes Fusion
4. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Uses a continuous, consumable bare wire electrode,
with arc shielding provided by a cover of granular flux
Electrode wire is fed automatically from a coil
Completely submerges operation, preventing sparks,
spatter, and radiation
- The flux falls under gravity, therefore parts are always
held horizontally
- Needs a backing plate beneath the joint, used as a heat
- Higher production rate, even higher than FCAW, GMAW
- Used for low C, alloys steels. Not used for Die steel, non
ferrous metal
- Highest heat transfer factor from arc into base metal

Nonconsumable Electrode Processes
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Plasma Arc Welding
Stud Welding
Resistance Welding

NCE Welding Processes Fusion
1. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
- High quality welds
-Useful for thin sheets
-High quality welds for thin sheets
-No spatter
-Low production rates
-Expensive process

1. Why Tungsten is
used as electrode?
2. Can we weld Al & SS
with other
Gas tungsten arc welding.
NCE Welding Processes Fusion
1. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
Uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and an
inert gas for arc shielding
Melting point of tungsten = 3410C
Used with or without a filler metal
When filler metal used, it is added to weld pool from
separate rod or wire
- Can be used for all metals, but most common for
- Can be used for dissimilar metal welding
- Cast iron, W, lead difficult to weld with this method

NCE Welding Processes Fusion
2. Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
- Good arc stability
-High Temp (28000C)
-Better penetration control
-High travel speeds
-Any metal can be welded including tungsten, Cast iron, Pb,

- High equipment cost

- Need larger torch size than other
AW processes, which tends to Plasma arc welding (PAW).
restrict access in narrow joint
NCE Welding Processes Fusion
2. Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Special form of GTAW in which a constricted
plasma arc is directed at weld area
Tungsten electrode is contained in a nozzle
that focuses a high velocity stream of inert
gas (argon) into arc region to form a high
velocity, intensely hot plasma arc stream
Temperatures in PAW reach 28,000C
(50,000F), due to constriction of arc,
producing a plasma jet of small diameter and
very high energy density

NCE Welding Processes Fusion
3. Carbon Arc Welding (CAW)
- NC Carbon electrode is used for generating arc
- Useful for repairing broken castings
- Also used in Brazing

NCE Welding Processes Fusion
4. Stud Welding (SW)
- Normally used for welding of studs and
threaded nuts, fins on parts

Used for

5. Resistance Welding (RW)
A group of fusion welding processes that use a
combination of heat and pressure to
accomplish coalescence
Heat generated by electrical resistance to
current flow at junction to be welded
Principal RW process is resistance spot
welding (RSW)

Resistance Welding Welding

a. Resistance Spot Welding (RSW)
Resistance welding process in which fusion
of faying surfaces of a lap joint is achieved
at one location by opposing electrodes
Used to join sheet metal parts using a
series of spot welds
Widely used in mass production of
automobiles, appliances, metal furniture,
and other products made of sheet metal
Typical car body has ~ 10,000 spot welds
Annual production of automobiles in the
world is measured in tens of millions of units

b. Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW)
Stick electrodes are
replaced by roller

- Used for fabricating thin gasoline

tanks & automobile muffler
- Distortion of parts is a matter of
b. Resistance Welding: Example


c. High Frequency Resistance welding
High frequency AC is used- Used for fabricating long pipes
Frequency: (500KHz)

Sparkin Sparking
g Coil does not make physical contact
with pipe. Heating is done due to
induction process

Oxy-fuel Gas Welding (OFW)
Group of fusion welding operations that burn
various fuels mixed with oxygen
OFW employs several types of gases, which is
the primary distinction among the members of
this group
Oxyfuel gas is also used in flame cutting
torches to cut and separate metal plates and
other parts
Most important OFW process is oxyacetylene

Oxyacetylene Welding

A typical oxyacetylene welding operation (OAW).

Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)
Fusion welding performed by a high
temperature flame from combustion of
acetylene and oxygen
Flame is directed by a welding torch
Filler metal is sometimes added
Composition must be similar to base metal
Filler rod often coated with flux to clean surfaces
and prevent oxidation

Oxyacetylene Welding: Example

Heat generated in
OW process:
55*10^6 J/m3

Thermit Welding Welding


- Used for welding of castings, large

- Repairing/welding of rail tracks

Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
Fusion welding process in which heat for welding is provided
by a highlyfocused, highintensity stream of electrons
striking work surface
Electron beam gun operates at:
High voltage (e.g., 10 to 150 kV typical) to accelerate
Beam currents are low (measured in milliamps)
But Power Density is High: f = Heat Transfer factor
Two Types: Vacuum & Non-Vacuum
Vacuum welding gives high penetration and weld quality
Almost all metals including refractory & dissimilar metals
can be welded
Narrow HAZ

Disads: Generates x-rays, tight fit up requirement, costly

Laser Beam Welding (LBW)
Fusion welding process in which coalescence is
achieved by energy of a highly concentrated,
coherent light beam focused on joint
Laser = "light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation"
LBW normally performed with shielding gases
to prevent oxidation
Filler metal not usually added
High power density in small area, so LBW
often used for small parts

Comparison: LBW vs. EBW
No vacuum chamber required for LBW
No xrays emitted in LBW
Laser beams can be focused and directed by
optical lenses and mirrors
LBW not capable of the deep welds and high
depthtowidth ratios of EBW
Maximum LBW depth = ~ 19 mm (3/4 in),
whereas EBW depths = 50 mm (2 in)

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
1. Forge Welding
Components to be joined are heated to hot
working temperatures and then forged
together by hammer or other means.
It is oldest welding method, loosing use in

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
2. Cold Welding
Surfaces are coalesced by applying high
pressure b/w 02 clean surfaces at room temp
At least one of the welded metals must be
very ductile
Soft metals such as Al, Cu can be readily
The applied compressive forces reduce
thickness by 50% due to plastic deformation
Heavy presses are used for large parts

Making of electrical connections
Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
3. Roll Welding
Coalescence b/w the sheets is obtained by
applying pressure b/w the 02 sheets using
It can be done with/without application of heat

Cladding SS onto carbon steels to prevent

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
4. Diffusion Welding
Coalescence b/w the parts is obtained by
diffusion of atoms
Diffusion is achieved by heating (0.5Tm) and
application of pressure with minimal plastic
deformation of faying edges.
- Sufficient time (could be 1hr) is given for
diffusion under pressure and Temp
- In aerospace/ nuclear industry for High strength
& refractory metals.
- Dissimilar metals: a filler layer of a different
metal is sandwiched b/w 02 different base metals
to promote diffusion
Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
5. Explosive Welding
Necessary heat and pressure is provided by
explosion of a detonated explosive
No filler is used
Progressive welding at 8500m/sec
Metallurgical bonding takes place, as thin layer of
metal at the interface of faying surfaces
undergoes melting
- For cladding sheets

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
6. Friction Welding

Rotation stopped
when temp
reaches hot
working range

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
6. Friction Welding
Coalescence is achieved by friction heating
combined with pressure
Friction is induced by mechanical rubbing b/w the
02 surfaces
Then the parts are driven towards each other with
sufficient force to form a metallurgical bond
No shielding gas required

- Welding of shafts & tubular parts in Automobile,
Aircraft, and Petroleum industry

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
7. Ultrasonic Welding
Two parts are held together under modest
clamping force
Oscillatory shear stresses of Ultrasonic
Frequencies are applied to the interface to cause
Little plastic deformation but no melting
Fig. Ultrasonic welding:
Metallurgical bonding occurs b/w parts
a General set-up for a
Welding time less than 1 sec lap joint
b. Close up of weld area
Frequency: 15-75KHz

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
7. Ultrasonic Welding
Oscillatory motion is transmitted to upper work
part by means of Sono-trode, which is coupled to
an ultrasonic transducer. This device converts
electric power into high frequency vibratory

Solid State Welding: Solid Sate
7. Ultrasonic Welding
-Lap joints of soft metals as Al, Cu
-Welding hard metals can cause wear of sonotrode
-Small thickness less than 3mm
-Small work parts
-Wire termination, Wire joining in
electrical/electronic industry: This eliminates the
need for soldering
-Assembling of Al sheet panels
-Welding of tubes to sheets in solar panels

Weld Quality

Concerned with obtaining an

acceptable weld joint that is strong
and free of defects, and the
methods of inspecting and testing
the joint to assure its quality
Residual stresses and distortion
Welding defects
Inspection and testing methods

Residual Stresses and Distortion
Rapid heating and cooling in localized regions
during FW result in thermal expansion and
contraction that cause residual stresses
These stresses, in turn, cause distortion and
Situation in welding is complicated because:
Heating is very localized
Melting of base metals in these regions is
Location of heating and melting is in motion (at
least in AW)

Residual Stresses and Distortion
-Due to heating and
melting, metal in joint
expands and
compresses the metal
elements in adjacent
-On cooling, shrinkage
of metal in joint
occurs, as a result
width of specimen
-This expansion and
contraction causes
tensile stresses on
weld bead and
compressive stresses
in the adjacent zones
(see stress pattern
along width section)
81 length, stresses
Techniques to Reduce Distortion
Welding Fixtures can be used to physically restrain
movement of parts during welding
Heat Sinks can be used to rapidly remove heat from
sections of welded parts
Tack Welding at multiple points along the joint can create a
rigid structure prior to continuous seam welding
Welding Conditions (speed, amount of filler, current) can
be selected to reduce warping
Preheating of sheets can reduce warp-age by reducing
temperature differential along the width and length
Stress Relief heat treatment can be performed on the
welded assembly, either in furnace or other methods
Proper Joint Design can reduce the distortion

Welding Defects
Solid inclusions
Imperfect shape or unacceptable contour
Incomplete fusion

Welding Cracks
Fracturetype interruptions either in weld or in
base metal adjacent to weld
Serious defect because it is a discontinuity in
the metal that significantly reduces strength
Caused by embrittlement or low ductility of
weld and/or base metal combined with high
restraint during contraction

Welding Cracks

Various forms of welding cracks.

Two cavity types, similar to defects found in
1. Porosity - small voids in weld metal formed by
gases entrapped during solidification
Caused by inclusion of atmospheric gases,
sulfur in weld metal, or surface contaminants
2. Shrinkage voids - cavities formed by shrinkage
during solidification

Solid Inclusions
Solid inclusions - nonmetallic material
entrapped in weld metal
Most common form is slag inclusions
generated during AW processes that use flux
Instead of floating to top of weld pool, globules
of slag become encased during solidification
Metallic oxides that form during welding of
certain metals such as aluminum, which
normally has a surface coating of Al2O3

Incomplete Fusion
Also known as lack of fusion, it is simply a
weld bead in which fusion has not occurred
throughout entire cross section of joint

Lack of penetration
means that fusion has
not penetrated deeply
enough into the root of
joint Several forms of incomplete fusion.
Imperfect Weld Shape

Same joint but with several weld defects: (b) undercut, in which a
portion of the base metal part is melted away; (c) underfill, a
depression in the weld below the level of the adjacent base metal
surface; and (d) overlap, in which the weld metal spills beyond
the joint onto the surface of the base part but no fusion occurs.

Miscellaneous Defects

Arc Strikes: The welder accidently strikes the electrode on

the base metal
Excessive Spatter: Spatter in molten form strikes against
base metal and cause a dip into metal

Weld Inspection
Visual Inspection: Inspect with naked eye
Non-Destructive Tests:
- Dye Penetrant Test
- X-Ray Test: Photographic films
- Ultrasonic Test: The sound waves face problem in transmission
into metal at defect point
- Magnetic Particle Test: Magnet field is established in the
part, magnetic particles (say Fe filing) are sprinkled over the part
surface. The defect breaks magnetic field and particles align
themselves at the defective point indicating the location of defect.
Destructive Tests:
- Bend Test
- Tensile Test
- Metallurgical Test

Weld Positions for Groove Weld

Capacity of a metal or combination of metals to
be welded into a suitably designed structure,
and for the resulting weld joint(s) to possess
the required metallurgical properties to
perform satisfactorily in intended service
Good weldability characterized by:
Ease with which welding process is
Absence of weld defects
Acceptable strength, ductility, and toughness in
welded joint

Weldability Factors Welding Process
Some metals or metal combinations can be
readily welded by one process but are difficult
to weld by others
Example: stainless steel readily welded by most
Arc Welding and Resistance Welding processes,
but difficult to weld by Oxy Fuel Welding

Weldability Factors Base Metal
Some metals melt too easily; e.g.,
Metals with high thermal conductivity
transfer heat away from weld, which
causes problems; e.g., copper
High thermal expansion and contraction
in metal causes distortion problems
Dissimilar metals pose problems in
welding when their physical and/or
mechanical properties are substantially

Other Factors Affecting Weldability
Filler metal
Must be compatible with base metal(s)
In general, elements mixed in liquid
state that form a solid solution upon
solidification will not cause a problem
Surface conditions
Moisture can result in porosity in fusion
Oxides and other films on metal
surfaces can prevent adequate contact
and fusion

Overview of Brazing and Soldering

Both use filler metals to permanently

join metal parts, but there is no melting
of base metals
When to use brazing or soldering
instead of fusion welding:
Metals have poor weldability
Dissimilar metals are to be joined
Intense heat of welding may damage
components being joined
Geometry of joint not suitable for welding
High strength is not required

Joining process in which a filler metal is melted
and distributed by capillary action between
faying surfaces of metal parts being joined
No melting of base metals occurs
Only the filler melts
Filler metal Tm greater than 450C (840F) but
less than Tm of base metal(s) to be joined

Brazing - Advantages
Any metals can be joined, including dissimilar
Can be performed quickly and consistently,
permitting high production rates
Multiple joints can be brazed simultaneously
Less heat and power required than Fusion
Problems with HAZ in base metal are reduced
Joint areas that are inaccessible by many
welding processes can be brazed; capillary
action draws molten filler metal into joint
Brazing- Disadvantages
Joint strength is generally less than that of
Although joint strength is more than filler
metal strength, but less than that of base
High service temp may weaken a brazed joint
Color of filler metal will be different from color
of base of metal: an aesthetic disadvantage

Brazed Joints
Butt & Lap joints are generally used in Brazing. But
conventional Butt joint being low in faying surface
area have low weld strength. Therefore, modified
forms of these 02 basic joints is used to increase
faying area.
Increasing faying area results in material waste,
but improved joint strength

Brazed Joints
Lap joints are widely used in Brazing, as these
provide large joint area/interface.
Brazed lap joint has advantage over weld lap joint:
the filler metal is bonded to the base part
throughout the entire interface.
Clearance between the two parts is important

Brazed Joints- Clearance at the interface
- Too narrow clearance will not allow the filler liquid
to penetrate into the interface
- Too large clearance will lead lack of capillary action,
thus leaving unbounded patches at the contacting
- The bonding surfaces must

be free of oxides, dirt.

- Surface cleaning can be

done by mechanical or
chemical means

Desirable Brazing Metal Characteristics
Melting temperature of filler metal is
compatible with base metal
Low surface tension in liquid phase for good
High fluidity for penetration into interface
Capable of being brazed into a joint of
adequate strength for application
Avoid chemical and physical interactions with
base metal (e.g., galvanic reaction)

Brazing Metals & Fluxes

-Common fluxes used: borax, borates, fluorides

and chlorides
-Fluxes protect the joint from oxidation

Applying Filler Metal

Several techniques for applying filler metal in brazing: (a)

torch and filler rod. Sequence: (1) before, and (2) after.

Applying Filler Metal

Several techniques for applying filler metal in brazing: (b)

ring of filler metal at entrance of gap. Sequence: (1)
before, and (2) after.
Brazing Methods
Torch Brazing: used torch for melting filler
Furnace Brazing: Base metal with filler is put
in furnace
Induction Brazing: Uses induction heating
from high frequency current for melting filler
Resistance Brazing: Used heat by resisting
current flow
Infrared Brazing: Infrared lamp is used as a
source of heating filler
Braze Welding: Used to fill big grooves but the
base metal does not melt
Braze weld

Joining process in which a filler metal with
Tm less than or equal to 450C (840F) is
melted and distributed by capillary action
between faying surfaces of metal parts
being joined
No melting of base metals, but filler
metal wets and combines with base
metal to form metallurgical bond
Soldering similar to brazing, and many of
the same heating methods are used
Filler metal called solder
Most closely associated with electrical
and electronics assembly (wire soldering)

Soldering Advantages /
Lower energy than brazing or fusion welding
Variety of heating methods available
Good electrical and thermal conductivity in
Easy repair and rework

Low joint strength unless reinforced by
mechanically means
Possible weakening or melting of joint in
elevated temperature service
Joint Design in Soldering
- Since soldering provide low joint strength, it is
used mostly for electronics applications.
However, for mechanical assemblies, joint
needs to be strengthened through mechanical
interlocking , more than brazing, before

Joint Design in Soldering

Usually alloys of tin (Sn) and lead (Pb).
Both metals have low Tm
Lead is poisonous and its percentage
is minimized in most solders
Tin is chemically active at soldering
temperatures and promotes wetting
action for successful joining
In soldering copper, copper and tin
form intermetallic compounds that
strengthen bond
Silver and antimony also used as filler
in soldering alloys

Soldering Methods
All methods used in Brazing are also applicable to
1. Hand Soldering: An electric iron is used for
soldering. A bit made of Cu is the working end of
soldering Iron.
2. Wave Soldering: It is a mechanized method.
The PCB with parts positioned and board
supported on a conveyor are passed through a
wave of Soldering:
3.Reflow molten soldering
A material. The exposed
end of electronic
paste of soldering components at the underside of
board are
filler is soldered.
applied on the
joint and then PCB is
placed in a heating
environment leading to
melting of filler and thus
Adhesive Bonding
It is a joining process in which a filler
material is used to hold 02 closely spaced
parts together by surface attachment.
- The filler material is called Adhesive
- The parts being joined are Adherends
- After application on the surfaces, the filler is
cured. Curing refers to process by which physical
properties of adhesive are changed from liquid to
solid, usually by chemical reaction, to accomplish
surface attachment of parts.
- The chemical reaction may involve
Polymerization, Condensation or Vulcanization

Joint Design in Adhesive Bonding
Adhesive joints are generally weaker than
welded/brazed/soldered joints.
Following considerations must be taken into
1.Joint contact area must be large
2.Adhesive joints are strongest in shear & tension
AND weakest in cleavage & peeling
3.Adhesive joints should be designed to avoid such

Joint Design in Adhesive Bonding

Adhesive Types
1. Natural Adhesives: Derived from natural
sources (plants & animals). Gum, Starch, Soy
flour. Used for low stress applications
2. Inorganic Adhesives: Based on sodium silicate
and magnesium oxy-chloride. Low strength
3. Synthetic Adhesives: Based on thermoplastic
or thermoset polymers.
- Bond Strength is further improved through
chemical reaction, called polymerization
Examples: Epoxy, Urethane , Cynoacrylate

Mechanical Assembly Defined
Use of various fastening methods to
mechanically attach two or more parts
In most cases, discrete hardware components,
called fasteners, are added to the parts during
In other cases, fastening involves shaping or
reshaping of a component, and no separate
fasteners are required

1. Threaded Fasteners
2. Rivets
3. Assembly Methods Based on Interference Fits

Two Major Types of Mechanical
1. Methods that allow for disassembly
Example: threaded fasteners
2. Methods that create a permanent joint
Example: rivets

Threaded Fasteners
Discrete hardware components that have
external or internal threads for assembly of
Most important category of mechanical
In nearly all cases, threaded fasteners permit
Common threaded fastener types are screws,
bolts, and nuts

Screws, Bolts, and Nuts
Screw - externally threaded fastener generally
assembled into a blind threaded hole
Bolt - externally threaded fastener inserted into
through holes and "screwed" into a nut on the
opposite side
Nut - internally threaded fastener having
standard threads that match those on bolts of
the same diameter, pitch, and thread form


Unthreaded, headed pin used to join

two or more parts by passing pin
through holes in parts and forming a
second head in the pin on the
opposite side
Widely used fasteners for achieving a
permanent mechanically fastened
Clearance hole into which rivet is
inserted must be close to the
diameter of the rivet
What is a Rivet?
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. A rivet
is a short cylindrical bar with a head integral to it

The cylindrical portion of the rivet is called shank or

body and lower portion of shank is known as tail
Applications and Advantages of
Used primarily for lap joints
A primary fastening method in aircraft and
aerospace industries
High production rates
Low cost

The degree of tightness or looseness
between the two mating parts is known
as a fit of the parts
The clearance is the amount by which
the actual size of the shaft is less than
the actual size of the mating hole in an
The clearance is the difference between
the sizes of the hole and the shaft before
assembly. The difference must be
The interference is the amount by which the
actual size of a shaft is larger than the actual
finished size of the mating hole in an assembly
The interference is the arithmetical difference
between the sizes of the hole and the shaft, before
assembly. The difference must be negative.
Types of
1.Clearance fit. In this type
of fit, the size limits for
mating parts are so selected
that clearance between
them always occur
The tolerance zone of the hole
is entirely above the
tolerance zone of the shaft
The clearance fits may be
close slide fit, easy sliding
fit, precise running fit, slack
running fit and loose
running fit
Types of Fits
2. Interference fit. In this type
of fit, the size limits for the
mating parts are so selected
that interference between
them always occur
The tolerance zone of the hole is
entirely below the tolerance zone
of the shaft
The difference between the
maximum size of the hole and
the minimum size of the shaft is
known as minimum The interference fits
interference, whereas the may be shrink fit,
difference between the minimum heavy drive fit and
size of the hole and the light drive fit
maximum size of the shaft is
Types of Fits

3. Transition fit. In this type of fit,

the size limits for the mating parts
are so selected that either a
clearance or interference may
occur depending upon the actual
size of the mating parts
The tolerance zones of hole and
shaft overlap
The transition fits may be force fit,
tight fit and push fit
Assembly Based on Interference Fits
Assembly methods based on mechanical
interference between two mating parts being
The interference, either during assembly or
after joining, holds the parts together
Interference fit methods include:
Press fitting
Shrink and expansion fits
Snap fits

1. Press Fitting
Typical case is where a pin (e.g., a straight
cylindrical pin) of a certain diameter is
pressed into a hole of a slightly smaller

2. Shrink and Expansion Fits
Assembly of two parts (e.g., shaft in collar)
that have an interference fit at room
Shrink fitting - external part is enlarged by
heating, and internal part either stays at room
temperature or is contracted by cooling
Expansion fitting - internal part is contracted
by cooling and inserted into mating
component - when at room temperature,
expansion creates interference
Used to fit gears, pulleys, sleeves, and other
components onto solid and hollow shafts

3. Snap Fits
Joining of two parts in which mating
elements possess a temporary
interference during assembly, but
once assembled they interlock
During assembly, one or both parts
elastically deform to accommodate
temporary interference
Usually designed for slight interference
after assembly

Snap Fit Assembly

Snap fit assembly, showing crosssections of two mating parts: (1)

before assembly, and (2) parts snapped together.

Snap Fit Assembly

- Retaining
rings are
available for
internal as well
as external
- A special kind
of plier is used
to elastically
deform the ring

External snap/retaining