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ABSORPTION

mass transfer process


separating a solute (A) or several solutes from a
gas phase by contacting the gas with a liquid
phase
eg. absorbing NH3 from air using liquid water,
Acetone from air using liquid water
liquid phase is immiscible in the gas phase

STRIPPING/DESORPTION
solute is removed from a liquid by contacting it
with a gas
GAS-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM
Henrys laws:
pA = HxA or yA = HxA

where
pA = partial pressure of component A (atm)
H= Henrys law constant (atm/mol fraction) in Appendix A.3-18
H = Henrys law constant (mol fraction gas/mol fraction liquid) = H/P
xA = mole fraction of component A in liquid
yA = mole fraction of component A in gas = pA/P
P= total pressure (atm)
SINGLE-STAGE EQUILIBRIUM CONTACT
yA1 yA2

xA0 xA1
Liquid & gas phases are brought into contact and separated
Long enough for equilibrium
Gas phase solute A & inert gas B
Liquid phase solute A & inert liquid/solvent C
Total material balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1
Balance on A: L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1
Balance on A can also be written as
x y x y
A0 A2 A1 A1
L 1- x + V 1- y = L 1- x + V 1- y
A0 A2 A1 A1
where L = moles inert C
V = moles inert B
Example 10.3-1
V1 V2 = 100 kmol/h
1 atm
yA1 yA2=0.2
L0 = 300 kmol/h 293K L1

xA0 = 0 xA1
Gas phase= CO2 + air
Inert C = pure water
Balance on A: L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1
Balance on A can also be written as
x y x y
A0 A2 A1 A1
L 1- x + V 1- y = L 1- x + V 1- y
A0 A2 A1 A1
where
L = moles water =L0 (1-xA0) = 300 (1-0) = 300 kmol/h
V = moles air = V2 (1-yA2) = 100 (1-0.2) = 80 kmol/h
0 0.2 x y
A1 A1
300 1- 0 + 80 1- 0.2 = 300 1- x + 80 1- y
A1 A1
Example 10.3-1
x y

0 0.2
A1 A1
300 1- 0 + 80 1- 0.2 = 300 1- x + 80 1- y (1)
A1 A1

At 293K, Henrys law constant from App. A.3-18 = 0.142 x 10 4 atm/mol frac.
yA1 = HxA1 = (H/P)xA1 = 0.142 x 104xA1 (2)
Substitue yA1 = 0.142 x 104xA1 into eq. (1):
0 0.2 x 0.142 x 104 x
A1 A1
300 1- 0 + 80 1- 0.2 = 300 1- x + 80 1- 0.142 x 104 x
A1 A1

Solving for xA1: xA1 = 1.41 x 10-4


Substituting xA1 = 1.41 x 10-4 into eq. (2):
yA1 = 0.142 x 104 (1.41 x 10-4) = 0.2
Outlet flow rates: L =L1 (1-xA1) = L1 (1-1.41 x 10-4) = 300 kmol/h
V = V1 (1-yA1) = V1 (1-0.2) = 80 kmol/h
L1= 300 kmol/h
V1= 100 kmol/h
COUNTERCURRENT MULTIPLE-CONTACT STAGES

Total number of ideal stages = N


Total material balance:

L0 + VN+1 = LN + V1

Balance on A:

L0xA0 + VN+1yAN+1 = LNxAN + V1yA1

Balance on A can also be written as


x y x y
A0 AN 1 AN A1
L 1- x + V 1- y = L
1- x
+ V
1- y


A0 AN 1 AN A1

operating line
COUNTERCURRENT MULTIPLE-CONTACT STAGES

Graphical determination of N:

Dilute Concentrated
Example 10.3-2
VN+1 = 30 kmol/h
yAN+1 = 0.01
L0 = 90 kmol/h
xA0 =0
300K, 101.3 kPa A = acetone, B = air, C = water 90% acetone absorb
Acetone in VN+1 = 0.01(30) = 0.3 kmol/h
Acetone in LN = 0.9(0.3) = 0.27 kmol/h
Balance of Acetone in V1 = 0.03 kmol/h
Entering air = 30 0.3 = 29.7 kmol/h
Entering water= 90 kmol/h
V1 = 29.7 + 0.03 = 29.73 kmol/h
yA1 = 0.03/29.73 = 0.00101
LN = 90 + 0.27 = 90.27 kmol/h
xAN = 0.27/90.27 = 0.003
Example 10.3-2
V1 = 29.73 kmol/h VN+1 = 30 kmol/h
yA1 = 0.00101 yAN+1 = 0.01
L0 = 90 kmol/h LN = 90.27 kmol/h
xA0 =0 xAN = 0.003

Given: equlibrium relation for acetone-water : y A = 2.53 xA

N theoretical stages = 5.2


ANALYTICAL/ KREMSER EQUATION
V1 VN+1
yA1 yAN+1
L0 LN
xA0 xAN

Kremser equations valid only when operating & equilibrium lines are straight

Absorption: y - mx 0 1 1 1

ln N 1
y - mx
A A

N 1 0

ln A
where
m = slope of equilibrium line
A = absorption factor = Aav. = (A1AN)
A1=L0/(mV1)
AN = LN/(mVN+1)
y -y
N N 1 1
When A = 1 y 1 - mx 0
ANALYTICAL/ KREMSER EQUATION
V1 VN+1
yA1 yAN+1
L0 LN
xA0 xAN
yN 1
Stripping: x0 -

ln m 1 A A
yN 1
xN -

N m
1
ln
where A
m = slope of equilibrium line
A = absorption factor = Aav. = (A1AN)
A1=L0/(mV1)
AN = LN/(mVN+1)
x0 - xN
N y
When A = 1 xN - N 1
m
Example 10.3-3
V1 = 29.73 kmol/h VN+1 = 30 kmol/h
yA1 = 0.00101 yAN+1 = 0.01
L0 = 90 kmol/h LN = 90.27 kmol/h
xA0 =0 xAN = 0.003
Given: equlibrium relation for acetone-water : y A = 2.53 xA

y N 1 - mx 0 1 1
ln 1


y 1 - mx 0 A A
N
ln A
A1=L0/(mV1) = 90/(2.53x29.73) = 1.2
AN = LN/(mVN+1) = 90.27/(2.53x30) = 1.19
A = (A1AN) = (1.2 x 1.19) = 1.95

0.01- 2.53 0 1 1
ln
1

0.00101 - 2.53 0 1.195
1.195

N
N = 5.04
ln 1.195

Example 10.6-3
V1 kmol/h VN+1 = 100 kmol/h
yA1 yAN+1 = 0.022
L0 kmol/h LN kmol/h
xA0 =0 xAN
A = ethyl alcohol , B = inert gas, C = pure water
yN+1A
T= 303K, P = 101.3 kPa, L = 1.5 Lmin
90% recovery of alcohol
Equilibrium line: y = 0.68x
No. of trays needed
= ? ) = 100 (1-0.022) = 97.8 kmol/h
V = VN+1 (1-y AN+1

Alcohol in VN+1 = 0.022(100) = 2.2 kmol/h


Alcohol in LN = 0.9(2.2) = 1.98 kmol/h y1A

Balance of alcohol in V1 = 0.22 kmol/h x0A


xNAmax
V1 = V + alcohol in V1 = 97.8 + 0.22 = 98.02 kmol/h
y1A = 0.22/98.02 = 0.002244 xNAmax = 0.03235
Example 10.6-3
V= 97.8 kmol/h Alcohol in LN = 0.9(2.2) = 1.98 kmol/h
xA0 = 0, yAN+1 = 0.022, yA1 = 0.002244, xNAmax = 0.03235
x y x y
A0 AN 1 AN A1
L 1- x + V 1- y = L
1- x
+ V
1- y


A0 AN 1 AN A1
x y x y
A0 AN 1 ANmax A1
Lmin 1- x + V 1- y = Lmin
1- x
+ V 1- y
A0 AN 1 ANmax A1

0 0.022

0.03235

0.002244

Lmin 1 - 0 + 97.8 1 - 0.022 = Lmin 1 - 0.03235 + 97.8 1 - 0.002244

Lmin = 59.24 kmol/h


L =1.5Lmin = 1.5(59.24) = 88.86 kmol/h = L0
LN = 88.86 +1.98 = 90.84 kmol/h
x

0 0.022
NA 0.002244
88.86 1 - 0 + 97.8 1 - 0.022 = 88.86 1 - x + 97.8 1 - 0.002244

NA

xNA = 0.0218
Example 10.6-3 Number of theoretical trays = 4
xNA = 0.0218
yN+1A y N 1 - mx 0 1 1
ln 1
y - mx
A A
N 1 0

ln A
A = absorption factor = Aav. = (A1AN)
A1=L0/(mV1) & AN = LN/(mVN+1)
V1 = 98.02 kmol/h, VN+1 = 100 kmol/h,
L0 = 88.86 kmol/h, LN = 90.84 kmol/h
y1A
A1=L0/(mV1) = 88.86/[(0.68)(98.02)] = 1.333
x0A
xNA = 0.0218 AN = LN/(mVN+1) = 90.84/[(0.68)(100)] = 1.336
Equilibrium line: y = 0.68x
A = (A1AN) = [(1.333)(1.336)] = 1.335
xA0 = 0, yAN+1 = 0.022, yA1 = 0.002244, xNA = 0.0218

0.022 - (0.68)0 1 1
1

ln
0.00244 - (0.68)0
1.335 1.335
N
4.04
ln 1.335
PACKED TOWER
PRESSURE DROP & FLOODING IN PACKED TOWERS

Loading point gas starts to hinder liquid downflow


- local accumulations of liquid start to appear in packing

Flooding point liquid no longer flow downward


- blown out with the gas

Actual operation gas velocity below flooding

Optimum economic gas velocity = half or more of the flooding velocity


PRESSURE DROP IN RANDOM PACKINGS
Prediction of pressure drop in random packings:

where:
G = superficial gas velocity (ft/s) = GG/ G
GL = liquid mass velocity (Ibm/s.ft2)
G = gas density (Ibm/ft )
3

GG = gas mass velocity (Ibm/s.ft2)


L = liquid density (Ibm/ft )3

Accuracy = 11%
Fp = packing factor (ft-1) in Table 10.6-1
v = kinematic viscosity (centstokes) = L/( L/62.4)
L= liquid viscosity (cp)
PRESSURE DROP IN STRUCTURED PACKING
FLOODING PRESSURE DROP IN PACKED & STRUCTURED
PACKINGS

Prediction of limiting pressure drop at flooding:

Pflood = 0.115FP0.7

where:
Pflood = pressure drop at flooding (in. H2O/ft height of packing)
Fp = packing factor (ft-1) in Table 10.6-1
Conversion: 1 in H2O/ft height packing= 83.33 mm H2O/m height of packing
FP from 9 - 60
Accuracy = 10-15 %
FP 60 or higher, Pflood = 2.0 in. H2O/ft (166.7 mm H2O/m)
PRESSURE DROP & TOWER DIAMETER IN PACKED &
STRUCTURED PACKINGS
Procedure:
1. From the type of packing used, get FP from Table 10.6-1
2. Determine Pflood from Pflood = 0.115FP0.7 or Pflood =2 in H2O/ft packing
height when FP 60
3. Calculate flow parameter using the gas and liquid flows in the bottom of
the tower. Using Fig. 10.6-5 or 10.6-6, read off the capacity parameter
4. Calculate G from the capacity parameter which is equal to GG/ G where
GG = maximum value of gas mass velocity at flooding
5. Using a given % of the floodingGG , obtain new GL and GG based on the
given liquid-to-gas ratio GL/GG
6. Calculate the cross-sectional area of the tower (D2/4) from the given gas
flow rate and hence, the diameter of the tower
7. Calculate the total flow rates of the outlet and inlet water assuming all the
solute is absorbed
PACKED TOWERS FOR ABSORPTION

Balance on A :

x 2 y
1
x
1
y
2

L 1 - x + V 1 - y = L 1 - x + V 1 - y
2 1 1 2
Operating line y x y
x 1 1
L 1 - x + V 1 - y = L 1 - x + V 1 - y
1 1

Absorption Stripping
LIMITING & OPTIMUM L/V RATIOS
Balance on A: x
2
y
1
x
1
y
2

L 1 - x + V 1 - y = L 1 - x + V 1 - y
2 1 1 2

Entering liquid flow L2 or L open to choice

Absorption Stripping
At point P, liquid flow L = Lmin & x1 = x1max
x y x y
2 1 1max 2
Lmin 1 - x + V 1 - y =Lmin 1 - x + V
1- y

2 1 1max 2

Equilibrium line curved concavely downward, operating line becomes


tangent to the equilibrium line
SIMPLIFIED DESIGN METHODS FOR ABSORPTION
OF DILUTE GAS MIXTURES IN PACKED TOWERS
Equilibrium & Operating lines = straight
Height of packed tower, z :

V y1 y 2 V y 1 y 2
z
z
k'y aS y y i



K' y aS y y *
M M


L x1 x 2

L x1 x 2
z z
k' aS x x K' aS x * x
x i
x
M
M

y1 y i1 y 2 y i2 y 1 y *1 y 2 y *2


y - y *
y - y i ln y 1 y *1 / y 2 y * 2

ln y 1 y i1 / y 2 y i2
M
M


xi1 x1 xi2 x2 x *1 x1 x *2 x 2

x - x

x * -x
ln x i1 x 1 / x i2 x 2

ln x *1 x 1 / x * 2 x 2
i M M

V = Vave = (V1+V2)/2 L =Lave = (L1+L2)/2


SIMPLIFIED DESIGN METHODS FOR ABSORPTION
OF DILUTE GAS MIXTURES IN PACKED TOWERS
Only Operating line = straight
Height of packed tower, z :

V 1 - y y1
dy V 1 - y *M y1
dy
z


k'y aS 1 - y
iM

av
y2
y yi z


K' y aS 1 - y



av
y2 y y *


L 1 - x x1
dx L 1 - x *M

x1


dx
z iM
x x z

k'x aS 1 - x x2 i
K' x aS 1 - x x2 x * x
av
av

1 y * 1 y

1 y 1 y
1 - y *M
ln 1 y * /1 y
1 - y i
iM
ln 1 y i /1 y
1 x 1 xi
1 x 1 x *

1- x 1 - x *M
iM ln 1 x /1 x i
ln 1 x /1 x *

Dilute : (1-y)iM, (1-x)iM, (1-y)*M & (1-x)*M 1


SIMPLIFIED DESIGN METHODS FOR ABSORPTION
OF DILUTE GAS MIXTURES IN PACKED TOWERS
Procedure:
1. Plot operating line & equilibrium line
2. By trial-and-error, determine y i, xi or y*, x*: 1st trial,
k'x a/ 1 - x
Slope = -
k'y a/ 1 - y

Using values of yi, xi or y*, x*, calculate new slope:


k'x a/ 1 - x
iM
Slope = -
k'y a/ 1 - y
iM

Compare latest values of yi, xi or y*, x* with former values


3. Plot y vs 1/(y-yi) or x vs 1/(xi-x)
4. Calculate area under plot (for equilibrium line = curve)
5. Calculate height of tower, z
Example 10.6-4 V2
L =45.36 kmol/h
y2A = 0.005
x2=0
A = Acetone T = 293K

B = air P = 101.3 kPa


S = 0.186m2
C = water

V = 13.65 kmol/h
y1A = 0.026 L1

kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.


kx a= 6.16 x 10-3 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
Calculate height of tower, z, using
a) kya
b) kxa
c) Kya
Example 10.6-4 V2
L =45.36 kmol/h
y2A = 0.005
x2=0
T = 293K
kya = 3.78 x 10 kmol A/s.m .mol frac.
-2 3
P = 101.3 kPa
kx a= 6.16 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac. S = 0.186m2

V = 13.65 kmol/h
y1A = 0.026 L1

Material balance on A:

x A2


y
A1
x
A1
y
A2

L 1 - x + V 1 - y = L 1 - x + V 1 - y
A2 A1 A1 A2

0.005 x 0.026
0 1
45.36 1 - 0 + 13.65 1 - 0.005 = 45.36 1 - x + 13.65 1 - 0.026

1

x1 = 0.00648
Example 10.6-4 V2
L =45.36 kmol/h
y2A = 0.005
x2=0
T = 293K
P = 101.3 kPa
kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
S = 0.186m2
kx a= 6.16 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
V = 13.65 kmol/h L1

y1A = 0.026 x1 = 0.00648


1. Plot operating line & equilibrium line
Example 10.6-4 kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
kx a= 6.16 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
V = 13.65 kmol/h, L = 45.36 kmol/h , S = 0.186 m 2
y1 = 0.026 , x1 = 0.00648, y2 = 0.005, x2 = 0
k'x a/ 1 - x
2. By trial-and-error, determine y i, xi or y*, x*: 1st trial, Slope = -
k'y a/ 1 - y
For point 1: (y1 = 0.026 , x1 = 0.00648) 6.16 x 10 - 3 / 1 - 0.00648
Slope = - -2
1.60
3.78 x 10 / 1 - 0.026
Example 10.6-4

For point 1:
From the plot, yi1 = 0.0154 , xi1 = 0.013, y*1 = 0.0077
k'x a/ 1 - x
iM
For 2st trial, Slope = -
k'y a/ 1 - y
iM
1 y 1 y 1 0.0154 1 0.026
1 - y i 0.979
iM
ln 1 y i /1 y ln 1 0.0154 /1 0.026

1 x 1 xi
1 0.00648 1 0.013
1 - x 0.993
iM
ln 1 x /1 x i ln 1 0.00648 /1 0.013
Example 10.6-4



1 - y 0.979

1 - x

0.993
iM
iM
k'x a/ 1 - x
iM
For 2st trial, Slope = -
k'y a/ 1 - y
iM
-3
6.16 x 10 /0.993
Slope = - -2
1.61
3.78 x 10 /0.979
Since the latest slope and the former slope is approximate close, the values
yi1 = 0.0154 , xi1 = 0.013, y*1 = 0.0077 are accurate enough.
Example 10.6-4

For the slope at point 2 (x2 = 0,y2 = 0.005), 1st trial:


k'x a/ 1 - x 2 6.16 x 10 - 3 /(1 - 0)
Slope - - -2
1.62
k'y a/ 1 - y 2 3.78 x 10 /(1 - 0.005)

Since the slope at point 2 and point 1 changes little in the tower, the value
of the slope -1.62 from the 1st trial is acceptable. Plotting the slope at point
2 gives yi2 = 0.002, xi2 = 0.0018 and y*2 = 0
Example 10.6-4 kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
kx a= 6.16 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
V = 13.65 kmol/h, L = 45.36 kmol/h , S = 0.186 m 2
y1 = 0.026 , x1 = 0.00648, y2 = 0.005, x2 = 0
yi1 = 0.0154 , xi1 = 0.013, y*1 = 0.0077
yi2 = 0.002, xi2 = 0.0018 and y*2 = 0

Since both the operating and equilibrium lines are straight,


the height of the tower is determined using

V y1 y 2 (V1 V2 ) y 1 y 2
z


k'y aS y y i k'y aS y y i


M M

where

y - y
y1 y i1 y 2 y i2 0.026

0.0154 0.005 0.002
0.00602
ln y 1 y i1 / y 2 y i2 ln 0.026 0.0154 / 0.005 0.002

i M
Example 10.6-4 kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
kx a= 6.16 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
V = 13.65 kmol/h, L = 45.36 kmol/h , S = 0.186 m 2
y1 = 0.026 , x1 = 0.00648, y2 = 0.005, x2 = 0
yi1 = 0.0154 , xi1 = 0.013, y*1 = 0.0077
yi2 = 0.002, xi2 = 0.0018 and y*2 = 0
y-y

i
0.00602
M

V y1 y 2 (V1 V2 ) y 1 y 2
z


k'y aS y y i k'y aS y y i


M M

V1 = V/(1-y1) and V2 = V/(1-y2)


V1 = 13.65/(1-0.026) = 14.014 kmol/h = 3.893 x 10 -3 kmol/s
V2 = 13.65/(1-0.005) = 13.719 kmol/h = 3.811 x 10-3 kmol/s
Example 10.6-4 kya = 3.78 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
kx a= 6.16 x 10-2 kmol A/s.m3.mol frac.
V = 13.65 kmol/h, L = 45.36 kmol/h , S = 0.186 m 2
y1 = 0.026 , x1 = 0.00648, y2 = 0.005, x2 = 0



y - y i

0.00602
M

V1 = 3.893 x 10-3 kmol/s V2 = 3.811 x 10-3 kmol/s


V y1 y 2 (V1 V2 ) y 1 y 2
z


k'y aS y y i k'y aS y y i


M M

(3.893x10- 3 3.811x10 3 ) 0.026 0.005

-2
3.78x10 (0.186) 0.00602

z 1.911 m
HEIGHT & NUMBER OF TRANSFER (HTU & NTU)
Equilibrium & Operating lines = straight

V y1 y 2 V y 1 y 2
z
[HG ]NG z
[HOG ]NOG
k'y aS y y i K' y aS y y *


M M


L x1 x 2

L x1 x 2
z [H L ]N L z [HOL ]NOL
k' aS x x K' aS x * x
x i
x
M
M

Operating lines = straight


V 1 - y y1
dy [H ]N V 1 - y *M y1
dy [H ]N
z


k'y aS 1 - y
iM

av
y2
y yi G G z


K' y aS 1 - y



av
y2 y y *
OG OG


L 1 - x x1 L 1 - x *M x1


dx [H ]N dx [H ]N


z iM z

k'x aS 1 - x x2
xi x L L
K' x aS 1 - x x2 x * x
OL OL
av
av
HEIGHT & NUMBER OF TRANSFER (HTU & NTU)
When major resistance to mass transfer is in gas phase, N OG
or NG should be used (absorption)
When major resistance to mass transfer is in liquid phase,
NOL or NL should be used (stripping)
1
1 y - mx 1
Operating line = straight NOG ln 1 y - mx
1 2
1
A 2 2 A

1

A
N ln A
Equilibrium & Operating lines = straight & not parallel NOG
1 - 1/A



y 1

x2 -

1
m

Operating line = straight NOL ln 1 A

y

A

1 A x - 1

1
m

A = absorption factor = Aav. = (A1A2)


Where A1=L1/(mV1) A2 = L2/(mV2)
HEIGHT & NUMBER OF TRANSFER (HTU & NTU)
HOG (HOL) is related to HG (HL) by
mV


HOG = HG + L HL

L
HOL = HL + mV HG
where

m = slope of equilibrium line

HOG = height of transfer unit based on overall gas phase

HOL = height of transfer unit based on overall liquid phase

L,V = molar flowrate of liquid & gas, respectively (kmol/s.m 2)


HEIGHT & NUMBER OF TRANSFER (HTU & NTU)

Height of a theoretical tray or stage, HETP (m) is related to H OG (m)


by
1
ln
A
HETP H OG
1 A /A

where A = absorption factor = Aav. = (A1A2)


Where A1=L1/(mV1) A2 = L2/(mV2)

Height of tower, z

z N HETP
ESTIMATION OF MASS-TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
FOR PACKED TOWERS (dilute mixtures)
0.5 0.5 0.35

0.226 N Sc


Gx
Gy

H G


f p 0.660

6.782

0.678

GX 0.3


0.5
0.357 N Sc
HL





f P 372 6.782

where

0.8937x10- 3

fP = relative mass transfer coefficient (Table 10.6-1)


Gx, Gy = liquid and gas mass flowrate per m2 tower cross-section (kg/s.m2)



V

HG = height of transfer unit based on gas film =
k'y aS

= viscosity of liquid (kg/m.s)

L
HL = height of transfer unit based on liquid film =


k'x aS
Example 10.8-1
Predict HG, HL and HOL for absorption of CO2 from air by
water in a dilute solution in a packed tower with 1-in metal
Pall rings at 303K and 101.32 kPa pressure. The flow rates
are Gx = 4.069 kg/s.m2 and Gy = 0.5424 kg/s.m2.
0.5 0.35
0.5 Gy

0.226 N Sc

Gx

H G


f p 0.660

6.782

0.678

fP = 1.34 fromTable 10.6-10



NSc = Schmidt number = D
AB

At 303K and 101.32kPa, from A.3-3, air= 1.666 kg/m3 and = 1.866 x 10-5 kg/m.s
From Table 6.2-1, for Air-CO2 system, at 276K DAB = 0.142 x 10-4 m2/s
1.75
T P

Correcting for 303K, DAB303K = DAB276K T P1
2

1 2
1.75
-4
303
101.32 0.167x10 4
DAB303K = 0.142 x 10
276 101.32

Example 10.8-1

Gx = 4.069 kg/s.m2 and Gy = 0.5424 kg/s.m2.


At 303K and 101.32kPa, from A.3-3, air= 1.666 kg/m3 and
air= 1.866 x 10-5 kg/m.s
DAB303K=0.167 x 10-4 m2/s
0.5 0.5 Gy 0.35

0.226 N Sc


Gx
HG



f p 0.660

6.782

0.678

fP = 1.34 fromTable 10.6-10

1.866x10 5
NSc = Schmidt number = D 0.958
4
AB 1.666 0.167x10



0.5 0.5 0.35
0.226 0.958 4.069 0.5424
HG




0.2426m

1.34 0.660 6.782
0.678
Example 10.8-1 Gx = 4.069 kg/s.m2 and Gy = 0.5424 kg/s.m2.
G 0.3
X
0.5
0.357 N

HL
Sc




f
372

6.782
P -3
0.8937x10

At 303K and 101.32kPa, from A.2-4, water= 0.8007 x 10-3 kg/m.s


water = 995.68 kg/m3
From Table 6.3-1, for water-CO2 system, at 298K DAB = 2.0 x 10-9 m2/s

T2 1
Correcting for 303K, DAB303K = DAB298K
T1 2

water at 298K from A.2-4 = 0.8937 x 10-3 kg/s.m


303
DAB303K 2.0x10 9
3

2.27x10 m /s
9 2

298 0.8007x10

0.8007x10 3
NSc = Schmidt number = D 354.3
9
AB 995.68 2.27x10



Example 10.8-1
Gx = 4.069 kg/s.m2 and Gy = 0.5424 kg/s.m2.
fP = 1.34 fromTable 10.6-10
At 303K and 101.32kPa, from A.2-4, water= 0.8007 x 10-3 kg/m.s
NSc =354.3
GX 0.3


0.5
0.357 N Sc

HL





f P 372 6.782



0.8937x10- 3

4.069 0.3

0.5
0.357 354.3

0.8007x10 -3
H L
0.2306 m

1.34 372

6.782




0.8937x10- 3

Example 10.8-1
Gx = 4.069 kg/s.m2 and Gy = 0.5424 kg/s.m2.
HG = 0.2426 m & HL = 0.2306 m

L
HOL = HL + mV HG
where
m = slope of equilibrium line
From A.3-18, for CO2 at 1 atm, pA = 0.186 x 104xA,
yA = (pA/P)xA = (0.186 x 104/1)xA
L,V = molar flowrate of liquid & gas, respectively (kmol/s.m 2)
L = Gx/Mwater = 4.069/18 = 0.2261 kmol/s.m2
V= Gy/Mair= 0.5424/29 = 0.01872 kmol/s.m2
L
0.2261
HOL = HL + mV HG 0.2306 0.186x104 (0.01872) 0.2426 0.2322 m