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Prolific Systems & Technologies

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WHAT ARE PUMPING SYSTEMS?

Transfer of
liquid from
source to
destination.
Circulate liquid
around a
system.
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WHAT ARE PUMPING SYSTEMS?
Pumping Systems Comprises of :
Pumps
Prime movers: Electric motors, diesel engines, air
system
Piping network to carry / Transport fluid
Valves to control flow in system
Other fittings (Pipe fittings eg. elbows, flanges,
couplings sockets etc., control, instrumentation like
gauges for, temperature measurement, etc.)
End-use equipment
Heat exchangers, tanks, hydraulic machines,
process equipments.
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MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF
PUMPING SYSTEM
Head

Resistance of the system

Two types: static and destination

Static
friction head

Static head

Difference in height source

between source and


destination tank.
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TYPES OF PUMPS
CLASSIFIED BY OPERATING PRINCIPLE

Pumps

Others (e.g. Positive


Dynamic Impulse, Buoyancy) Displacement

Centrifugal Special effect Rotary Reciprocating

Internal External Slide


Lobe
gear gear vane
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USAGE OF PUMPS

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Positive Displacement
family tree

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Basic difference between Centrifugal
and PD pumps
A centrifugal pump impeller moves a stream of liquid from
the pump suction to a discharge cone where velocity is
gradually decreased and converted to pressure energy.
Depending on the design of the particular pump, centrifugal
pumps are capable of either high or low discharge
pressures and high or low volume discharges.

A positive displacement pump, however, moves a set


volume of liquid. Pressure is obtained as liquid is forced
through the pump discharge into the system, thereby
converting energy to pressure.

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BASIC DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CENTRIFUGAL
AND PD PUMPS

One example of this principle is


demonstrated by reciprocating motion where
the movement of a piston forces liquid out of
a closed cylinder, which has (inlet) suction
and discharge valves to control flow.

This forms one of the major PD technologies,


reciprocating pumps. In portions of their
operating range, reciprocating pumps are
the single technology that can successfully
provide the necessary pumping solution.
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ROTARY PUMPS
Rotary pumps constitute the second major positive
displacement category in which a pumping
chamber and a pumping element are actuated by
the relative rotation of the drive shaft to the casing.

This family is distinguished by having no valves on


the inlet or discharge. This type of pumps are
available in a number of different pumping
principles, each with its own features and benefits
that provide specific pumping solutions.

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CONTROLLED VOLUME
METERING PUMP (CVMP)
These types of pumps are often known as
chemical injection feed pumps or doing pumps.
Essentially, these are reciprocating positive
displacement pumps configured to accurately
dispense a set volume of liquid in a specified time
period. They may include one of several types of
mechanisms for varying the effective
displacement.

These types of pumps are used in applications


requiring highly accurate, repeatable and
adjustable rates of flow
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MARKET APPLICATIONS AND SELECTION OF PUMPS

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APPLICATIONS OF PD PUMPS
PD pumps may be found almost anywhere, but a generally
accepted view is that 90+ percent go into applications
within these top six industrial market segments:
Oil and Gas
Water and Wastewater Treatment
Chemical
Food, Beverage and Pharmaceutical
Power
General Industrial (Marine/Medical/OEM)
Many of these industries represent multiple markets. Oil
and gas, for example, has distinctly different applications for
PD pumps across its segments: exploration, production,
pipeline, processing and distribution marketing.
The food and beverage market is another key positive
displacement market with multiple segments such as
beverage, bakery, confectionary, dairy and meat packaging.
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SELECTION BASIS GENERAL
GUIDELINES
Types of Pumps- Entrained Air
Centrifugal,
Reciprocating etc. Fluid working Temperature

Materials of Suspended solids / Clear


Construction- liquid
Temperatures and Sealing Requirements-
Concentrations of fluid Mechanical seals / Stuffing
box and gland type
Corrosion & Erosion
Maintenance Requirements
Sp.Gr. & PH of liquid
handled Coupling type - Prime
mover and pump
Minimum and Maximum
Hydraulic Conditions Base plate details

Suction Conditions

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APPLICATION HIGH VISCOSITY, LOW
AND VARIABLE VISCOSITY
High Viscosity

Selected rotary technologies and air operated piston


pumps easily handle highly viscous fluids.

Due to high friction losses in centrifugal pumps, their


flow rate and efficiency start to drop above 500 SSU
(Saybolt Universal Seconds).

Flow and efficiency in a rotary pump, however,


typically increase with viscosity.

PD pumps can handle fluids with viscosities of several


million SSU.
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SUS
SUS (SSU)

Saybolt Universal Seconds. A measure of


lubricating oil viscosity in the oil industry. The
measuring apparatus is filled with specific
quantity of oil or other Fluid and its flow time
through standardized orifice is measured in
Seconds. Fast flowing fluids (low viscosity)
will have low value; Slow flowing fluids (high
viscosity) will have high value.
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APPLICATION HIGH VISCOSITY, LOW
AND VARIABLE VISCOSITY
Low and Variable Viscosity

PD pumps, such as vane or Air Operated Double


Diaphragm (AODD), are often applied on very thin
fluids. Other liquids, such as oil, have viscosities
that vary with temperature.

With variable viscosity liquids, a moderately small


change in viscosity may have a large effect on
centrifugal efficiency but little effect on PD pump
efficiency.

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PROCESS CONDITION
HIGH PRESSURE

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ARCHIMEDES SCREW

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EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP (ROTARY
PUMP)

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GEAR PUMP

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INTERNAL GEAR PUMP

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INTERNAL GEAR PUMP

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LOBE PUMPS (ROTARY PUMP)

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LOBE PUMP

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SLIDING VANE PUMP

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APPLICATION MULTI-PHASE FLOW
Multi-Phase Flow

A constant source of liquid is a centrifugal pump


requirement, but unfortunately all processes do not
provide such constant sources

If there is insufficient liquid, a gas bubble forms in


the suction and causes loss of prime (the pump
stops pumping).

PD pumps, on the other hand, are capable of


handling a high percentage of air or gas entrainment.

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PROCESS CONDITION LOW FLOW,
EFFICIENCY
Low Flow

Flow below 100-gpm and above 200-psi provides


excellent application opportunities for PD pump
technology

Efficiency

For viscous fluids where both PD and centrifugal


pumps can operate, PD pumps can often be 10 to
40 points more efficient than centrifugal pumps

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PROCESS CONDITION-
COMBINATION OF HIGH
PRESSURE / LOW FLOW AND
EFFICIENCY
Any of the previous three characteristics
individually are a reason to use PD
pumps.

However, in applications where all of these


conditions occur simultaneously, a PD
pump solution is ideal.

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PROCESS CONDITION - FLOW
CONTROL
Constant Flow Against Variable System
Pressure
At a constant speed, PD pumps deliver
practically constant flow. Flow is constant
even if the system pressure varies, which is a
desirable condition in certain systems
Accurate Repeatable Measurement
Since a PD pump is a constant flow device,
certain designs that limit slip are ideal for
metering fluids in or out of systems. This
application, of course, requires accuracy and
repeatability. It also may need flow variation,
which is typically obtained mechanically or
electronically by speed (Pvt) Ltdvariation.
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ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM
REQUIREMENTS
Seal less Pumping (No Shaft Seal)
Magnetic drives and canned motor pumps are available in
Centrifugal pump designs and PD Pump
The requirement is also met by designs where the
pumping environment does not have a shaft penetration,
such as diaphragm pumps
Self-Priming and Inlet Conditions
The ability to self-prime is a useful feature for PD pumps
as it allows substantial flexibility in system layout and
eliminates the need for suction priming systems
PD pumps are self-priming, have excellent suction lift
capabilities (raising liquids on the suction side) and are
capable of drawing down to near vacuum

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SEAL LESS PUMPING

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AIR OPERATED DIAPHRAGM PUMP

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL PUMPING
SYSTEM

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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PUMP CONNECTIONS FRONT
VIEW

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VITAL BASICS ABOUT
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
The centrifugal pump always pumps the
difference between the suction and discharge
heads.
If the suction head increases, the pump head
will decrease to meet the system requirements.
If the suction head decreases the pump head
will increase to meet the system requirements.
A centrifugal pump always pumps a
combination of head and capacity. These two
numbers multiplied together must remain a
constant.
In other words, if the head increases the
capacity must decrease. Likewise if the head
decreases, the capacity must increase.
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VITAL BASICS ABOUT
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
The pump will pump where the pump curve
intersects the system curve.
If the pump is not meeting the system curve
requirements the problem could be in the pump,
the suction side including the piping and source
tank, or somewhere in the discharge system.
Most pumps are oversized because of safety
factors that were added at the time the pump
was selected. This means that throttling is a
normal condition in most plants, causing the
pump to run on the left hand side of its curve.

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VITAL BASICS ABOUT
CENTRIFUGAL
As the water gains speedPUMPS
(kinetic energy), it pushes outward
against the walls of the pump casing. This is due to centrifugal
force - the same force that causes a stone on the end of a string
to pull outward on its string when swung in a fast, circular
orbit. As the water moves outward, it makes room for more
water and at the same time creates a suction, which draws
more water in at the suction eye of the impeller. When the water
is discharged at the tip of the impeller into the volute, it is
moving very fast, that is, it contains a large amount of kinetic
energy.
In the volute, which widens at the discharge end, the water
must spread out to fill the chamber. In the course of spreading
out, the water slows down. When the water is forced to slow
down, the kinetic energy (speed or motion) does not just
disappear; it is transformed into pressure. This pressure carries
the water out of the pump through the discharge piping.

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VITAL BASICS ABOUT
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Horizontal pumps have their motors beside
them on the same horizontal level and their
shafts run parallel to the ground.

Horizontal centrifugal pumps are further


classified as 1) end suction, 2) side suction, 3)
bottom suction, and 4) top suction.

Vertically mounted centrifugal pumps are


almost always bottom suction pumps.

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CONSTRUCTION
Mechanical Construction

Between Bearing
Impeller/s supported between two sets
of bearings

Overhung Impeller
Impeller overhangs a bearing support
bracket

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TYPICAL HORIZONTAL
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CROSS
SECTION

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OVERHUNG IMPELLER

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HYDRAULIC TYPES SPECIFIC
SPEED

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TYPICAL IN-LINE VERTICAL
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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SIDE SUCTION CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

When the suction


nozzle is placed on
the side of the
pump with its
centerline
horizontal, the
pump is called a
side suction pump

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BOTTOM SUCTION CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP

When the suction


points vertically
downward, the
pump is
classified a
bottom suction
pump

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END SUCTION CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

The most
common type of
pump, with its
suction
horizontal and its
centerline
coincidental with
the shaft is an
end suction
pump
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CONSTRUCTION OF AN IMPELLER

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CONSTRUCTION OF AN IMPELLER

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IMPELLER TYPES

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SEAL CHAMBER AND STUFFING
BOX

Seal Chamber Assembly


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STUFFING BOX ASSEMBLY

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PUMP SEAL WITH STUFFING BOX AND
GLAND ASSY.

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SEALING THE LIQUID (STUFFING
BOX)

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SEAL CHAMBER AND STUFFING
BOX
Seal chamber and Stuffing box both refer to a chamber, either
integral with or separate from the pump case housing that forms
the region between the shaft and casing where sealing media are
installed.
When the sealing is achieved by means of a mechanical seal the
chamber is commonly referred to as a Seal Chamber. When the
sealing is achieved by means of packing, the chamber is referred to
as a Stuffing Box.
Both the seal chamber and the stuffing box have the primary
function of protecting the pump against leakage at the point where
the shaft passes out through the pump pressure casing.
When the pressure at the bottom of the chamber is below
atmospheric, it prevents air leakage into the pump. When the
pressure is above atmospheric, the chambers prevent liquid
leakage out of the pump. The seal chambers and stuffing boxes are
also provided with cooling or heating arrangement for proper
temperature control.
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SEAL CHAMBER AND STUFFING
BOX
Packed pumps require a certain amount of leak off to
ensure the packing is lubricated and does NOT burn
up. Some, but not all packed pumps, are equipped
with lantern rings as illustrated in the previous figure as
well as junk rings. Lantern rings are spaced between
packing rings so that they line up with a water supply
or leak off point in the stuffing box as indicated in the
previous figure

Junk rings are in place to prevent the packing from


being extruded (pushed) into the pump case interior.

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STUFFING BOX ASSEMBLY

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SEAL CHAMBER AND STUFFING
BOX
All packed pumps will have a packing gland or
gland follower and the yellow rings of packing as in
previous figure. Figure indicates where most of the
packing compression/sealing is taking place.

It is important to count the number of packing rings


before and after the lantern ring when repacking a
pump so as to get the lantern ring back where it
belongs in relation to the feed hole.

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SEALING THE LIQUID WITH
MECHANICAL SEAL

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SEALING THE LIQUID

You have probably taken notice


of the illustration showing minor
leakage to atmosphere. It is
appropriate to point out at this
time

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The seal gland to the
stuffing box

O.D. of the stationary


Sealing on the shaft

And finally, the seal faces


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LESSON NUMBER ONE

ALL
MECHANICAL SEALS
LEAK

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INSTALLATION OF CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP
The pump should be located as near the liquid source
as possible.
A Concrete foundation on the solid base is advisable.
Re-alignment of pump is necessary
A check valve and a gate valve should be installed in
the discharge line
Install foot valve to facilitate priming
Correct maintenance of ball bearing & following re-
lubrication as recommended by the manufacturer.
Ensure that the direction of rotation of motor
corresponds to the direction of rotation of the pump

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Fig.
1
Motor HP- 2,rpm 1440,
Pump Capacity: 8
M3/hr. (Total Vel.head 2"NB
32m

+frictional head hfd) = 30m

1M losses due to Vapor


Pressure of water at
40o C= 0.5 M
3"NB

3mtrs

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Exercise
In the fig. 1
Calculate the NPSH (A) if V.P loss of water at 40 oC (hvp)
is 0.5 M and
frictional losses in the suction pipe is 0.5 M(hfs).
NPSH (A) = ha - hss - hvp hfs.
Where, ha is the atmospheric pressure
hss is the suction static head
hvp is the head loss due to Vapor pressure
hfs is the frictional losses in suction pipe.
hence NPSH (A) = 10 - 3 0.5 0.5 = 6M

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Exercise 2

In Fig 1
Calculate the total head on the pump.
Calculate the water Hydraulic power of the
pump.
Calculate the shaft power of the pump.
If
Pump %= 60%
Motor %= 80%

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Total Head

Refer Fig. 1
Total head on the pump
= Static discharge head + Static
suction head+
Frictional head + Velocity head

= 32 M + 3 M + 1 M = 35 M

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Hydraulic Power Calculation

Refer fig. 1
P= Hydraulic power = (QX H X X g)/1000
KW
Where Q=Discharge in M3/sec.
H= Total head in M.
= Density of water in Kg/M3.
g = gravitational constant in M/sec2
Hyd. Power= (8/3600 X 35 X 1000 X 9.81)/
1000
=0.762 KW = 1.033 HP
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Calculation of Power

Shaft HP Of the pump


= Hyd. Power(P)/
Pump()=0.993/ 0.6
= 1.655 HP (1.235 KW)
Motor HP =1.635/ Motor ()
= 1.635/0.8 = 2.04 HP
(1.543 KW)
Hence 2.5 or 3 HP motor is recommended

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Exercise

2. in fig. 1
What is the static discharge head.
the static discharge head= 30M.
Total Static head = Static
discharge head + static suction head

= 30M + 3 M = 33 M

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
SUCTION HEAD

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS - CAPACITY

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS- CAPACITY
Capacity is generally expressed in M3/sec.
since liquid is incompressible, there is direct
relationship between the area of the pipe
and the velocity of the flow : i.e. Q= A x V

where Q is the discharge in cubic


meter per sec.
A is the area of the pipe in
square meter and
V is the velocity of the liquid in
the pipe in meters per sec.

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS- POWER
AND EFFICIENCY
Pump output (hydraulic power) P (h)
= Q(M3/sec) x Htotal head(M) x p(Kg/M 3) x
g(M/sec2)/1000.

Shaft power P(s)= QxHxpxg


1000 x pump efficiency

Motor Power P(m) = P(s) / Motor efficiency

Pump efficiency = P(h) / P(s)


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HOW TO START A
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED
BEFORE STARTING THE
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
The discharge valve should be closed when a
centrifugal pump is started, to prevent excessive
starting torque and load on the motor.
During pump start, observe pump motor current to
ensure it drops to the normal operating range after
the starting surge.

The discharge valve should not be closed for an


extended period unless minimum (re-circulating)
flow is verified adequate. Some re-circulating flow
is necessary to prevent overheating the pump.

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PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED
BEFORE STARTING THE
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Priming the pump and venting the casing during
system startup will prevent gas binding. Once the
pump is started, the occurrence of gas binding
would be indicated by low flow and low discharge
pressure readings.
Additionally, the motor would be drawing
minimum current.
The ball bearings should be supplied with the
proper grade of lubricant and oil lubricated
bearings should be filled to the overflow level.
Cooling water should be introduced carefully to
pump bearings and lubricating oil if system is
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PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED
BEFORE STARTING THE
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Use only sufficient water to keep the lubricant at a
safe working temperature.
Before starting the pump, bearing temperatures
should be near ambient temperature.
Prior to pump start, the main concern is that the
bearings are too cold, due to cooling water being
supplied with the pump off.
If bearing temperatures are low, cooling water should
be isolated until pump bearings are at normal
operating temperatures.

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PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED
BEFORE STARTING THE
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Final inspection of all parts should be made
carefully before starting the pump. It should be
possible to rotate the shaft by hand. This starts
the flow of oil to the bearing surfaces.
The pump is started with the discharge valve
closed, because the pump operates at only 35-
50 percent of full load when the discharge valve
is closed.
Pumps started with the discharge valve open
require more starting torque. But, if the liquid on
the upper side of the discharge check valve is
under sufficient Prolific
head, the pump can be started
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PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED
BEFORE STARTING THE CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP
Ensure the pump is filled and vented, to prevent gas binding and
cavitation due to air and gas in the pump casing.
Check that the pump rotates freely by hand.

Cooling water and lubricating systems should be verified operable


before starting the pump. This check should include checking
lubricating oil levels and flow, and cooling water temperatures to the
bearings if provided by the manufacturer.
Bearings should be near normal operating temperature when the
pump is started.
The suction valve of a centrifugal pump must be verified open prior to
pump start, to ensure an adequate flow path to the pump impeller.
The suction valve must remain open while the pump is running.

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PUMP FUNDAMENTALS

Pressure

Head

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

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PUMP FUNDAMENTALS

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PUMP FUNDAMENTALS
PRESSURE

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HEAD V/S PRESSURE

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EFFECT OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY
ON HEAD

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DESIGN OF VOLUTES AND FLOW
PATTERNS

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DESIGN OF VOLUTES AND FLOW
PATTERNS
( BEP - BEST EFFICIENCY POINT )

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DESIGN OF VOLUTES AND FLOW
PATTERNS

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DESIGN OF VOLUTES AND FLOW
PATTERNS

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SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND PUMP
PERFORMANCE

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EFFECT OF FLUID VELOCITY

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GAUGE HEIGHT CORRECTION

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WHAT IS TDH AND TH

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PUMP PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS

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HEAD-FLOW
CHARACTERISTICS

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POWER-FLOW
CHARACTERISTICS

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EFFICIENCY V/S FLOW

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NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

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NPSH AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS

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NPSHR (NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
REQUIRED)

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NPSH AND CAVITATION

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CAVITATION PROCESS

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CAVITATION DAMAGE

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CAVITATION DAMAGE

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PUMP CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

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PUMP CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

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SYSTEM CURVES

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SYSTEM HEAD

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STATIC HEAD

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DYNAMIC HEAD

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SOURCES OF FRICTION

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PARAMETERS INFLUENCING
FRICTIONAL LOSSES

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STANDARD PIPE HEAD LOSS
TABLES

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CALCULATING FRICTIONAL LOSSES

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FRICTIONAL LOSS COEFFICIENTS

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TYPES OF SYSTEM CURVES

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SYSTEM CURVE NO CONTROL
VALVE

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SYSTEM CURVE WITH CONTROL
VALVE

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EFFECT OF IMPELLER DIAMETER

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PUMP CALCULATION AFFINITY
LAW
Exercise no. 1 :

A Centrifugal pump with 10 impeller, is


pumping the water at 130M3/Hr. at 25 M
Head, power required to drive the pump is
20 HP., rpm 1500

What will be the Capacity, Head, and Power


if the impeller diameter is reduced to 8 .

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SOLUTION ( EXERCISE -1)
Applying the affinity law:

1) Discharge with d1 10 dia. Impeller=Q1=130M3/Hr.


Discharge with d2 8 dia. Impeller = Q2= Q1 X d2/ d1
= 130 X 8/10 = 104 M3/Hr will be the discharge.
2) Head H1=25 M, with 10 dia. Impeller ,
H2 is the head with 8 dia. Impeller = 25 X (d 2)2/(d1)2
= (25X 8 X 8) / 10 X10
= 16 M
3) Power P1= 20 HP, with 10 impeller ,
P2 is the power with 8 dia. Impeller = 20 X (d2)3 /
(d1)3
= (20 X 8 X 8X 8 ) /10 X 10 X 10 = 10.24 HP

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EFFECT OF RPM

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PUMP CALCULATION AFFINITY
LAW
Exercise no. 2 :

A Centrifugal pump with 10, is pumping the


water at 130M3/Hr. at 25 M Head, power
required to drive the pump is 20 HP., rpm
1400

What will be the Capacity, Head, and Power if


the RPM is increased to 2800 RPM.

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SOLUTION ( EXERCISE -2)
Applying the affinity law:
1) Discharge with rpm n1= 1400 RPM,
discharge=Q1=130M3/Hr.
Discharge with rpm n2 =2800 , Q2= Q1 X n2 / n1
= 130 X 2800/1400 = 260 M3/Hr. will be the discharge.
2) Head H1=25 M, with n11400 RPM,
H2 is the head with RPM n2 2800 RPM = 25 X (n2)2/(n1)2
= (25X 2800 X 2800) / 1400 X1400 = 100 M
3) Power P1= 20 HP, with n1 =1400 RPM,
P2 is the power with n2 =2800 RPM = 20 X (n2)3 / (n1)3
= (20 X 2800X 2800 X 2800 ) / 1400 X 1400 X 1400
= 160 HP

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PARALLEL PUMPS

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PARALLEL PUMPING SYSTEM
LOW FRICTION

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PARALLEL PUMPING
MISMATCHED PUMPS

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SERIES PUMPING

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SERIES PUMP OPERATION
PRESSURE ADDITIVE
Draw a combined pump curve- add the
pressures(head) at constant flow

Factors in Series Operation


Pressure Rating of the Pump Casing

Pressure Rating of the Piping & Components


Curve Shape

Advantages of Series Operation


Installation/Equipment Cost
Flexibility in Design

Operating Cost

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SERIES PUMPING

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PUMP VIBRATION

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PUMP VIBRATION

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PUMP VIBRATION

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE
PUMPS

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 1

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 2

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 3

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 4

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 5

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 6

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 7

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 8

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 9

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10 WAYS TO DAMAGE A
PUMP 10

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MONITORING AND PREDICTING
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE

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MONITORING WET END OF THE
PUMP
The temperature at the pump suction and discharge flanges.
The pressure at the pump suction and discharge flanges.
A proximity gage can record the distance between the open impeller
and the pump volute.
Shaft deflection can be measured by proximity gages around the
volute.
Product flow can be measured by a variety of instruments without
penetrating the piping.
Strain gages could tell you if the rotating shaft has locked up when
the pump is stopped.
Vibration can be measured at several locations on the volute.
Noise is easily detected and a valuable source of emerging problems.
The amount of amperage being drawn by the motor combined with
pump flow and capacity can be an excellent indication of pump
performance.

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MONITORING STUFFING BOX AND
SEAL AREA
Stuffing box temperature.

Stuffing box pressure.

Liquid leakage out of the stuffing box, or air leakage in.

Stuffing box jacket inlet and outlet flow

Stuffing box jacket inlet and outlet temperature.

Seal gland flush pressure, flow and temperature.

The temperature, pressure and flow of the fluid between dual


seals.
Convection tank temperature, pressure and level.

Quench temperate and flow.

Vibration.

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MONITORING BEARING CASE
Oil temperature to let you know if the oil is about to form
varnish or coke.

Oil level.

Shaft movement or thrust

The amount of water present in the oil.

Shaft speed.

Vibration

Cooling coil inlet and outlet temperature, pressure and


flow.
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PREDICTING PUMP PERFORMANCE
The pump differential pressure, flow and amperage tells us if the
pump is running close to its best efficiency point? If it is of the BEP
we're going to have lots of problems:
We will get excessive shaft deflection that translates to premature
wear ring, seal and bearing failure. The impeller could deflect into the
volute or back plate causing permanent damage to both pieces.
The lost power will convert to unwanted heat that can change
critical shaft dimensions and tolerances. This can be a big problem in
the bearing area where internal clearances are very critical.
You could break the shaft if the force generated is high enough.

If the suction pressure decreases or the suction temperature


increases there is a probability that we going to have a cavitation
problem during the operation of the pump.

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PREDICTING PUMP PERFORMANCE
Is the temperature or pressure change in the
stuffing box going to affect any of the seal
components? Many of these affects are non-
reversible.
There are many face combinations used in
mechanical seals. Too many of them are sensitive
to changes in temperature and pressure. Some
ceramics, filled carbons and plated hard faces are
especially sensitive to temperature changes.
The elastomer (rubber part) is always sensitive to
a temperature change either up or down.
Corrosion always increases with an increase in
temperature. This can be very important in acid
applications.

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PREDICTING PUMP PERFORMANCE
A change in stuffing box temperature or pressure can cause a lubricating
liquid to
Vaporize and blow open the lapped seal faces.
Crystallize and restrict the seal movement. Caustic is typical of this
type of problem.
Become viscous and interfere with the seal movement.
Solidify between the lapped seal faces and destroy them, as well as
restrict the free movement of the seal components..
Build a film on the sliding seal parts restricting their movement and
separating the lapped faces. Both paint and hard water can do this.
Become a non lubricant. This is a problem with hot water
applications that will lead to "slip stick" vibration problems between
the lapped seal faces.
Cause the liquid to form solid particles that will get into the sliding
components and restrict their movement. This is the "coking
problem" we typically experience with all hot oil applications.

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PREDICTING PUMP PERFORMANCE
Seal flatness can be compromised in both high and low
temperature applications.
A temperature change in the stuffing box can tell us if the
product going to change from a lubricating liquid to a
non-lubricating gas or solid. Most of these changes occur
when the pump is shut down or a cleaner or solvent is
being flushed through the lines. Will shut down cause
solid particles to appear in the fluid? Every fluid has a
maximum and minimum operating temperature. Exceed
these limits and all kinds of bad things happen

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PREDICTING PUMP PERFORMANCE
Are the bearings in danger of failing?
Is the lubricant temperature too high and increasing?
Is the lubrication level too high or low?
Has moisture penetrated the bearing case. Moisture
can cause hydrogen embrittlement problems in the
bearing.
Are the seal faces glued together at start up? Any
product that can solidify will cause this failure.
When do you need an impeller adjustment? If you miss
the clearance by as little as 0.002 inches (0.05 mm)
you will lose one percent of the pump's capacity. This
loss will be converted into heat and vibration.

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PREDICTING PUMP
PERFORMANCE
Do the wear rings need replacement? Internal recirculation wastes power
and increases the pump internal temperature. Ten degrees centigrade
(18F) is considered the maximum temperature rise allowable across the
pump volute.
Are the seal's environmental controls functioning?
Are you getting too much product dilution?
Is the quench working?
Is there enough stuffing box circulation to prevent the seal from being
overheated?
Is the cooling jacket becoming clogged from a build up in calcium?
Is the inner seal of a dual seal application functioning?
Is the flush fluid doing its job?
Is the stuffing box being maintained at the correct temperature-
especially at pump shutdown?

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TROUBLE SHOOTING OF
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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IF THE PUMP DOES NOT DELIVER
ENOUGH WATER
Engine/ motor may not be running at the rated
speed.
Strainer, inlet valve or suction line may be clogged.
Suction line or fittings may be leaking air
Mechanical seal may be worn and leaking air or
water. Check weep hole.
There may be too much clearance between the
impeller and the volute due to wear. For best
performance refer to manufacturer's
recommendations for proper adjustment.

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IF THE PUMP DOES NOT DELIVER
ENOUGH WATER
Lining in suction hose may be collapsing. This rubber lining
inside the fabric layers may have pulled together under the
vacuum created by the pump.

Suction lift may be too high. At a 25 foot lift the pump delivers
only about 50% of the water it delivers at a 10 foot lift.

The suction hose may be too long, causing excessive friction


loss and reducing pump capacity.

Discharge head may be too high. Check hose or pipe friction


losses. A larger hose or pipe may correct this condition

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IF THE PUMP DOES NOT PRIME
PROPERLY
Make sure that pump casing with filled with water.

Look in the suction line or fittings. Check to see


that all fittings are tight in the suction line and
make sure there is no leak in hose itself.

Mechanical seal may be worn and leaking air.

Inlet valve rubber may be frozen to the seat.

Pump may be running too slowly.

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IF THE PUMP DOES NOT PRIME
PROPERLY
The clearance between the impeller and the
pump body or volute may be greatly worn.
Refer to manufacturer's instruction manual for
proper adjustment

Suction lift may be too high. At sea level the


pump should not be used on lifts in excess of
25 feet from the level of the water to the center
of the impeller. Keep the pump as close to the
water source as is safely possible

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IF THE PUMP DOES NOT PRIME
PROPERLY
Suction line or suction strainer may be
clogged

Water may be too warm for the suction lift


being used (as the temperature of the water
increases above 60oF, the practical suction lift
will decrease) making pump priming difficult.
It may be necessary to replace the water in the
pump case with fresh cold water.

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
This can be caused by a pump that is too large for the application
A large pump was specified in anticipation of future needs
The pump was sized for the maximum operating condition, but
does not run anywhere near that point most of the time
The capacity requirement has been lowered and the pump is
being throttled rather than cut back the impeller diameter
The pump was oversized because of safety factors that were
added at the time the pump was sized
Increasing the speed of the pump causes a dramatic change in
the amperage required. The amperage changes by the cube of the
change in speed or impeller diameter. If you double the speed of a
pump you will need eight times the amperage

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
The increased amperage can be caused by a change in the
product
The motor was sized for a low specific gravity fluid, but the
lines are being flushed or tested with water.
The specific gravity of the fluid has increased for some
reason.
The viscosity of the liquid is increasing with a change in
temperature. Some viscosities increase with a lower
temperature, some with a higher temperature.
The viscosity of a liquid can increase with agitation. That is
how cream becomes butter.

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
The increased amperage is caused by two part rubbing together as a
result of shaft displacement due to
Pipe strain
Misalignment between the pump and driver.
A bent shaft.
The rotating assembly is not dynamically balanced.
Cavitation.
Water hammer.
Operating off the BEP.
Thermal growth.
Pulley driven pumps.
Different types of vibration including harmonic, slip stick, induced,
etc...

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
There are many parts that can come into contact when the shaft displaces.
The impeller can contact the pump volute or back plate. This can also happen
with an improper impeller adjustment or thermal growth.
The end of the stuffing box can be hit by the shaft or sleeve. There is often a
close fitting bushing installed in this location.
The outside diameter of the rotating mechanical seal and the inside of the
stuffing box.
A gasket or fitting protruding into the stuffing box that rubs against the
mechanical seal.
The rotating shaft and the stationary seal face.

The shaft and the API gland disaster bushing.

The closed impeller wear rings are a common source of rubbing.

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
The increased amperage can be caused by an
increase in bearing loading

Check the shaft and housing tolerances along with


the installation method.

Cooling a bearing outside diameter causes it to


shrink and over compress.

The wrong lubrication level. There is too much


lubricant in the bearing

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE

The starting procedure could be the problem

The radial flow pump is being started with the


discharge valve open. Radial flow pumps use
the most horsepower at high capacity.

The axial flow pump is being started with the


discharge valve shut. Axial flow pumps use the
most horsepower at high head.
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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
Check to see if there is too much axial thrust

See if the impeller balance holes are clogged.

If there is an elbow too close to the suction of a


double ended pump, and the piping is running parallel
with the shaft, The change in velocity of the incoming
fluid will cause axial thrust.

Converting packing to a mechanical seal can increase


the axial loading on the bearing

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IS DRAWING
TOO MUCH AMPERAGE
A few more reasons why you might be using too much amperage.
Your pump is equipped with an axial flow or high specific speed impeller.
These impellers cause the pump to draw more amperage when the pump
discharge is throttled.
The stuffing box packing has been tightened too much.

An unbalanced mechanical seal is being used in a high pressure application.


There is too much face load
The impeller has been installed backwards.

The shaft is running in the wrong direction.

The open impeller needs adjusting. You have too much clearance between
the impeller and the volute, or back plate, depending upon the pump design.

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Now that we know what can be done,
and any engineer should have no
problem figuring out how to install the
indicators, what are you going to do
with the data you can collect? Here
are some ideas. Collecting basic
information.

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COLLECTING BASIC DATA POINTS
What should be the head, flow and power consumption at
the best efficiency point? You get this information right off
the pump curve. You will need the specific gravity of the
fluid to convert the pressure reading from the gauge to
head units so that you can read the pump curve. Be sure to
adjust the numbers for the actual pump speed that you can
read with a tachometer. Use the affinity laws for this.
What is the maximum and minimum temperatures the
product can tolerate without changing state from a liquid to
a gas, crystal, solid, or becomes viscous ? Your facility
knows more about this subject than any one else. Check
with people in the engineering department

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COLLECTING BASIC DATA POINTS
What are the upper and lower temperature limits of the seal
elastomer. The seal supplier can give you this information.
Remember that there are different grades of various
elastomers. Be sure you are getting the information about the
grade you are using in your seal.
Does the seal face combination have a temperature limit more
restrictive than the elastomer? This is a consideration in most
metal bellows seal designs. Make the seal people identify the
material grade and have them supply the temperature limits.
Some seal designs have restricted pressure or vacuum limits.
Check with your seal supplier for this information. High
pressure can cause elastomer extrusion and deformation of
the lapped seal faces.

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COLLECTING BASIC DATA POINTS
What is the maximum pump inlet temperature or minimum
suction head to prevent cavitation? The NPSHR information
comes off the curve. Remember that the curve was generated
using water as the pumping fluid. You will have to add the vapor
pressure of your product to this number for an accurate NPSH
required.

What is the proper open impeller clearance? Get this from the
pump supplier. You want the hot or operating clearance. You will
need to use a cartridge seal if you are going to adjust an open
impeller without interfering with the seal setting.

What are the seal environmental control limits? The seal supplier
has specified a pressure, temperature and flow in most cases.

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Now that we have the base
information and the pump readings,
we should be able to act on
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE of
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

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PREVENTING BEARING AND SEAL
FAILURES
Is the pump about to cavitate? Cavitation can injure the
seal components and shorten the bearing life. You must
solve the problem before the cavitation begins. Cavitation
can occur if :
The pump capacity increases.
The discharge head drops.
The suction temperature rises.
The suction pressure drops.
The outside diameter of the impeller is too close to the
volute cutwater.
The speed of the pump increases.
Remember that the pump, pumps the difference between
the suction and discharge heads. If the suction head is
increased and the discharge head is not increased the
pump is now pumping at a lower head and the capacity
will increase along with the possibility of cavitation.

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PREVENTING BEARING AND SEAL
FAILURES
Is the product close to changing state in the stuffing box? If it
does change from a liquid to a gas or solid the seal failure will
soon follow .
Is the stuffing box temperature increasing?
Maybe the cooling jacket is not functioning. Calcium may
be building up inside the jacket

Maybe there is too much flow through the cooling jacket.


Remember that the cooling fluid should come into the
bottom of the cooling jacket and out the top.

Has the shaft axial thrust over compressed the seal faces?

Was the stuffing box vented in a vertical installation?

Is there flow between the dual seals. Has convection


stopped?
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PREVENTING BEARING AND SEAL
FAILURES
Is the stuffing box temperature decreasing?
Maybe the cooling jacket is too effective.
Is the buffer or barrier fluid between the
dual seals at the correct temperature?
Is the stuffing box pressure dropping?
The discharge recirculation line may
becoming clogged.
Is the seal leaking?

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PREVENTING BEARING AND SEAL
FAILURES

Is the impeller clearance correct? Too much


slippage will generate excessive heat and
vibration. This heat and vibration will translate
to premature seal failure.

Is the bearing oil too hot? If it is you're going to


experience bearing failure. Too high an oil level
or overfilling with grease is the most likely
problem.
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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
FOR
SEALS AND BEARINGS
Stop shaft deflection. It'll cause problems with
packing, mechanical seals, bearings and will
change critical dimensions such as impeller
clearances, wear ring clearances, seal settings
etc.

Balance all shaft assemblies and check they are


straight.

If you're using open impellers keep them


adjusted to the correct "hot" setting.

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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
FOR
SEALS AND BEARINGS
Maintain the correct oil level and change
bearing oil frequently. If you're using grease
lubrication it's more difficult to change the
grease, but it has to be done. Two thousand
hours (83 days) should be a maximum unless
you can guarantee there was no moisture
ingestion or the lubricant was not overheated.
Be careful not to over lubricate the bearings.
Use labyrinth, or positive face seals to keep
moisture out of the bearing lubrication and to
prevent shaft fretting damage.
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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES FOR
SEALS AND BEARINGS
Use corrosion resistant solid shafts only. Sleeves do not add
strength to shafts. Sealed pumps shouldn't need sleeves.
Make sure you have enough Net Positive Suction Head Available
(NPSHA) to prevent cavitation.
Do not let air enter into the system. Air comes in through shaft
packing, flanges, and valves above the water line. Vortexing,
aerating the incoming liquid, and pumping the suction dry are
some other common causes.
Replace wear rings any time the original specified clearance
doubles.

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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
FOR
SEALS
Pay attention AND BEARINGS
to parts storage.
As an example, Buna "N" rubber has a shelf life of
only one year because of ozone attack. Proper
packaging can increase this life considerably.
Many pump power ends are already rusted internally
at the time of installation because of poor storage
policies and lack of internal corrosion protection.
Lapped seals should be packaged in such a way
that they can survive a one meter (39 inch ) drop
without injuring the lapped faces.
Use only hydraulically balanced seals for all of your
sealing applications. They'll be able to handle
fluctuating system and flush pressures.
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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
FOR
SEALS AND BEARINGS
Use only unfilled carbons. They'll be chemically
compatible with any chemical except an oxidizing
agent. Oxidizing agents combine with carbon to form
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
Silicone carbide is the best universal hard face
material. Two versions are available, reaction bonded
and alpha sintered. Alpha sintered is the preferred one
Most of the chemical in this world can be sealed by
either Viton or Ethylene Propylene elastomers.
Dupont's Kalrez, Green Tweed's Chemraz or a similar
product should take care of the rest.

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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
FOR
SEALS AND BEARINGS
Quenching must be regulated to prevent water entering into the
bearings. (Another good reason to use bearing seals).
Convection tanks can run backwards, make sure the piping is
installed correctly and the rotating components are centered in
the stationary gland.
Use o-ring seal designs whenever possible. O-rings seal both
vacuum and pressure, and can flex to compensate for minor
shaft vibration and movement. Remember also that the o-ring is
a natural vibration damper.
Avoid pipe strain problems by piping from the pump to the pipe
rack and use a "centerline" wet end any time the pumping fluid
temperature exceeds 200 Fahrenheit. (100 C.)

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GOOD MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
FOR
SEALS
The most sensible AND
thing BEARINGS
you can do to prevent unexpected
pump shut down is to install a "back up" mechanical seal in
each of your pumps. Since the seal is the most likely
component to fail. and you want to maximize the seal life, the
"back up" seal will allow you to run to failure and will give you
time to schedule a shut down at your convenience.
You can use either tandem, face to face, or "two way balanced
seals", but never rotating, "back to back" designs. A convection
tank can be installed between the seals and the level / pressure
in the tank will indicate which seal has worn out or failed first.
The only other sensible solution to an unexpected costly
shutdown is a split mechanical seal that can get you back on
line, usually in less than an hour.

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RECOMMENDED DAILY PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE CHECKS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Interval Routines
AND DRIVES]
Date/Initial
Daily Check pump for noisy bearings and cavitation.
Daily Check bearing oil for water and discoloration.
Daily Feel all bearings for temperature.

Daily Inspect bearings and oil rings through filling ports. Wipe bearing
covers clean.
Daily Check oil leaks at the gaskets.

Daily Self flush pumps - Hand check the flush line temperature to
determine flow through the line. External flush pumps - Determine if
flow indicator and needle valve adjustment are functioning properly.

Daily Determine if the mechanical seal conditions are normal.

Daily Check any water cooling for effective operation. Hand test
differential across coolers, jackets and exchangers. Disassemble and
clean as required.
Daily Check the Coupling assembly , guards .
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RECOMMENDED MONTHLY AND 6 MONTHLY
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS AND DRIVES
Monthly Add oil to the bearing reservoirs, if required.
Monthly Clean oiler bulbs and level windows as required.
Monthly Make sure that the oil level is the correct distance from the shaft
centerline. Adjust if necessary.
Monthly Clean out debris from bearing brackets. Drain hole must be open.

Monthly Check the foundation bolts, tighten if loose.


Monthly Replace guards (repair if required).
Monthly Determine if pump unit requires general cleaning by others.

6 Months Machines not running - Standby service: Overfill bearing housing


to bottom of the shaft and rotate several turns by hand to coat the
shaft and the bearing with oil.

6 Months Apply a light coat of rust preventive product to expose machined


surfaces to prevent rust and corrosion.
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RECOMMENDED YEARLY PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE CHECKS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS AND DRIVES
Yearly Thoroughly inspect disc coupling for signs of wear & cracks in
laminations. Tighten bolts.
Yearly Using a dial indicator, check the coupling alignment with the
equipment coupled. Use special coupling indicator clamps where
possible. Ensure that thermal growth allowance is correct.

Yearly Using an indicator clamped on the coupling, depress and lift on each
coupling and note the dial indicator change. Determine if the deflection
is normal for this machine. Refer to OEM manual.

Yearly Using an indicator, check axial float of the pump & the driver shaft in
similar manner.
Yearly Where the process will allow it, test run the turbine coupled to the
pump. When not possible, run the turbine uncoupled. With a
tachometer - verify proper governor operation & control. Determine if
hand (booster) valves are completely closed when required to carry
load. This influences steam economy.

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RECOMMENDED PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE CHECKS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS AND DRIVES
Seasonal Check Date
Initials

Fall & Summer Do a seasonal oil change out, if required by


OEM lubrication guide.

Fall Where cooling water is decommissioned,


ensure that no water remains in the jackets,
coolers and piping.
Fall Inspect for damaged or missing insulation

Fall Reestablish steam flow or electrical tracing


continuity.

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TROUBLESHOOTING OF
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

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TROUBLESHOOTING CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
The pump is hooked up to the piping and it is running
You can observe leakage from the stuffing box or some other area. This
would include gaskets, bearing seals and cracks or holes in the piping.
You can hear an abnormal noise. You can probably "pin point" the source
if you try.
There is evidence of excessive heat in one or more of the components.
You can detect excessive vibration either from the use of instruments or
one of your senses
You can check if stuffing box environmental controls are hooked up
properly, and in many cases tell if they are functioning correctly.
You can check the position of control and isolation valves throughout the
system. This is especially important to check while the pump is running.
If there are meters available you can check :
Flow Pressure
Power consumption Temperature
Speed
You can estimate if the foundation is too weak. It should be five times the
mass of the hardware sitting on it.

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TROUBLESHOOTING CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
The pump is still hooked up to the piping, but it is
not running
You can check alignment between the pump
and driver.

During the removal process you can check


for excessive pipe strain.

You can check if the piping has been installed


according to good engineering practices. This
is a major factor in many cavitation problems.

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TROUBLESHOOTING CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
The pump has been taken into the workshop, but
has not yet been disassembled and you will be
present at the disassembly

You can check the seal installation dimension.

You can feel if there is restricted movement


of any of the rotating parts.

You can see if there is any loose hardware in


the assembly

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TROUBLESHOOTING CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
The pump has been disassembled. You were not
present, but the parts are available for your
inspection
You can see evidence of wear, rubbing or
discoloration of the components.
You can see evidence of corrosion.
You can see if any parts are missing.
You can see if any material or coating has
attached its self to one of the components. As
an example, calcium can build up on the
inside of pipes and restrict flow, or magnetite
(Fe304) build up on the seal components.

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TROUBLESHOOTING CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
The pump has been disassembled. You were not
present, but the parts are available for your
inspection.
When a rotating part such as a shaft seal,
impeller, etc. comes in contact with a stationary
part such as the inside of the stuffing box, a wear
ring, stationary bushing etc., there will be
evidence of this contact in the form of rubbing,
wear, discoloration or damage to one or both of
the components
There are four possibilities that we will be able to
see

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS
A rubbing mark, or evidence of wear all around the
rotating part and one place on the stationary part.
All around the stationary part and one place on the
rotating part.
Evidence of rubbing or wear all around both the
rotating and stationary parts.
One mark on both the rotating and stationary
component.
The cause could be the result of a problem in design,
operation or maintenance.

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS
All around the rotating part, one spot on the stationary part
Design Problems
The pump is pulley driven and the shaft L3/D4 is too high.
Maintenance Problems
The shaft is not centered in the stuffing box.
A gasket or fitting is protruding in, and touching the rotating
part.
Excessive pipe strain. This is a common problem when a
Centerline Design is not specified for applications over 200 F
(100C)
The pump and driver are not aligned properly
Operation problems
A major cause of this problem is the fact that the pump is
operating too far from its best efficiency point (B.E.P.) and the
shaft is not large enough to resist the bending.

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS
All around the stationary, one spot on the rotary
Design Problems
You have converted the pump to a mechanical seal. The unit was
originally designed for the packing to act as a bearing and
stabilize the shaft. This is a very big problem with mixers and
agitators
Maintenance Problems
The rotating assembly is out of balance.
Normal wear
Damage
Corrosion of the impeller
Foreign material attached
The impeller was trimmed and not re balanced.
The seal, sleeve, or impeller is not concentric with the shaft.
The unit never was balanced.
The shaft is bent.
Excessive heat or force was used during sleeve, seal, or bearing
removal.
The rotating unit is dragging something around with it.
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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
All around both the rotating andMARKS
stationary units. This problem could be caused
by a combination of the first and second examples or :
Design Problems
High temperature application. The shaft is expanding and a restriction
bushing is growing in towards the shaft/sleeve.
The pump is operating at a critical speed. This can happen with variable
speed motors.
Operation Problems
The pump is cavitating
Maintenance Problems
Bad bearings.
The oil is contaminated with water, product, dirt, rust, casting leaching, etc..
Incorrect oil level.
Poor fit because of shaft tolerances or the installation technique.
Excessive load due to a variety of reasons.
Oil temperature too high. Be sure to cool the oil not the bearings. Cooling
the housing will cause it to shrink and thereby increase the squeeze on the
bearing.
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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS

One mark on both the rotating and stationary


component

You can come across this at the time when


the pump fell off the back of a pick up truck

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TROUBLESHOOTING OF
RECIPROCAL PUMPS
Suction lift Too High
At sea level a steam pump handling cold water
should not have a suction lift greater than 22 ft.
check the lift by connecting a vacuum gage at the
pump suction in. If the lift exceeds 22 ft. either
lower the pump so it is closer to the water level or
raise the water level the pump so it is closer to the
water level or raise the water level so it is closer to
the pump.
Pump not Primed
Prime the pump by filling the suction line above
the foot valve with cold liquid. Open any vents on
the pump discharge side and leave them open until
the pump and pining are free of air.
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TROUBLE SHOOTING OF
RECIPROCATING PUMPS
Packing too tight
Check for a small amount of leakage around the rods at the steam
and liquid cylinders. If there is no leakage the packing is too tight.
Loosen the gland . If the pump still short -strokes check the liquid
-piston packing. it may have absorbed excess moisture.
Gas or air in liquid
duplex pumps short stroke excessively when there is too much
gas or air in the liquid pumped. Correct by altering the suction
look -up to prevent the entrance of air.
Worn Parts
Worn suction valves, piston-rod packing or piston packing can
cause a pump to lose suction. Examine the pump suction values
and seats and piston and rod packing . replace value, seats or
packing as necessary. In badly worn liquid cylinders it may be
necessary to re-bore the liners and replaces the old pistons.

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TROUBLESHOOTING OF
RECIPROCAL PUMPS
PISTON HITS HEAD
Piston Rings worn
If the ring on the steam piston are badly worn they will not hold the
cushion. Replace worn rings . Rebore the liner if , necessary.
Leaky Liquid values
This can lead to long stroking . Replace worn values with new
ones.
LOW DISCHARGE PRESSURE
Values or Ring Worn
Inspect the steam piston rings and values for excessive wear.
Replace with new or repaired parts.
PUMP STOPS
Values Trouble
Incorrectly set or worn steam values can cause a steam pump to
stop. Always set the steam value in the manner recommended by the
manufacture .Leakage of the steam values may cause a duplex to
hesitate or stop as it passes mid stroke. A simplex pump may stall at
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PUMP STORAGE TIPS
Drain the pump casing completely of water to prevent
damage from freezing.
If complete draining is not possible, pour a small amount of
anti-freeze into the casing and rotate the pump shaft to
ensure mixing.
Seal suction and discharge ports to prevent the entry of
debris or other foreign material.
If the pump has an oil lubricated seal, drain the oil from the
seal cavity and refill with 30-weight non-detergent motor oil.
For water cooled seals, place one-half pint of lubricating oil
(new or used) through the discharge opening in the pump
and turn engine over several times. This will prevent
excessive corrosion and also will keep the mechanical seal
lubricated.

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HYDRAULIC MATCH - FIT OF PUMP TO
THE SYSTEM

To have a successful installation, we must properly match


the pump(s) to a system.

Therefore, we must be able to create a system head curve


on which we can plot the pump performance curve,
showing, single, parallel and if applicable series pump
operation.

It is the intersection of the pump and system curve that


determines where the pump actually operates on its
performance curve.

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WHERE WILL THE PUMP OPERATE?

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS
All around the rotating part, one spot on the stationary part
Maintenance Problems
The shaft is not centered in the stuffing box.
The pump and driver are not aligned properly
A gasket or fitting is protruding in, and touching the rotating part.
Excessive pipe strain. This is a common problem when a
Centerline Design is not specified for applications over 200 F (100
C)
Operation problems
A major cause of this problem is the fact that the pump is
operating too far from its best efficiency point (B.E.P.) and the
shaft is not large enough to resist the bending.
Design Problems
The pump is pulley driven and the shaft L3/D4 is too high.

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS
All around the stationary, one spot on the rotary

Design Problems

You have converted the pump to a mechanical


seal. The unit was originally designed for the
packing to act as a bearing and stabilize the
shaft. This is a very big problem with mixers
and agitators

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
Maintenance Problems MARKS
The rotating assembly is out of balance.
Normal wear
Damage
Corrosion of the impeller
Foreign material attached
The impeller was trimmed and not balanced.
The seal, sleeve, or impeller is not concentric with the shaft.
The unit never was balanced.
The shaft is bent.
Excessive heat or force was used during sleeve, seal, or bearing
removal.
The rotating unit is dragging something around with it.

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TROUBLESHOOTING FOUR
POSSIBILITIES OF RUB OR WEAR
MARKS
All around both the rotating and stationary units. This problem could be
caused by a combination of the first and second examples or :
Design Problems
High temperature application. The shaft is expanding and a restriction
bushing is growing in towards the shaft/sleeve.
The pump is operating at a critical speed. This can happen with variable
speed motors.
Operation Problems
The pump is cavitating
Maintenance Problems
Bad bearings.
The oil is contaminated with water, product, dirt, rust, casting leaching, etc..
Incorrect oil level.
Poor fit because of shaft tolerances or the installation technique.
Excessive load due to a variety of reasons.
Oil temperature too high. Be sure to cool the oil not the bearings. Cooling
the housing will cause it to shrink and thereby increase the squeeze on the
bearing.
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CONDITIONING MONITORING OF
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

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CHECK CHART FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
TROUBLE
If Pump does not deliver liquid:
Pump not primed.
Pumps or suction pipe not completely filled with
liquid.
Suction lift too high. Insufficient margin between
suction pressure and vapor pressure.
Air pockets in the suction line.
Inlet of the suction pipe in sufficiently submerged.
Speed too low.
Wrong direction of rotation.
Total head of the system higher than design head of
the pump.
Parallel operation of the pumps unsuitable for such
operation.
Foreign material in impeller.
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INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY
DELIVERED
Pumps or suction pipe not completely filled with liquid.
Suction lift too high.
Insufficient margin between suction pressure and vapor
pressure.
Excessive amount of air or gas in the liquid.
Air pocket in the suction line.
Foot valve too small.
Foot valve partially clogged.
Inlet of suction pipe insufficiently submerged.
Speed too low.
Total head of the system higher than the design head of
the pump.
Viscosity of liquid differs from that for which designed.
Parallel operation of pumps un suitable for such
operation.

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INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY
DELIVERED

Foreign matter in the impeller.

Wearings ring worn out.

Impeller damaged.

Casing gasket defective, permitting


internal leakage.

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INSUFFICIENT PRESSURE
DEVELOPED
Excessive amount of air or gas in the liquids.
Speed too low.

Wrong direction of rotation.


Total head of the system higher than the design head
of the pump.
Viscosity of liquid differs from that for which designed.
Parallel operation of the pumps unsuitable for such
operation.
Wearings ring worn out.

Impeller damaged.

Casing gasket defective, permitting internal leakage.


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PUMP LOSES PRIME AFTER
STARTING
Pumps or suction pipe not completely filled with liquid.
Suction lift too high.

Excessive amount of air or gas in the liquid.

Air pockets in the suction line.

Air leaks into suction line.

Air leaks into the pump through the stuffing box.

Inlet of suction pipe insufficiently submerged.

Water seal pipe plugged.


Seal cage improperly located in the stuffing box preventing
sealing fluid from entering space to form the seal.

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PUMP REQUIRES EXCESSIVE
Speed too High POWER
Wrong direction of rotation
Total head of the system higher than the design head of
the pump
Total head of the system is lower than the design head
of the pump
Specific gravity of the liquid different from design
Viscosity of liquid differs from that for which it is
designed
Foreign matter in the impeller
Misalignment
Shaft bent
Rotating parts rubbing on the stationery parts
Wearing rings worn
Packing improperly Installed
Gland to too tight resulting in no flow of liquid to
lubricate packing
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STUFFING BOX LEAKS
Misalignment EXCESSIVELY
Shaft bent

Shaft or shaft sleeve worn out at the packing area

Shaft running off center because of worn out bearing

Rotor out of balance resulting in vibration

Gland cooling system not working or stopped


Excessive clearance at the bottom of the stuffing box between
shaft & the Casing causing the packing ring to enter the pump
interior

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GLAND PACKING HAS SHORT LIFE
Water seal pipe clogged or plugged
Misalignment
Shaft bent
Bearing worn out
Shaft or sleeve worn out
Packing wrongly installed
Incorrect type of packing installed
Shaft running out or rotor unbalanced causing
vibration
Gland cooling water stopped
Excessive clearance at the bottom of the stuffing
box between shaft & casing forcing the packing in
the interior of the pump
Shaft worn out at the packing area due to dirt or
the liquid quality

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PUMP VIBRATES OR IS NOISY
Pumps Suction pipe not completely filled with
Liqiud.
Suction lift too high.
Insufficient margin between suction pressure and
vapor pressure.
Air pockets in the suction line .
Foot valve too small.
Foot valve partially Clogged.
Inlet of suction pipe insufficiently submerged.
Operation at very low capacity
Foreign matter in the impeller.
Misalignment, or shaft running off-center because
off worn bearings or rotor out of balance,
Foundation not rigid.
Shaft bent.
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PUMP VIBRATION AND NOISY
Rotating part rubbing on Stationery parts.
Impeller damaged, or excessive thrust caused by
mechanical failure inside the pump,
Excessive grease or oil in the antifriction bearing
housing, or lack of cooling causing excessive bearing
temperature. Or lack of lubrication.
Improper installation of bearings
(damage during assembly, incorrect
assembly of bearings on shaft).
Dirt getting into bearings, or rusting of bearing s due to
water getting into the housing.
Excessive cooling of water cooled bearings resulting
in condensation of moisture from atmosphere in the
bearing in case of cooled bearing.
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BEARINGS HAVE SHORT LIFE
Misalignment, or shaft running off-center because off worn
bearings or rotor out of balance,
Foundation not rigid.
Shaft bent .
Rotating part rubbing on Stationery parts.
Impeller damaged, or excessive thrust caused by mechanical
failure inside the pump,
Excessive grease or oil in the antifriction bearing housing, or lack
of cooling causing excessive bearing temperature. Or lack of
lubrication.
Improper installation of bearings (damage during assembly,
incorrect assembly of bearings on shaft).
Dirt getting into bearings, or rusting of bearing s due to water
getting into the housing.
Excessive cooling of water cooled bearings resulting in
condensation of moisture from atmosphere in the bearing in case
of cooled bearing.
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PUMP OVERHEATS AND SEIZES
Pumped not Primed.

Operation at very low capacity.

Parallel operation of pumps unsuitable for such operation.

Mis alignment.

Rotating parts rubbing on stationery parts.

Bearing worn out.

Shaft running off center, rotor unbalanced resulting in


vibration.

Excessive thrust caused by a mechanical failure inside the

pump.
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PUMP GLOSSARY

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Air Bound - A condition occurring when a centrifugal pump body is
filled with air and a vacuum can no longer be formed allowing water to
flow into the pump.
Capacity is the water handling capability of a pump commonly
expressed as either gallons per minute (GPM) or gallons per hour
(GPH).
Cavitation is a phenomenon causing vacuum pockets to form within
the pump that eventually implodes under pressure pitting the impeller
and volute surfaces.
Cleanout Covers - On trash pumps a removable cover that allows easy
access to the interior of the pump casing for removal of any debris.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Dewatering - The removal of unwanted water (clear or dirty) but free from
hazardous materials.
Diffuser - A stationary housing similar to a volute in which the impeller
rotates. Compact in design, it enables the pump to produce higher
heads/pressures.
Discharge Hose - A collapsible hose used to move the water discharged
from the pump.
Discharge Port - Same as the outlet. The point where the discharge hose or
pipe is connected to the pump.
Drain Plugs - Removable plugs used to drain water from the pump during
periods of inactivity.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Dynamic takes into account motion, as opposed to static.
Flapper Valve - Rubber molded around a steel weight that seals
off the inlet or outlet preventing water from either entering or exiting
the pump at the wrong time of the cycle.
Frame - A wraparound tubular frame provides protection for the
casing and engine. These frames can simplify storage (stacking)
and lifting.
Friction Loss refers to reductions in flow due to turbulence as
water passes through hoses, pipes, fittings and elbows.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Hazardous Material - Any volatile, explosive or flammable
liquid that requires special handling and should not be used
with a dewatering pump.

Head - A measurement of pressure typically expressed in


feet/head or lb/in2.

Cleanout Covers - On trash pumps a removable cover that


allows easy access to the interior of the pump casing for
removal of any debris.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Impeller - A disk with multiple vanes. It is attached to the pump
engine or motor and is used to create the centrifugal force
necessary for moving water through the pump casing.

Mechanical Seal - A common wear part that forms a seal


between the pump and the engine or motor. Also prevents water
from seeping into the engine or motor.

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) - Positive flow of water to


the suction port of the pump.

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PUMP GLOSSARY

Performance Curves - Chart water flow by


comparing total head to flow rate.

Prime - The creation of a vacuum inside the


pump casing.

Pump Housing - The pump body or casing.


Depending on the design may be made of
plastic, aluminum, cast-iron or stainless steel.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Self Priming - The ability of a pump to purge air from inside its system and
creating an area of low pressure that permits water to flow into the pump
casing.
Shock Mounts - Rubber mounts used to dampen vibration from the engine
and help prevent the pump from "walking away".

Skid Mount - Pump and engine mounting mounted on a base.


Slow Seepage - Water that drains slowly into a trench or work area from the
surrounding area. Possibly caused from run off or high water tables.

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PUMP GLOSSARY

Solids - Any particulate that passes through the


pump: mud, sand, rock or other debris.

Static acting by weight not motion, as opposed to


dynamic.

Strainer - A fitting at the end of the suction hose that


prevents solids larger than the pump is capable of
passing from entering.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Strain Relief Protector - A support that prevents
the electrical cord of a submersible pump from
being accidentally pulled out of the casing.
Suction Hose - A reinforced hose through which
water flows into the suction end of a pump.
Suction Port - Same as the inlet. The point where
the suction hose or pipe is connected to the pump.
System - the network of hoses, pipes and valves
linked to the pump

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Water Hammer - Energy transmitted from a sudden
stoppage in the flow of water out of the pump.

Wear Plate - A replaceable steel insert that fits inside the


volute or suction cover of a pump. Helps to form a vacuum
with the impeller and reduce the cost of replacement parts.

Weep Hole - A small opening on the underside of the pump


where it is joined to the engine. Allows quick detection of a
leak before water seeps into the oil sump of the engine.

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PUMP GLOSSARY
Thermal Overload Sensors - A feature built into the motor of a
submersible pump that shuts it down should the operating
temperature become too high.

Viscosity - The resistance to flow of a liquid at a given


temperature. High viscosity liquids such as motor oil are more
resistant to flow than water.

Volute - A stationary housing inside the pump housing in which


the impeller rotates. It is used to separate air and water.

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