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GROUNDING TRAINING

Grounding Training
First Day
Summary
General considerations
Basic Design requirements
Second Day
Grounding connection types
Grounding Installation Details
Third Day
Grounding of Electrical Equipment
theoretical part test
Grounding drawing for a partial power plant
layout practical part test
Grounding Training
General Consideration
The purpose of Grounding is to assure:
the safety of personnel working around electrical
equipment;
protection of structures and equipment from
unintentional contact with live conductors;
Ensure maximum safety from electrical system
faults and lightning.
Also, proper grounding and bonding techniques are
essential in assuring that sensitive electronic
equipment is protected from transient and other
spurious signals that can seriously affect the way data
is processed.
There are two distinct types of grounding required by the
NEC:
Electrical System Grounding - Electrical systems that are
grounded shall be connected to earth in a manner that will
limit the voltage imposed by lightning or unintentional
contact with higher-voltage lines and that will stabilize the
voltage to earth during normal operation. System
grounding usually refers to whether the secondary
windings of a transformer are grounded, although a
system derived from any source can be grounded.
Grounding of Electrical Equipment means the
connection of earth ground to non-current carrying
conductive materials such as conduit, cable trays, junction
boxes, enclosures, motor frames, etc.
Basic Design Requirements
The Grounding system shall be designed and installed in accordance
with the following codes, standards and Engineering Guidelines:
IEEE 80 Guide for safety in AC substation grounding
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code (NEC)
EG-17-301 Electrical System Grounding
EG-17-501 Equipment Grounding Notes & Installation Details
EG-17-601 Equipment Earthing Notes & Installation Details

Main Grounding Grid


The Grounding Grid includes a main grounding loop and may
include a number of sub grounding loops and rings provided for
individual equipment, structures, etc.
Regulatory site conditions might require the grid to be
supplemented by grounding rods, driven to a depth dependent
upon soil type and state.
The dimensions of the grounding rode system, the spacing of main
grounding loop, spacing and length of grounding rods, etc. shall
be chosen so that the value of grounding resistance is sufficiently
low to permit the effective operation of the protective measures
against electric shock.
Electrical Equipment Grounding
Switchgears and Motor Control Centers
Transformers
Distribution and Lighting Cabinets
Disconnect Switches
Motors
Junction Boxes
Power Receptacles

Non-Electrical Equipment Grounding


Steel Frame Buildings
Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Raceway Systems (Cable Trays, Conduits, Ductbanks,
Manholes)
Tanks, Vessels
Metallic Piping
Stairs, Handrails, Ladders
Poles
Fences, gates

Cables
Shielded Power Cables All medium voltage power cable
shields shall be terminated at the switchgear grounding bus.
Shielded Instrument and Control Cables The shield of
control and instrumentation cable shall be grounded at one point
only. The grounding point is generally located in a termination
cabinet (DCS or PLS).

Cathodic Protection
All Grounding Cables in Cathodic Protection area shall
have insulation suitable for direct burial in earth, where
separation cannot be satisfied.
Protection against Static Electricity
Static grounding shall be provided for equipment, such as pipe, tanks,
exchangers, etc, able to generate static electricity due to flow of fluids.
These equipment shall be provided with welded lugs for connection to the
nearest grounding grid.
Storage tanks shall be fitted with at least two welded lugs, connected to
the general grounding grid or to an internal loop.

Instrument Grounding
All DCS Cabinets, Control & Protection equipment Cabinets shall have an
isolated insulated instrument ground conductor installed to equipment
ground bus. Cabinet frame ground shall not be used for instrument
grounding.
Typical Grounding Connections
Grounding Connection Types
Compression Ground Connection

Exothermic Ground Connection


Grounding Installation Details
Equipment Grounding
DCS GroundingTypical Grounding Tap
Underground X or T connection
Static Discharge Reel
Equipment with Concrete Pad
Column Ground Riser
Steel Column Ground
Large Equipment Ground
Medium voltage equipment ground connector
termination with or without current transformer
Low voltage Motor with threaded conduit box
Low voltage Motor with knockouts in conduit box
Ground Rod
Ground Test Well
Ground Test Well for isolated ground
Support guides for ground cable
Cable Tray grounding connection
Grounding MCCs, Transformers, and other electrical
equipment
Crane Rail ground/jumper
Cable Tray Grounding-stack
Motor Frame Grounding
Grounding Panelboard/Dry XFMR
Fence Post Grounding
Pullbox Grounding
Embedded Ground Plate
Pullbox Grounding
Embedded Ground Plate
Conduit Grounding Jumper
Rail Car Loading/Unloading
Tank Truck Loading/Unloading
Four characteristics are of essential importance for
grounding:
Good electrical conductivity
Conductors capable of withstanding available electrical fault
currents
Long life at least 40 years
Low ground resistance and impedance
Grounding of Electrical Equipment
theoretical part test
Grounding drawing for a partial power
plant layout practical part test

Conclusions