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Kerja dan Energi

(Work and Energy)


Kerja dan Energi
dalam Medan Gaya Konservatif
Suppose that a car traveled up three different roadways (each with
varying incline angle or slope) from the base of a mountain to the
summit of the mountain. Which path would require the most
gasoline (or energy)? Would the steepest path (path AD) require
the most gasoline or would the least steep path (path BD) require
the most gasoline? Or would each path require the same amount of
gasoline?
Energy Transformation for a Dart
Consider an ordinary dart projection from a toy dart gun and
moving through the air. How could work and energy be
utilized to analyze the motion of the dart? Would the total
mechanical energy of the dart/gun system be altered when
launched or while mvong through the air? Or would the total
mechanical energy of the dart/gun merely be conserved?
Energy Conservation on an Incline
Consider an ordinary lab cart loaded with bricks and
accelerating down an inclined plane. How could work and
energy be utilized to analyze the motion of the loaded cart?
Would the total mechanical energy of the cart be altered in
the process of rolling down the incline? Or would the total
mechanical energy of the cart merely be conserved?
Energy Transformation on a Roller Coaster
A roller coaster ride is a thrilling experience which involves
a wealth of physics. Part of the physics of roller coaster is
the physics of work and energy. The ride often begins with
a chain and motor (or other mechanical device) exerting a
force on the train of cars to lift the train to the top of a very
tall hill. Once the cars are lifted to the top of the hill, gravity
takes over and the remainder of the ride is an experience
of the physics of energy transformation.
How High Will It Go?
Energy Transformation for a Pendulum
Since there are no external forces doing work, the total
mechanical energy of the pendulum bob is conserved. The
conservation of mechanical energy is demonstrated in the
animation below. Observe the KE and PE bars of the bar
chart; their sum is a constant value.
How Far Will It Skid?
Energy Transformation for Downhill Skiing
Along the inclined section of the run, the total mechanical energy of
the skiier is conserved provided that:
there is a negligible amount of dissipative forces (such as air
resistance and surface friction), and
the skiier does not utilize her poles to do work and thus contribute to
her total amount of mechanical energy
Stopping Distance of a Hot Wheels Car
Kerja dan Energi
Energi Kinetik

Wtot K 2 K1 K
Energi Potensial Gravitasi

Wgrav (U g 2 U g1 ) U g
Energi Potensial Elastik

Wel (U e 2 U e1 ) U e
Kerja dan Energi
Energi Mekanik

K1 U g1 U e1 Wext K 2 U g 2 U e 2
Hukum Kekekalan Energi Mekanik
Jika usaha oleh gaya lain eksternal sama dengan nol, maka belaku:

K1 U g1 U e1 K 2 U g 2 U e 2

K U 0
Bentuk Umum Hukum Kekekalan Energi

K U U int 0 U int Wext


Contoh Soal:
Seekor Belalang melopat dengan sudut lompatan 450 di atas
horizontal dan mencapai ketinggian maksimum 1,0 m dalam
lompatannya. Berapa kecepatan awal vi belalang tersebut ketika
lepas dari permukaan tanah?
Problem: A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless incline of
height 20.0 m, as in Figure 5.19. At the bottom of the incline, the skier
encounters a horizontal surface where the coefficient of kinetic
friction between skis and snow is 0.210. (a) Find the skiers speed at
the bottom. (b) How far does the skier travel on the horizontal surface
before coming to rest?
Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50 kg and 100 kg,
respectively), are connected by a string, as shown in figure.
The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline
is k =0,25. Determine the change in the kinetic energy of
block A as it moves from C to D, a distance of 20 m up the
incline if the system starts from rest.
Contoh Soal:
A 10,0 kg block is released from point A in Figure. The track is frictionless
except for the portion between B and C, which has a length of 6,0 m. The block
travels down the track, hits a spring of force constant k = 2.250 N/m, and
compresses the spring 0,30 m from its equilibrium position before coming to
rest momentarily. Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block
and the rough surface between B and C.
Kotak meluncur ke bawah di lintasan lengkung-datar tanpa gesekan
dan kemudian menaiki bidang miring. Koefisien gesekan kinetik
antara kotak dan bidang miring adalah k. Gunakan metode energi
untuk menunjukkan bahwa ketinggian maksimum yang dicapai
kotak adalah:

h
ymax
1 k cot
Sebuah balok 20,0 kg dihubungkan dengan balok 30,0 kg oleh seutas kawat
melalui kantrol ringan (massanya dapat diabaikan). Balok 30,0 kg
dihubungkan dengan pegas yang massanya dapat diabaikan dan konstanta
gayanya 250 N/m, seperti pada gambar. Pegas tidak teregang ketika
sistemnya seperti yang ditunjukkan gambar dan bidang miringnya licin. Balok
20,0 kg ditarik ke bawah bidang miring sepanjang 20,0 cm (sehingga balok
30,0 kg berada 40,0 cm di atas lantai) dan dilepaskan/digerakkan dari
keadaan diam. Carilah kelajuan masing-masing balok ketika balok 30,0 kg
berada 20,0 cm di atas lantai (di mana pegas tidak teregang).
Benda dengan massa m meluncur/bergerak naik di atas
permukaan lengkung berjari-jari R tanpa gesekan (seperti
tampak pada gambar 2). Kecepatan benda pada posisi
terendah adalah v0. Jika m=80 kg, R=40 cm dan v0=2,0 m/s:
(a) berapa energi kinetik benda ketika =450 ? (b) berapa
nilai maksimum sudut ? (c) tuliskan pernyataan kelajuan
benda sebagai fungsi !
Balok 2,00 kg didorong melawan pegas yang massanya
diabaikan sejauh 0,22 m, dan konstanta pegas k=400 N/m.
Ketika balok dilepaskan, balok tersebut bergerak di atas
permukaan horizontal tanpa gesekan, kemudian naik menuju
permukaan bidang licin dengan kemiringan 370 . a) Berapakah
laju balok pada saat meluncur di atas permukaan horizontal
sesudah meninggalkan pegas? b) Berapa jauh balok bergerak
melewati permukaan miring sebelum kembali meluncur turun?
Pada gambar 3, kedua kotak semula diam. Pilihlah energi
potensial sama dengan nol pada posisi awal ini. (a)
Tulislah persamaan untuk energi kinetik total sistem
setelah kotak 2 kg jatuh sejauh y. (b) Carilah kelajuan
kotak 2 kg setelah jatuh dari keadaan diam sejauh 2 m,
dengan mengasumsikan tidak ada gesekan.

1 1 2m2 gy 2(2)(10)(2) 60
m1v 2 m2 v 2 m2 gy v 3,16 m/s
2 2 m1 m2 42 6