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Course title: Hematology (1)

Course code: MLHE-201


Supervisor: Prof. Dr Magda Sultan
Date : 31 / 10/2013

Outcome :
The student will understand :
-The process of hematopoiesis
-The development of mature
blood cells
Hematopoiesis
Hematopoiesis is the process
by which immature precursor
cells develop into mature
blood cells.
A single type of stem cell gives
rise to all the mature blood
cells in the body.
This stem cell is called the
pluripotent stem cell.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BONE
MARROW
Bone marrow has a vascular compartment and
an extravascular compartment.
Hematopoiesis takes place in the extravascular
compartment. The daily output of mature
blood cells in bone marrow is : 2.5 billion
erythrocytes, 2.5 billion platelets, 50-100
billion granulocytes. The numbers of
lymphocytes and monocytes is also very
large.
In addition to hematopoiesis , bone
marrow is the site of other activities .
These include :
-The removal of aged and defective
erythrocytes -The differentiation of B
lymphocytes
-It is also the site of numerous plasma
cells.
THE PROCESS OF HEMATOPOIESIS
Pluripotent stem cells multiply to produce
more pluripotent stem cells, thus ensuring
the steady and lasting supply of stem cells.
Some of
the pluripotent stem cells differentiate into
precursor cells that are at least partially
committed to become one type of mature
blood cell.
Pluripotent stem cells multiply slowly
into one of five possible unipotential
stem cells, which then multiply rapidly
into the precursor of the specific
mature blood cell for which they are
destined.
Although the pluripotent stem cells
and the unipotential stem cells cannot
be distinguished from one another
histologically, the precursor cells can
be distinguished with a trained and
practiced eye
Basically an immature, precursor cell
goes
from a cell that is making lots of
protein to a cell that is making much
less protein.
Thus, a cell that is making a lot of
protein will have a nucleus containing
dispersed or active chromatin.
When this cell is making less protein,
the chromatin is condensed or
clumped.
Proerythroblast: nucleus still rather large, taking up most of the
cell; nucleus not condensed; cytoplasm still very blue or basophilic

Basophilic erythroblast (early) : very difficult to distinguish from


the proerythroblast

Polychromatophilic erythroblast (intermediate) : nucleus is


more
condensed than that of the proerythroblast; cytoplasm less blue,
more grayish

. Orthochromatophilic erythroblast (late) : nucleus more


condensed, smaller than that of previous cells and looks pyknotic
by comparison; cytoplasm beginning to take on a more pinkish cast
Reticulocyte: no nucleus; cytoplasm still
stains somewhat bluish due to presence of
remnants of polyribosomes
Erythrocyte: mature erythrocyte has no
nucleus (in mammals); cytoplasm stains very
pink due to lack of ribosomes and presence
of
high amounts of protein, i.e hemoglobin
Myelopoiesies

Unipotent stem cell: cannot be distinguished from other


unipotent stem cells by histology
Myeloblast: large cell with blue-staining cytoplasm; large
nucleus;
and with nucleolus .
Promyelocyte: still a rather large cell with azurophilic
granules
Myelocyte: overall cell still rather large; nucleus still round
without indentation; granules staining appropriately for the
series,
i.e., pink for eosinophilic, blue for basophilic, neutral for
neutrophilic
Metamyelocyte: cell is about the size of a mature
granulocyte; nucleus with slight indentation; granules
present that stain appropriately for the series, i.e., pink for
eosinophilic, blue for basophilic, neutral for neutrophilic
Band cell: cell is about the size of a mature granulocyte;
nucleus with definite indentation - looks like a horseshoe;
prominent granules that stain appropriately for the series
Mature (segmented) granulocyte: cell is mature and
looks
like normal, mature granulocytes in the blood with lobed
nucleus and prominent granules that stain appropriatly
for
the series .
Immune System
This system consists of cells and tissues that have as their main function
the
protection of the body from the invasion by microorganisms and disease-.
Components of this system are:
Lymphocytes
T cells
B cells
Plasma cells
Bone marrow
Thymus
Lymph Node
Spleen
The bone marrow and thymus are considered as primary
immune/lymphoid
components because they contain the stem cells that will develop into T
cells,
B cells and natural killer cells of the functioning immune and lymphatic
systems.
Megakaryopoiesis
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, play an
important role in hemostasis

Platelets appear as round, oval or biconcave disks


and have a diameter of about 1.5 to 3.5 m.

Platelets are formed in the bone marrow from


megakaryocytes (30-100 m diameter), very large
cells with a polyploid, multilobed nucleus and
granular cytoplasm . Platelets are released from
fragmenting megakaryocytes.
Title Student Name
Erythropoiesis .








Bone marrow structure











Training Questions :
- Mention the cells of developing
erythrocyte series .
- What are the components of the
immune system ?
Reference Books :
- Essential Hematology
- Dacie .