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RG301726

Uplink min Rx Level based


Access
Network Engineering Information
Adam Pomykala
10-12-2014

Please always check the latest version of this


NEI slides!
1 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
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Disclaimer

Please note that the NEI materials are for internal use only. If they shall be
used as a source for the customer presentation, it is mandatory to align the
contents with the Product Management and/or local sales teams at first!
The results of simulations shown in this presentation are examples only.
They demonstrate trends (not absolute values) expected after feature
activation. The presented simulations should be analyzed with respect to
the assumptions taken. They may differ from results achievable in real
networks.
This NEI slide deck reflects the state of the feature/solution as it is at the
moment of the NEI slide deck release and is being updated up to C5
(release available) milestone.

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access
Table of contents

Introduction Technical Inter Benefits Configuratio Deployment


Details dependenci and Gains n Aspects
Motivation and Detailed Functionality es Simulation, Lab and Managemen Activation,
Description
Feature Overview
Interdependencies
Field Findings
Simulation, Lab t Configuration
Examples, Fault
1 with other features and Field Mgmt, Trial Area
Parameters and
and functions Findings
Parameterization
Scenarios

Performanc
e Aspects
Counters and KPIs,
Feature Impact
Analysis and
Verification

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Introduction

Table of contents

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2) BTS starts
the
Introduction procedure
1) Ghost RA
Random Access Bursts bursts sent on
RACH

An MS originates a call by sending the random access


(RA) bursts on the RACH (Random Access Channel)
A BTS constantly monitors bits coming to it and tries to
filter out a valid RA bursts:
- If a RA burst in the RACH channel is positively verified by means
4) SDCCH channel
of the BTS built-in sophisticated algorithms it starts reservation 3) Start
reserved until T3101
of SDCCH signalling channels to continue the call setup timer T3101
expires, def: 3 s
procedure
It may happen that the RA burst is accepted by the BTS,
but there is no response from the MS in the next steps of
the call setup => such bursts are regarded as the
ghost RACHs:
- The signalling resources are unnecessarily reserved and
wasted
- Call setup is regarded as failed by a network with an unknown
reason 1) Ghost RA
2) Failed HO =>
7 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 bursts sent on
drop
The same holds true for a handover procedure
For internal use with FACH
the RA bursts sent by the MS on FACH to synchronise with
Introduction
What is the RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access all about?

Before After
Legacy RA burst verification algorithm The signal level criterion is
is in use (tap signal energy, SNR, BEP, introduced
pseudo BER, CRC) All RA burst with insufficient signal
Signal level not considered => weak level are rejected even though the
RA burst can be validated, e.g. coming legacy criteria are satisfied
from interfering UEs clashing UEs, Improved filtering of ghost RACH
BCCH-BSIC conflicts, reduces load on signalling channels
Signalling resources unnecessarily => better system availability
engaged due to misinterpretation of Lower call drop rate and better call
ghost RACHs setup success rate
Call drop/setup failures of unknown
reasons
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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Brief description Impact on the Air Interface


A new criterion introduced (signal level Dimensioning
threshold) to improve detection of ghost None
random access (RA) bursts
Applicable to RA bursts sent on RACH at call
setup (channel required message) or FACH at
Impact on the Access Dimensioning
HO (HO access message)
None
The threshold configured with a dedicated BTS
parameter rachDropRxLevelThreshold

Impact on performance
Call setup success rate improved
No SDCCH
Reduced
SDDCH load reduced
Reduced
dropped call
dropped call Improved
Improved call
call RX level
rate setup
Dropped call rate reduced RACH with low
rate setup success
success
rate
rate

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Technical Details

Table of contents

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Technical Details
Dependency Table

Release information Sales information


Release RG40 (GSM 15) BSW/ASW ASW
BSC SW S16_2 Licence control in
BSC
Planned in future NE
Flexi MR 10 BTS release
Licence control
Flexi Compact Planned in future ON/OFF
attributes
BTS release
Flexi MR BTS EX5_2
Flexi EDGE BTS EX5_2
UltraSite BTS -
MetroSite BTS -
BTSplus -
Horizon BTS -
NetAct 8 EP2 (NetAct
NetAct
11 15)
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Technical Details
Verification of Random Access Bursts Legacy Algorithm

The RA burst verification algorithm at


the BTS includes evaluation of tap
energy ratio, SNR, BEP pseudo BER
and data integrity check (CRC):
- All criteria must be satisfied to consider
the RA burst as a valid one
Invalid - SNR histogram - valid
The hard-coded signal level of -115
dBm to accept the RA bursts

Invalid BEP - valid Invalid tap energy ratio - valid


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Technical Details
New criterion to filter out ghost RACH rachDropRxLevelThreshold (BTS)

The signal level criterion is introduced to With this parameter you define the threshold
for the received signal level during network
exclude the random access (RA) bursts access and handover access used by BTS.
transmitted on RACH (call setup, CHANNEL Range: -115 dBm ...-47 dBm, step 1 dBm,
REQUIRED message) or FACH (HO between Special value: 255 (not used),
Default: 255 (not used)
unsynchronised cells, HO ACCESS message) with
the insufficient
The signal levelwith the BTS threshold
criterion is controlled
rachDropRxLevelThreshold
- The range of parameter is -115 dBm ...-47 dBm, step of 1 dBm, special value 255
(not used)
- By default special value 255 is used i.e. it switches off the signal level based
criterion therefore no impact should be observed after upgrade to RG40 and
license activation
- The hard-coded threshold of -115 dBm is used with the activated feature
- The minimum parameter value of -115 dBm is equal to the hard-coded value => the
13
same
behavior
Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014

- The reason the new criterion is introduced is because the legacy algorithm did not
Technical Details
New criterion to filter out ghost RACH

All RACH or FACH with the signal level below the threshold are
considered as invalid RA bursts and are rejected from further
processing
To positively verify the RA burst all legacy AND new criteria must be
satisfied
The information on the number
8 7 6 5
of3 rejected
4 2 1
RA bursts due to
Total
Total number
number of
of available
available
insufficient signal level is transmitted to a measurement BSC
access =>
access slots
slots in a necessary
in a
measurement period
period
Element identifier 1
to update counters Length 2
3
Number
Number of
of RACH
RACH burst
burst
periods
periods with
with signal
signal level
level
above -100
above -100 dBm
dBm WITHOUT
WITHOUT
BTS checking
checking other
other criteria
criteria BSC
Number
Number ofof RACH
RACH burst
burst periods
periods RACH Slot Count 4
with Number of valid
Number of valid RACH
RACH bursts
bursts with
with
with signal
signal level
level above
above -100
-100
dBm signal
signal level
level below
below
dBm WITH
WITH checking
checking other
other
criteria 5 rachDropRxLevelThreshold
rachDropRxLevelThreshold
criteria (valid
(valid bursts)
bursts)

CCCH LOAD INDICATION,


RACH Busy Count acc. 3GPP6

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Interdependencies

Table of contents

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Interdependencies

prerequisites RG302151 Release Upgrade License:


The RG302151 Release Upgrade License
feature controls that an operator is able to utilize
all RG40 features and functionalities
If RG40 Release Upgrade License feature is
ON with sufficient TRX capacity the RG301726
Uplink min Rx Level based Access can be
used (separate licence key is necessary)
Without both licences installed the parameters are
not visible

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Interdependencies

Limitations All composite multi-site transmission (CMST)


features:
RG602124 CMST
RG301980 CMST on FSM3 (for Flexi MR 10 BTS)
RG602125 High Speed Rail Handover
RG301978 GSM RF Chaining
does not work with the RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level
based Access due to non-standard/specific procedures
executed at call setup/handover procedures
Activation of the CMST features leads to automatic
deactivation of the RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level
based Access feature

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Interdependencies

If CMST is ENABLED in a cell, BTS forces Uplink Min


Limitations
RX feature as disabled in that cell irrespective of the
value of RACH Drop RX Lev threshold value configured by
BSC.

If CMST is NOT enabled in a sector with RG301978 GSM


RF Chaining feature and BSC sends feature usage in CMST
Configuration IE as feature not in use then BTS shall
apply RG301726 Uplink Min RX based access
feature

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Benefits and Gains

Table of contents

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Benefits and Gains
Potential gains

Potential gains with signal level criterion introduction


All RA burst with insufficient signal level are rejected even though the
legacy criteria are satisfied
Improved filtering of ghost RACH reduces load on signaling channels
=> better system availability
Lower SD drop rate and better call setup success rate

Possible scenarios with limited feature gain maximization


When feature is implemented on capacity layer where problem with
RACH ghosts could be meaningless (e.g. layer where calls are not setup no
idle mode layer)
In highly interfered environment (internal / external interference) where
increased noise floor contributes in RX Level

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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on Network Trial Trial Area

The feature was tested using the trial


software:
BTS name
Layer_900_S0
Layer_900_S1
Layer_900_S2
Layer_1800_S0
Layer_1800_S1
Layer_1800_S2

The RXLT threshold set to -109 dBm as the new parameter default value
- site with low CSSR was selected (taken out of worst performing cell list)
- European operator, dense urban, 3 sectors in 1800 and 3 sectors in 900 - SW
uploaded per site
The reference: feature deactivated (hardcoded threshold -115 dBm in use)
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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on Network Trial CS Performance Results

Trial SW does not contain a dedicated counter to verify # of rejections

but slight reduction in number of RA attempts is visible

If RA attempts reduction is observed in parallel with positive impact on network


performance and no traffic degradation - means that bad traffic is removed from the
network and feature works properly

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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on Network Trial CS Performance Results

Site Site
level level

The increase in call setup success rate and slightly decreased call drop rate is observed when
the feature is activated
The stable amount of traffic proves the true RA bursts are not rejected by mistake and the
calls are served

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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on Network Trial SDCCH related Performance
Results (1/2)
Cell level Cell level

Cell level
Clear Cell level
improvement in
the SDCCH
dropped/success
rate observed,
especially on
coverage 900
Coverage 900 MHz cells MHz cells Coverage 900 MHz
24 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 cells
For internal use
Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on Network Trial SDCCH related Performance
Results (2/2)
Cell level Cell level

csf_2l

Cell level Clear Cell level


improvement in
the SDCCH
dropped/success
rate observed,
especially on
coverage 900
csf_2l
Coverage 900 MHz cells Coverage 900 MHz
MHz cells
25 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 cells
For internal use
Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on Network Trial CSSR related Performance Results
(2/2)
Cell level
Gain is visible especially in coverage layer

cssr_7d Cell level

Due to overall improvement in the SDCCH


performance the call setup success rate is
improved as well
Gain is visible especially in coverage layer
cssr_7d Coverage 900 MHz cells

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Benefits and Gains
SDCCH capacity savings

Due to lower number of allocated SD


Cell level channels real blocking is reduced during
observation period however there was no
significant problem observed in reference
period

Cell level

Due to avoidance of unwanted SDCCH allocations


number of attempts for Dynamic SDCCH
allocation is reduced during observation period

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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on NPI Pilot feature activation strategy

The feature has been activated in the BSC area on all 332 cells with the RXLT
threshold set to different values depending on the no of ghosts observed in the
pre-activation period
The cells are located in the urban area:
No of RXLT value
Cells
cells [dBm]
More than 20000 ghost attempts in the last
7 -111
5 days
Serving dense urban area 8 -108

Up to 1000 ghost attempts in the last 5 days 60 -113


Up to 20000 ghost attempts in the last 5
180 -112
days
Up to 500 ghost attempt in the last 5 days 77 -114

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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on NPI Pilot summary results

The feature has been activated in the BSC area on all 332 cells with the RXLT
threshold set to different values depending on the no of ghosts observed in the
pre-activation period
The cells are located in the urban area: Approx more than 51000 ghost attempts
reduced with the almost similar traffic
Cells with
No of trend at the BSC level
Cells reduced ghost Total 218225 attempts reduced on 218
cells
attempts cells
More than 20000 ghost attempts in the Value of -112 dBm has given the
7 3 (42%) improvement in 74% of the up to
last 5 days
20000 ghost attempts in the last 5
Serving dense urban area 8 7 (87%)
days cells
Up to 1000 ghost attempts in the last 5 Value of -114 dBm has given the
60 37 (61%)
days significant improvement in ghost
Up to 20000 ghost attempts in the attempts for up to 500 ghost attempt
180 134 (74%) Total increase of 166796 attempts in 113
last 5 days cells
cells
Up to 500 ghost attempt in the last 5
77 37 (48%) Out of top 20 worst cells (cssr) 15 cells
days have shown improvement but 5 have
shown major degradation (observations
are necessary)
Almost 80% of the ghost attempts
increase is in the top 11 cells
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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on NPI Pilot BSC level statistics (1/2)
44,000,000
43,000,000 99.60
In
Inv
va
42,000,000 ali
liddR
RA 99.40
e lim
eli ACCHHs
s
41,000,000 min
ina
atte
edd 99.20
40,000,000
SS
CS SR
R
39,000,000 99.00
prove
rov ed
dC
Imp
Im
RAC H ATTEMPTS 38,000,000 98.80
37,000,000 C ALL SETUP SUC C ESS RATE
36,000,000 98.60
35,000,000 98.40
34,000,000
98.20

2,000.00 Normal
Normal trends
trends =>
=> 0.35
valid
valid RACHs
RACHs not
not 0.34
eliminated R
Re
ed
eliminated 0.33 du
uc
ceed dT TC
C H dr
1,800.00 0.32 c
caallll rrat H d ro
atiio opp
0.31 o
0.30
AVG C S TRAFFIC TC H DROP C ALL RATE (W ITHOUT RE) 0.29
1,600.00
0.28
0.27
0.26
1,400.00 0.25

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Benefits and Gains
Evaluation based on NPI Pilot BSC level statistics (2/2)
0.90
1.90 0.85
L
Lo
owwe
1.70 err S
SDDC 0.80
CCCH
Hd
rra
attio
io drro
opp 0.75 R
Re
eddu
1.50 ucceeddS
0.70 SDDCCC
CH
ffa
ail
ilu
urre
es H
1.30 0.65 s
SDC C H RADIO FIAL 0.60
SDC C H DROP (EXC LUDE T3101)
1.10 0.55
0.50
0.90
0.45
0.70 0.40

99.10
6.00
L
Lo
ow 99.00
5.80 we
err S
SDDC CCCH
Hd 98.90
5.60 rra
attio
io drro
opp
98.80 CH
5.40
dS SDDCCC H
ve
rov
pro ed
5.20 98.70 Imp
Im
cees
sss r
r a
at
tio
io
5.00 98.60 su
s uc
cc
4.80 SDC C H SUC C ESS RATIO
SDC C H DROP (INC LUDE T3101) 98.50
4.60
98.40
4.40
4.20 98.30
4.00 98.20

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Configuration
Management
Table of contents

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Configuration Management

Definition of terms and rules for parameter classification*


The Basic Parameters category The Advanced Parameters category
contains primary parameters which should contains the parameters for network
be considered during cell deployment and optimisation and fine tuning:
must be adjusted to a particular scenario:
Decent network performance should be achieved without
Network Element (NE) identifiers tuning these parameters
Planning parameters, e.g. neighbour definitions, Universal defaults ensuring decent network performance
frequency, scrambling codes, PCI, RA preambles need to be defined for all parameters of this category. If
Parameters that are the outcome from dimensioning, i.e. this is not possible for a given parameter it must be put
basic parameters defining amount of resources to the Basic Parameters category
Basic parameters activating basic functionalities, e.g. Parameters requiring detailed system knowledge and
power control, admission control, handovers broad experience unless rules for the Basic Parameters
Parameters defining operators strategy, e.g. traffic category are violated
steering, thresholds for power control, handovers, cell All parameters (even without defaults) related to
reselections, basic parameters defining feature behaviour advanced and very complex features

* - purpose: categories of parameters have been defined to simplify network parameterization. Parameterization effort shall be focused mainly on parameters
included in basic category. Categorization is reflected in a view definition in NetAct CM Editor (released in RL60) i.e. parameters will be displayed according to
the category: either in the Basic parameters view or the Advanced parameters view.

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Configuration Management
New parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link


BTS:
RACH drop RX level threshold
rachDropRxLevelThreshold

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Configuration Management
Related parameters

Abbreviated name Full name PKDB link

BSC: bscOptions BSC Options

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Configuration Management
MML Configuration

Check the feature licence: BSC3i TREBSCKK152 2013-12-29 13:31:56


MISCELLANEOUS PARAMETERS MODIFY COMPLETED:
SEG-0121
- ZW7I:LIC,FULL:LIC=<licence code>; BCF-0121 BTS-0121
BTS ADMINISTRATIVE STATE ... LOCKED
Install the licence if not installed: BTS OPERATIONAL STATE ...... BL-USR
DTX MODE.................................(DTX).... 0 (MS MAY USE
DTX)
- ZW7L:LIC=<licence code>:ON; BTS MEASURE AVERAGE......................(BMA).... 02
MS TX PWR MAX GSM........................(PMAX1).. 33 dBm
Setting up MS TX PWR MAX GSM1X00....................(PMAX2).. 30 dBm
...
rachDropRxLevelThreshold (RXLT): POOL IDENTIFIER..........................(POOLID). 0 (NOT USED)
RACH DROP RX LEVEL THRESHOLD.............(RXLT)... -102 dBm
POWER SAVE PARAMETERS:
- ZEQM:BTS=121:RXLT=-102; 2G TRX POWER DOWN THRESHOLD (TCHs)....(PWDT)... 0 (NOT USED)
2G TRX POWER UP THRESHOLD (TCHs)......(PWUT)... 4
MERGED PGSM900 AND EGSM900 ENABLED.......(MPE).... Y
...
ZEQM:MODIFY BSC DATABASE UPDATED

MISCELLANEOUS COMMAND EXECUTED

PARAMETERS

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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Deployment
Aspects
Network graphic boxes Network element boxes
Table of contents

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Deployment Aspects
In what cases/network scenarios is the feature beneficial?

Coverage cells/layers exposed to interference


UL limited network - UL statistics more impacted
Over-shooting cells, especially in urban environment
Re-farming scenarios leading to frequent BCCH-BSIC conflicts, increased
interference levels
SWAP proceess: when other vendor with RxLev criterion is swapped by Nokia
equipment
A special attention must be paid when setting up the
rachDropRxLevelThreshold:
- The range of the parameter (-115 dBm -47 dBm) allows setting up the threshold
aggressively additionally parameter can be modified ON-LINE
- Too aggressive threshold setting leads to rejection of valid access bursts
and unserved calls monitoring of traffic statistics is important
38 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
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RG301726 Uplink min Rx Level based Access

Performance
Aspects
Table of contents

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Performance Aspects
New counters
Counter name Description
RACH_DROP_LOW_UL_RX_LEVEL( The counter counts the number of drops of the random access bursts
003069) due to too low uplink RX level on a CCCH.
3 Resource Access Measurement Trigger event: BTS includes RACH load into a CCCH LOAD INDICATION
message with the number of dropped random access bursts when UL
RX level is lower than the value of parameter RACH drop RX level
threshold.
BSC increases the counter by the value of the dropped random access
bursts when the number of dropped random access bursts is present
in the Supplementary Information field of RACH load in CCCH LOAD
INDICATION message.

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Performance Aspects
Feature impact
Feature impact How to measure?
Check if the feature works Counters:
Too weak (signal level below the drop threshold) - RACH_DROP_LOW_UL_RX_LEVEL is incremented
random access bursts are filtered out by a BTS
Decrease in the number of SDDCH seizures KPIs:
Due to smaller number of invalid random access - trf_54 SDCCH seizures
bursts the number of SDCCH reservations goes
down.

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Performance Aspects
Feature impact
Feature impact How to measure?
Decrease in the SDCCH drop ratio KPIs:
The positively validated ghost RACH results in the - sdr_4 SDCCH drop ratio without timer T3101 expiry
SDCCH allocation and then in SDCCH_RADIO_FAIL - sdr_1a SDCCH drop ratio
failure. Because of ghost attempts the SDCCH drop
ratio is high with low traffic. As the number of call - csf_2l SDCCH success ratio, including LU
attempts increases the influence of ghost RACH
becomes smaller and the drop ratio approaches its
real value.
With the feature the overall number of ghost
RACH is decreased ending up with improved
performance of SDCCH channels.
Improved call setup success rate KPIs:
Due to smaller number of invalid random access - cssr_7d Call Setup Success Rate overall
bursts the number of wrong SDCCH reservations
ending up with incomplete call setup procedure
goes down.

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Performance Aspects
Feature impact
Feature impact How to measure?
Decrease in the dropped call ratio KPIs:
Due to smaller number of invalid HO access bursts - dcr_8i TCH drop call ratio, after TCH assignment,
the number of dropped calls goes down (refers to without RE
inter-cell HOs between unsynchronised cells)
Served traffic should not change KPIs:
The new RX level criterion should not exclude valid - trf_1a TCH traffic sum
access requests, e.g. by setting the RACH drop RX - trf_167 Total EGPRS RLC payload data
level threshold too aggressively

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References

Reference
RG301726, UPLINK MIN RXLEVEL BASED ACCESS, Requirement Specification, v.2.0.1, Harri Tervonen

RG301726, UPLINK MIN RXLEVEL BASED ACCESS, Implementation Specification, v.1.0.2, Harri Tervonen

Epsilon Algorithm Definition: Ghost RACH Detection Mechanism for GSM-EDGE BTS, v.1.0, Sathiaseelan
Sundaralingham

EP SW DSP CCFL GHOST RACH DETECTION, DESIGN SPECIFICATION, v.1.1, Anadi Mahajan

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