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STORAGE BATTERIES

SELECTION

DESIGN

CHARGING &

MAINTENANCE
of
SUB STATION BATTERY

by JAGDISH BIST 1
STORAGE BATTERIES
SELECTION
REQUIREMENT
Supply to trip/close coils
Indication/facia/semaphore/alarm
Interlock schemes
Protection schemes
Communication including PLCC
EDP
Emergency DC lighting
Electric impulse for impulse clocks2
STORAGE BATTERIES
SELECTION
BATTERY TYPES
LEAD - ACID
NICKEL - CADMIUM
NICKEL IRON
Ni MH
Li ion , etc.

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STORAGE BATTERIES

SELECTION
LEAD ACID CELL - TYPES

Plante positive plate


Tubular positive plate
Pasted positive plate
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STORAGE BATTERIES

SELECTION
LONG TERM COST EFFECTIVENESS

Type Plante Tubular Pasted

Capacity (AH) 300 300 300


Initial cost (%) 100 75-80 70
Life (%)` 100 60-70 50-60

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STORAGE BATTERIES

DESIGN

Voltage of battery bank

Number of cells

Rated Ampere hour capacity

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Voltage
Voltage of battery bank depends
on rated operating voltage of
Control, protection, alarm,
indication devices etc. vis-
220, 110, 48, 24 volts

Higher voltage leads to more


economical configuration
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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Specifications ( from client)
System nominal voltage 220 V
System Maximum voltage 242 V
System minimum voltage 198 V
Battery nominal voltage 2V
End cell voltage 1.85 V
Float charging voltage (max) 2.27 V
Minimum Temperature 20C
Load details -- Slide no - 17

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Number of Cells
No of cells based on Minimum system voltage =
Minimum allowable battery voltage / End cell
voltage of the cell
198/1.85 = 107.03 ------- i
No of cells based on Maximum system voltage
=
Maximum allowable battery voltage / Float
charging voltage ( max)
242/2.25 = 107.56 ------- ii
From equation i & ii ; no of cells considered to
meet voltage limits = 108 Nos
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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Confirmation

Minimum system voltage =


108 x 1.85 = 199.8 Volts
Maximum system voltage =
108 x 2.25 = 243.0 Volts
Conclusion Since the derived voltage levels are with in
the operating limits ; 108 cells are adequate

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Rated Ampere-hour capacity
The energy storage capacity of a battery is expressed in
Ampere-hour (Ah).

The Ampere-hour capacity of lead acid cells varies with the


rate of discharge.

The capacity is more at slower rate of discharge and less at


higher rate of discharge.

The Indian Standard specifications( IS-1651 ) have adopted


10-hour rate ( C-10 ) as standard rate of discharge for station
batteries.

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Factors affecting Ampere-hour rating
Temperature
Aging
Load
Continuous load
Momentary load
Emergency lighting load
Short time load
Miscellaneous
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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Factors affecting Ampere-hour rating
Temperature
The rated AH capacity of lead acid cells is specified,
corresponding to a temperature of 27 C. The capacity is
marginally reduced with lowering of Electrolyte temperature
and increased with the rise of Electrolyte temperature at the
rate of 0.43per degree centigrade variation in temperature
for C10 discharge rate.
Ct x R x ( 27 t )
Capacity at 27 C = Ct + ----------------------
100
Where : C - Observed capacity at t C,
R Variation factor
t - Average Electrolyte temperature

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Factors affecting Ampere-hour rating

Aging
To account for aging of battery
multiply the load by 1.25 since capacity
of the battery may remain 90 to 95 %,
after some time.

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Factors affecting Ampere-hour rating
Load
Continuous load : The load due to
indications, holding coils, relays etc.
Momentary load : The load due to
operation of switchgears ( trip / close
coil ) etc.
Emergency lighting load
Short time load : load during change
over, alarm etc
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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Factors affecting Ampere-hour rating
Miscellaneous
Design margin : 1.1 (IEEE 485 )
Duration of continuous load : 3 Hrs
Emergency load duration :As per Specifications
Momentary load duration : As per Specifications
Short time load duration : As per Specifications

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
Let DC load, type and duration be :

Load Description Amp


Continuous load ( CL ) 40
Momentary tripping load ( MTL ) 300
Emergency lighting load ( ELL ) 15
Short time load ( STL ) 05
Momentary closing load ( MCL ) 10

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STORAGE BATTERIES
DESIGN
DC load (discharge ) cycle for 180
minutes:
Duration Load Description Amp
1 min MTL + CL + ELL 355
5 min STL + CL + ELL 60
54 MIN CL + ELL 55
119 MIN CL 40
1 MIN MCL + CL 50
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STORAGE BATTERIES
D E S I G N - AH Calculations
Amp Duration Capacity Capacity Capacity Total Capacity Residual
Hr of each for to add Capacity Actually Capacity
load at individual AH for load used AH
27C AH Load at AH AH
10.00 Hr
rate AH

355 1/60 6.10 203.16 203.16 203.16 6.10 197.06


60 5/60 5.15 171.68 -- 197.06 5.15 191.91
55 54/60 56.66 113.32 -- 191.91 56.66 135.25
40 119/60 82.41 130.19 -- 135.25 130.19 5.06
50 1/60 0.86 28.61 23.55 28.61 0.86 27.75
Total 226.71 AH

---Contd---
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STORAGE BATTERIES
---- contd ----
DESIGN
AH Calculations
Maximum AH Calculated 226.71
Required size - AH calculated x
Design margin x
Aging factor
= 226.71 * 1.1 * 1.25
= 311.72
Battery size chosen = 330AH

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STORAGE BATTERIES
BATTERY CHARGING

First Charge / Initial Charging


The cells if received in dry uncharged
condition shall be filled up with
electrolyte and shall be charged in
accordance with manufacturers
instruction. The standard specific
gravity of a fully charged cell shall be
1.2000 0.005 corrected at 27 C

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STORAGE BATTERIES
BATTERY CHARGING
Float
In this method the voltage of charger is
substantially constant and just higher
than open circuit voltage of battery. The
method is applied to compensate for
local action and leakage losses.

The charger also supplies the entire dc


load under normal condition.

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STORAGE BATTERIES
BATTERY CHARGING
Float
Often, Battery requires additional charging,
commonly known as Equalizing Charge, if

1. Specific gravity of a cell is more than 10 points (0.010)


below the average of all cells.
2. Specific gravity of all cells drop more than 10 points
from average installed value.
3. If any cell voltage is below 2.13 V while floating.
4. If water is added to electrolyte.
5. An equalizing charge should be given to the battery at
least once in 18 months.
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STORAGE BATTERIES
BATTERY CHARGING
Float voltage per cell Interval between equalizing
charge
2.20 volts 12 months
2.15 volts 03 months
2.10 volts 02 months
2.08 volts 01 months

Equalizing charge is given to the battery generally


at 3 months interval to bring up / equalise the
sp gravity of the cells. The charging current is
maintained at about 40% of the rated 10-Hr
capacity till battery is fully charged 24
STORAGE BATTERIES
BATTERY CHARGING
BOOST
Boost charging is done by charging the battery at
a high rate till the specific gravity of electrolyte
in the cells is restored to the fully charged value
of 1.2000.005 at 27C.
In the process temperature of electrolyte
increases and Hydrogen gases liberates.
Temperature of electrolyte should not normally
be allowed to increase beyond 38C but in no
case beyond 50C
To obtain adequate current cells are charged @
2.40 to 2.65 volts per cells.
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STORAGE BATTERIES

BATTERY CHARGING
Charger Rating
1. The charger should be capable of float charging
the batteries at 2.05 to 2.25 volts per cell and
simultaneously supplying the dc load of the
station.
2. The charger should also be capable of boost
charging at a voltage in the range of 2.3 to 2.7
volts per cell and delivering current equal to
100% of the rated 10 Hr discharge current of
battery plus the continuous load of the station.

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STORAGE BATTERIES
MAINTENANCE
Select Pilot cell and record daily
Float voltage
Specific gravity
Temperature

Condition of ventilation of battery room


Battery and battery area for leakage
Ambient room temperature

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STORAGE BATTERIES
MAINTENANCE
Checks General
Appearance of battery and battery area
Charger output current and voltage
Electrolyte level
Cracks in cell or leakage of electrolyte
Evidence of corrosion at terminals and
connectors
Ambient temperature and condition of
ventilation equipment

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STORAGE BATTERIES

MAINTENANCE
Checks Quarterly

Specific gravity of each cell


Voltage of each cell
Total battery terminal voltage
Temperature of electrolyte

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STORAGE BATTERIES
MAINTENANCE
Checks Yearly
Cell condition
Tightness of bolted connection for the
torque recommended by manufacturer
Terminal connector resistance
Cell resistance
Integrity of battery racks
Performance test as per IS-14782

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STORAGE BATTERIES

MAINTENANCE
Checks Important
Remove electrolyte spillage on cell
covers and containers with a
bicarbonate of soda or other suitable
neutralizing agent and water
moistened wiper. All wipers used
should be free from oil distillates.

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STORAGE BATTERIES
MAINTENANCE
Pay attention to
Continued lowering of electrolyte level
(leakage or excessive evaporation)
Battery voltage falling too rapidly
( Loose connection or eroded terminal)
Contd. Low sp. gravity with normal cell voltage
( Internal short ckt or sulphation of terminals)
Premature gassing
( Internal problem - Negative plate low in capacity due to
sulphation)

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STORAGE BATTERIES
MAINTENANCE
DO s
Top up the electrolyte with distilled water only
Do the topping up before charging so that water
mixes properly
Cover terminal with Vaseline
Use glass / plastic vessels for handling
electrolyte / acid / Water
Attend to weak cells immediately
Distilled water should be as per IS : 1069

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STORAGE BATTERIES
MAINTENANCE
Donts
Never allow a flame, cigarette or bidi in battery room
Never top up cells by a metallic vessel
Do not bridge terminals with spanner
Do not leave any tool on the top of cell
Never top up the cell with acid except for compensation of
spilled acid
Do not exceed charging current when cell/s start gassing
Electrolyte temperature should not exceed beyond 50C
Do not allow cell voltage to go below 1.85 Volts

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STORAGE BATTERIES

&

Questions please

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