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# Thermal

Management

Basic Thermal
Analysis

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Heat Flow

## The second law of thermodynamics states that

heat always flows from a hotter region to a cooler
region

## All active and passive devices are sources of heat

and are always hotter than the average
temperature of their immediate surrounding

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Heat Sink
PPGA

Socket PCB

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Conduction

## Thermal conduction is a process in which heat

flows through a solid,liquid, or gas or between two
media that in intimate contact with each other.

## Dorminant mechanism for heat transfer within

solids involving transfer of kinetic thermal energy T1 > T2
from one electron to another.
T1

## Conduction through dielectric solids is entirely q

due to lattice vibrations
T2
While through metallic solids has the added
energy transport by free electron
Conduction
School of Materials and Mineral Resources
14 August 2007 Engineering
Thermal transfer via electron is similar to that of
electric charge good electrical conductors such
as copper and silver are good thermal conductors

## Liquid is also a good thermal conductor but to a

lesser extent than solids
Thermal conductivity of gases is quite low.
When liquid changes to a gas thereis a loosening of
molecular bonds compare to liquid. Gas molecules are free
to move in any direction and the only constraint are
randomly collisions which results in significantly lower
probability that contact areas will exist

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Think of molecular activity - translational, rotational
and vibrational energy of the molecules.
Collision between molecules occurs to transfer energy.
No bulk motion of material.
T1 T1 T

x
T2
T2

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Fouriers Law

## Fouriers law of heat conduction states that the rate of heat

flow equals the product of the area normal to the heat path,
the temperature gradient along the path, and the thermal
conductivity of the medium

dq dT
kA (1)
dt dx
where k = thermal conductivity of medium in watts/m-K or watts/in- oC
A=cross-sectional area of medium normal to the heat flow in in 2 or cm2
T = temperature of medium in oC
x = position along the medium in in or cm
t = time in seconds
q = heat generated per unit volume in joules/cm3
Q = heat flow in watts normal to the cross-sectional area of heat
transfer
School of Materials and Mineral Resources
14 August 2007 Engineering
dq
power in watts or calories per second
dt

dT
Temperature gradient in C/in or C/cm
o o

dx

## The temperature gradient and cross-sctional area are defined

at the same point x

decreasing

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Equation (1) can be written as
Qk
dT dx (2)
kA
Intergrating both sides of Equation (2)

T2 x2 dx
T1
dT Qk
x1 kAk
(3)

## Assuming that the thermal conductivity k does not vary over

the length L=x1 x2 , Eqn (3) reduces to

L
T T2 T1 Qk (4)
kA
where T = T2 T1 is the temperature difference along the length L

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Thermal resistance can be defined as
L
(5)
kA

T
(6)
Qk

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
As shown in Fig. 5.5 a heat source producing Qk watts is mounted
on a block attached to a heat sink which is at a constant,uniform
temp of Theat sink

## The temperature of the heat source in this configuration can

be calculated as
Theatsource Theat sin k .Qk (7)

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Example
A copper rod 6 inches long, 0.5 in wide and 0.5 in thick as shown in Fig 5.6 has
a 40oC temperature difference over its length. One end is fixed at 100oC. The
themal conductivity of copper rod is 10 watt/oC-in.What is the power transferred.

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
L 6
2 .4 o
C /W
kA (10W / C in)(0.5in)(0.5in)
o

T
(6)
Qk

T 40o C
Qk 16.67W
o
2.4 C / W

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Electrical analogies of Thermal Resistance,

## Thermal characteristic can be simplified by considering thermal

properties analogous to electrical properties

## The temperature drop T is similar to voltage drop

When several materials are stacked in series such as a die attached with
epoxy to a substrate wihich is soldered to a package base , the
equivalent thermal resistance equiv is

equiv = 1 + 2 + 3 + + N

## T j , j 1 Theat sin k Qk j , j 1:hs

where Tj,j-1= temperature at interface of layers j and j-1
j,j-1:hs = sum of thermal resistances from interface of layers j and j-1 to the
heat sink
School of Materials and Mineral Resources
14 August 2007 Engineering
The Fig 5.7 illustrate the stack
up of thermal resistances
using the electrical circuit
analogy

## Temperature at the interface of

two layers cannot change
discontinously

Ex. Temp at the bottom of the die will be the same as the temperature at
the top of the die attach material (in the Fig denoted as T1-2)

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Example
Refering to the above Fig, the heat dissipated in a junction is 10 watts.
The thermal resistance of the copper is 0.5oC/watt. The case
temperature is 100oC. Find the temperature of the top of the copper
base.
T j , j 1 Theat sin k Qk j hs

## T4,5 100 o C 10Wx 5 100 10 x0.5 105o C

When there is more than one heat path from the dissipating element to
ambient than the equivalent thermal resistance can be considered to be
the parallel equivalent of the individual thermal resistance

1 1 1 1 1 (8)
.........
equiv 1 2 3 N

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
In the above Fig. there are two heat paths from the die. The 1st path,1,
is from the die thru the subsrtate,while 2 is from the top of the die thru
1 1 1

equiv 1 2

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Thermal Resistance - Series vs. Parallel

## We can treat one-dimensional conduction problem like a electrical

circuit problem - resistances in series and parallel.
Recall resistances in :

Series

Rseries R1 R2
R1 R2

Parallel R1
1 1 1

R parallel R1 R2

## R2 School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Convection
Convection is the transfer of thermal energy between two surfaces as a
consequence of a relative velocity between them

## It occurs only in fluid where the transfer mechanism is mixing of the

fluids
In practical , one is solid surface and the other is fluid surface

## Heat loss due to Newtonian cooling or convection cooling is proportional

to the temperature difference, T , between them.
Ta
q
Qc hc As Ts TA hc As T (9)

Ts

Convection
School of Materials and Mineral Resources
14 August 2007 Engineering
where Qc = heat transferred from a surface to ambient by convection in watts
As = surface area in cm2 or in2
Ts = surface temperature in oC
TA = ambient temperature in oC (temp to which the heat is being
transferred)
hc = convection heat transfer coefficient in watts/cm3-oC or watts/in3-oC

1
T Qc (10)
hc As

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Convective surface thermal resistance

1
s (11)
hc As

## Natural convection, is due entirely to differences in density within the

fluids resulting from different temperatures

## Forced convection, thermal energy is transfered from solid to adjacent

fluid particles as in natural convection but the subsequent fluid action
occurs through artficially induced fluid motion generated by pumps or
blowers.

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
For natural or free convection, the convection heat transfer coefficient is
given as
T 0.25
h DE 0.25 (12)
L

## where D = constant for air properties (see Fig 5.9)

E = constant for surface configuration (E=1.9 x 10-4 for flat surface)
L = characteristic length in cm or inches of dissipator surface with area factor
T = temperature difference in oC between the dissipator and ambient air

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
For forced convection, the convection heat transfer coefficient is given as
V 0.75
h B 0.75 (13)
L
where B = constant for air properties and surface configuration
V = linear velocity of air in cm/sec or in/sec
L = characteristic length of surface in direction of flow in cm or inches

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Example

A flat plate with a characteristic length of 2.0 in as shown in the above Fig. can be
considered a model for flat heat sink. The plate size is 2.0 x 2.0 in. The plat bottom is at
125oC while the ambient air is 25oC. The value of D for this configuration is 0.26.
Calculate the natural convective transfer heat coefficient hc . (Ans: 1.31 x 10-2 )

In a forced convection cooling, air with a velocity of 500 feet/min is blown across a plate
with characteristic length of 2.0 inches. The surface area is 40 in2 and the
property/surface configuration constant is 1.0 x 10-3. Calculate the thermal resistance.
(Ans: 0.518 oC/watt)

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
surface, T1
Radiation cooling is the transfer of heat by q1
electromagnetic emission, primarily in the infrared
wavelengths and may be considered a totally surface
q2
related phenomena.

## Does not require a transport medium, and is maximized surface, T2

when there is no intervening material.

## The emissivity of a body or surface, , is defined as the ratio of

the radiated flux, E, emitted by a body to that of a black body at
the same temperature
E
(14)
Eb
School of Materials and Mineral Resources
14 August 2007 Engineering
A black body or perfect emitter =1, while a perfect reflector =0

expressed as

R T 4 (15)

Q
R (16)
A

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
where = surface emissivity in joules/sec-cm2
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant (3.65 x 10-11 watts/in2-K4)
Q = heat transferred in watts
A = radiating surface area in m2
T = temperature of surface in K

## Where T1 = temperature of hot body in K

T2 = temperature of cold body in K (air molecules or other absorbing body
S =shielding factor or view factor

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
The shielding factor S, whose values ranges from 0 to 1, is a measure of
how well the emitter sees the absorber

For the radiant heat transfer mode the thermal resistance is given as

(T1 T2 )

SA(T14 T24 )

## School of Materials and Mineral Resources

14 August 2007 Engineering
Example
The bottom of a heat sink is at 150oC while the ambient air is at 25oC. The heat sink is
nickel-plated with a surface area of 4.0 jn2. The shielding factor is 1.0. Calculate the
amount of heat transferred due to radiation. (Ans: 0.388 watts)
School of Materials and Mineral Resources
14 August 2007 Engineering