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TEXT & CONTEXT

CONNECTIONS
(Critical Reading)
Critical reading is a type of reading whereby the
reader analyzes and interpret the reading material to know of
it presents logical ideas and connection of ideas. It may or
may not involve evaluation of the strength of the writers
point.

It is done when a reader would like to understand the texts


deeper meaning because it is a way of knowing how a writer
thinks. In doing so, the reader first identifies the purpose of
the write in writing the text to inform, entertain, persuade,
and so on.

It is where the reader go through the authors ideas and


assess whether the purpose of the writer is achieved by
evaluating the validity of the facts, opinions, and interferences
presented.
You will know if the statement is

FACT if it can be proven through verifiable


evidence such as historical documents or
statistics.
OPINIONS if it expresses the writers
personal preferences, judgments,
predictions, or values.
INFERENCES if it is concluding which are
made after considering all the other ideas
presented in the text.
Determining Claims Made in a Text
An argument is a statement of opinion which
purpose is to persuade or inform.
An argument contains the writers claim which may
be classified into different types :
When an author is claiming in the argument that
something should be implemented, that is
called claim of policy.
When an author is claiming that a particular
statement is true, that is called claim of fact.
When an author is claiming in the argument that
something is important, that is called claim of
value.
Context of Text Development
Two context of text development are essential in
understanding texts in the sense that
they offer additional information that helps
the reader comprehend what the writer tries to
convey through the text.

HYPERTEXTS
INTERTEXTS.
HYPERTEXTS
Hypertexts are very common in online writings.
They are a device in linking a text to another. It
helps you get informed about a particular word,
name, or concept in the text that may not be
familiar to you. Hypertexts are text displayed
on a computer display or other electronic
devices with references (hyperlinks) to other
text which the reader can immediately access.
WWW (world wide web) is a simple and basic
example of hypertext.
INTERTEXT
when you encounter texts that make you draw
information on the readings that you have read
previously, you will likely find allusions,
imagery, and many literary devices that make
you use your prior knowledge. Such devices
are called intertext.
From the prefix inter-, intertext means that the
writer has put together ideas from different
sources, and that to understand the text, a
reader must have read or is familiar with the
other texts that the writer is alluding to.
3 TYPES OF INTERTEXTUAL
RELATIONSHIPS
OBLIGATORY
OPTIONAL
ACCIDENTAL

These variations depend on two key


factors:
the intention of the writer, and
the significance of the reference.
The distinctions between these types and those differences
between categories are not absolute and exclusive (Miola,
2004) but instead, are manipulated in a way that allows them
to co-exist within the same text.
WRITING SUMMARY
A product of critical reading

Compose of the INTRODUCTION,


BODY and CONCLUSION

Steps in writing a good summary


PREWRITING
DRAFTING
PREWRITING DRAFTING
1.What is the title of the 1. Begin writing your summary by
stating the thesis or main idea
text? of the text including the name
2.Who is the author of the of the author and date of
publication.
text?
2. Provide transition device that
3.What is the main idea or will bridge the gap between the
thesis of the text? What introduction and the body
paragraphs which must contain
is the text about? What is the supporting points made in
the authors claim? the text by the author.
4.What are the points 3. Generalize some specific
details for conciseness.
presented by the author to 4. Lastly, restate the main idea
support the claim in the and add some last thoughts of
thesis? the author in the text.
For easy writing/composing THE SUMMARY,
you may use the phrases below:
Parts of Summary Useful Phrases
In the article entitled.claims/states/contends/points out that
Introduction
(authors name)s basic argument can be summarized by ..

In this text.. (authors name).. is describing.

He/She clarifies what he/she means by


Body
(authors name) begins by discussing.

He/She also gives many examples of.

He/She mentions..

Conclusion The author concludes that..

Ultimately, for (authors name)..


REVISING PROOFREADING
Revision Checklist Proofread your draft if you
Does my summary contain think that your essay needs
a main point? no further revision, that is,
Does my summary contain if you have conformed to the
sufficient ideas? description patterns specific
Are the ideas accurate? features.
Have I used transitions to Do this by checking for
make my ideas coherent? spelling, punctuation,
Is the arrangement of the format, and grammar errors.
specific details logical? You may want to include
Have I acknowledge the pictures in your manuscript
sources of the information I and write a caption.
incorporated in the text?
CRITICAL READING can now be
define as..
Looking for ways of thinking
because it involves trying to
determine the way the writer of a
particular text thinks. When a writer
presents his or her opinions or
arguments, he or she may do so by
presenting a claim of fact, claim of
policy or a claim of value.
Evaluating Text through Writing

Evaluating texts is assessing the


degree to which the authors ideas are
valid. By doing so, you are not only
trying to find out the rationality behind
the authors arguments but also testing
your ability to detect logical fallacies or
errors in reasoning.
Formulating Evaluative Statements
After reading carefully and critically, checked for
FALLACIES

Fallacies occur when illogical reasoning is used to support a


faulty argument. Considering that faulty arguments are difficult
to support with logical reasoning.

2 Steps In Composing Evaluative Statements

1. The first step is to express your assertions about


the text.
2. The next step is to support your assertions with
pieces of evidence you can find in the text.
Formulating Assertions about the
Content and Properties of a Text Read

In formulating assertions, you have to examine


which ideas are facts or opinions, make
inferences and conclusions, and assess the
overall quality of the text. These assertions
usually contain evaluative language such as
useful, significant, important, insightful,
detailed, up-to-date, comprehensive, practical,
etc.
Formulating Meaningful Counterclaims in
Response to Claims Made in a Text Read

You must recognize the value of hedges when


you state your counterclaims. A hedge is a
word or phrase that minimizes the negative
impact of a criticism. When you are presenting
a counterclaim, you are providing criticism
since you are stating that the claim is not true.
Considering that academic or professional
writing requires a courteous tone, hedges are
used.
Hedges could come in different forms,
such as:
1. Modals (e.g. may, could, would, etc.)
2. Frequency adverbs (e.g. usually, generally, commonly)
3. Probability adverbs (e.g. probably, possibly, presumably)
And so on. Notice the difference between the two sentences:
. Obesity is caused by the bad food choices being offered by the
food industry.
. Obesity is probably caused by the bad food choices being
offered by the food industry.
The hedge probably in the second sentence somehow removed the
accusing tone of the first sentence.
Determining Textual Evidence
When you give comments on a text read, you ought to
support your claim in your statement by quoting an idea
presented in the text. Since your evidence is in the form of
text, it is called textual evidence.

In using textual evidence, you have to make sure that you


have cited both the objective or subjective evidence.
Objective evidence is information from the text which is
considered as solid support because this includes
specific information such as scores, quantity, and
percentages
subjective evidence is textual evidence that is not
measurable or specific. This includes assertions and
inferences made by the author that can be used to prove
the evaluation of the reviewer.
Writing a Response to a Read Text

Writing a response is one way of evaluating a text


you have read. In writing reading responses, you will
make use of your skill in writing summaries because
you must first lay out your understanding of the text
before you can actually express the extent to which
you agree or disagree with the author on a particular
element of his/her writing.
A reading response has two parts, the summary and
the response itself. In writing a response, it will be
easier if you will write marginal notes or annotate the
text with your reaction on every element or idea in
the text as you read.
Be prepared to do the following:

1.Examine the connection between the authors


profile and the authors claim
2.Think about the audience and purpose of the
text
3.Ask questions about the ideas presented in the
text
4.Look for evidence in the text that could
support your evaluation of whether the authors
arguments are agreeable or not.
PREWRITING DRAFTING
Write a two-part essay. The
List down ideas and
first part will be the summary
information that you will
of the text followed by the
include in your reading
second part which is the
response paper by
response. You should not
answering the questions
forget to support your
for writing a summary and
response with textual
consolidating your
evidence. You may want to
response notes or
use the sample phrases for
reactions you have written
writing evaluative statements
while reading the text you
in the previous discussion
would like to respond to.
about formulating evaluative
statements.
In order for the ideas to flow smoothly in the
text, you may use the following phrases:
The author seeks to criticize
(authors name) prove/puts forth.
Reading (authors name)s article, a reader may well
be convinced that
In general, I agree with although I think that
The author fails to consider the fact that
The author makes a valid point when he/she says
The authors argument rests on the premise that
The authors argument suffers from serious
shortcoming.
The author is right.
REVISION PROOFREADING

Revision Checklist Proofread your draft if


Have I identified accurately the you think that your
writers claim? essay needs to further
Does my critique contain an
revision, that is, if you
assertion?
have conformed to the
Does my critique include
textual evidence that will description patterns
support my assertion? specific features.
Are my evaluations fair and Do this by checking for
clear? spelling, punctuation,
Have I used transitions that format, and grammar
can make my ideas flow
logically and smoothly?
errors.
Responding to texts by reading critically may
not be that easy, but through adequate
practice, it will eventually be much easier. In
writing evaluations, begin with a general
assertion, which will serve as your thesis
statement, then discuss the pieces of evidence
mentioned in the text to prove your assertion.
Make sure that your arguments are logical by
reviewing each one for possible fallacies.
7 CRITICAL READING STRATEGIES
1. Previewing: Learning about a text before really reading
it.
2. Contextualizing: Placing a text in its historical,
biographical, and cultural contexts.
3. Questioning to understand and remember: Asking
questions about the content.
4. Reflecting on challenges to your beliefs and values:
Examining your personal responses.
5. Outlining and summarizing: Identifying the main ideas
and restating them in your own words.
6. Evaluating an argument: Testing the logic of a text as
well as its credibility and emotional impact.
7. Comparing and contrasting related readings: Exploring
likenesses and differences between texts to understand
them better.
Performance Task

Access
http://www.majortests.com/sat/critical-reading.php
and answer at least FIVE READING
COMPREHENSION PRACTICE TESTS. Print your
score and submit.

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