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ERT 206/4

Thermodynamics
CHAPTER 3
Volumetric Properties of
Pure Fluids

Miss. Rahimah Bt. Othman


Email: rahimah@unimap.edu.my
COURSE OUTCOME 1 CO1)
1.Chapter 1: Introduction to Thermodynamics
2.Chapter 2: The First Law and Other Basic Concepts

2.Chapter 3: Volumetric properties of pure fluids


DESCRIBE and EXPLAIN PVT behavior of pure substances,
Virial Equation of State, Ideal Gas, Virial Equation- APPLICATION,
Cubic Equation of State, Generalized Correlations for gases and
liquids.

4. Chapter 4: Heat effects


5. Chapter 5: Second law of thermodynamics
6. Chapter 6: Thermodynamics properties of fluids
A
A substance
substance that
that has
has aa fixed
fixed chemical
chemical
composition
composition throughout
throughout is
is called
called aa
Pure Substance..
Pure Substance
Pure
Pure Substance:
Substance:
-- N
N2,2, O
O2,2, gaseous
gaseous AirAir
-A
-A mixture
mixture of of liquid
liquid and
and gaseous
gaseous
water
water is is aa pure
pure substance,
substance, but
but aa
mixture
mixture of of liquid
liquid and
and gaseous
gaseous air
air is
is
not.
not.
The molecules
in a SOLID are
kept at their
positions by
the large
spring like
inter-molecular
forces. In a solid, the
attractive and
repulsive forces
between the
molecules tend to
maintain them at
relatively constant
distances from each
other.

The arrangement of atoms in different phases: (a) molecules are at relatively


fixed positions in a solid, (b) groups of molecules move about each other in the
LIQUID phase, and (c) molecules move about at random in the GAS phase.
3.
3. Phase-Change
Phase-Change Processes
Processes of
of
Pure
Pure Substance
Substance
Compressed
Compressed liquid
liquid or
or aa subcooled
subcooled liquid:
liquid: AA
liquid
liquid that
that is
is not
not about
about toto vaporize.
vaporize.
Saturated
Saturated liquid:
liquid: AA liquid
liquid that
that isis about
about to to
vaporize.
vaporize.
Saturated
Saturated vapor:
vapor: AA vapor
vapor that
that isis about
about
to
to condense.
condense.
Saturated
Saturated liquid-vapor
liquid-vapor mixture:
mixture: the
the liquid
liquid
and
and vapor
vapor phases
phases coexist
coexist inin equilibrium.
equilibrium.
Superheated
Superheated vapor:
vapor: AA vapor
vapor that
that isis not
not
about
about toto condense
condense
3.
3. Phase-Change
Phase-Change Processes
Processes of
of Pure
Pure
Substance
Substance
Saturated
Saturated temperature,
temperature, TTsat sat:: At
At aa given
given
pressure,
pressure, the
the temperature
temperature at at which
which aa pure
pure
substance
substance changes
changes phase.
phase.
Saturated
Saturated pressure,
pressure, PPsat
sat:: At
At aa given
given
temperature,
temperature, the
the pressure
pressure atat which
which aa pure
pure
substance
substance changes
changes phase.
phase.
Latent
Latent heat:
heat: the
the amount
amount of of energy
energy absorbed
absorbed or
or
released
released during
during aa phase-change
phase-change process.
process.
Latent
Latent heat
heat ofof fusion:
fusion: the
the amount
amount of of energy
energy
absorbed
absorbed during
during melting.
melting.
Latent
Latent heat
heat ofof vaporization:
vaporization: the the amount
amount ofof
energy
energy absorbed
absorbed during
during vaporization.
vaporization.
T-v diagram for the heating process of
2-1 water at constant pressure.
3.
3. Property
Property Diagrams
Diagrams for
forPhase-Change
Phase-Change Processes
Processes

Critical point highest


combination of pressure
PVT BEHAVIOR OF PURE SUBSTANCES/ FLUIDSwhere the
and temperature
fluid exist in liq-vap
equilibrium

The 2-C line, also known as


vaporization curve is where
liquid-vapor is in equilibrium

Triple point, three


phases exist in
The 1-2 line, also The 2-3 line, also known as
equilibrium (F=0)
known as sublimation fusion curve is where solid-
curve is where solid- liquid is in equilibrium
vapor is in
equilibrium
3.
3. Property
Property Diagrams
Diagrams for
forPhase-Change
Phase-Change Processes
Processes
4.
4. Property
Property Tables
Tables

For
Formost
mostsubstances,
substances,thetherelationships
relationshipsamongamongthermodynamics
thermodynamics
properties
propertiesare
aretoo
toocomplex
complexto toexpressed
expressedby bysimple
simpleequations.
equations.
Therefore
Thereforeproperties
propertiesarearepresented
presentedin inthe
theform
formofoftables
tables
(Property
(PropertyTables).[
Tables).[Smith
Smithet etal.
al.(2005);
(2005);Cengel
Cengel& &Boles
Boles(2002)]
(2002)]
Property
Propertytables
tablesare
aregiven
givenininthe
theAppendix
Appendixin inboth
bothSISIand
andEnglish
English
units.
units.
The
Thetables
tablesin
inEnglish
Englishunits
unitscarry
carrythe
thesame
samenumber
numberas asthe
the
corresponding
correspondingtables
tablesin
inSI,
SI,followed
followedby byananidentifier
identifierE.
E.
For
Forexample:
example:Tables
TablesA-6
A-6andandA6-E
A6-Elistlistproperties
propertiesof
ofsuperheated
superheated
water
watervapor.[Tables
vapor.[TablesF-2F-2ininSmith
Smithet etal.]
al.]
Table
TableA-4
A-4until
untilA-8:
A-8:show
showinternal
internalenergy
energy(u),(u),enthalpy
enthalpy(h)
(h)and
and
entropy
entropy(s).
(s).
4(a).
4(a).Saturated
SaturatedLiquid
Liquidand
andSaturated
SaturatedVapor
VaporStates
States
The
Theproperties
propertiesof
ofsaturated
saturatedliquid
liquidand
andsaturated
saturatedvapor
vaporfor
forwater
water
are
arelisted
listedin
inTables
TablesA-4
A-4andandA-5.
A-5.
Table
TableA-4
A-4properties
propertiesisislisted
listedunder
undertemperature,
temperature,and
andTable
TableA-5
A-5
under
underpressure.
pressure.
Subscript:
Subscript:
ff ==properties
propertiesof
ofsaturated
saturatedliquid
liquid
gg ==properties
propertiesof
ofsaturated
saturatedvapor
vapor
fgfg ==difference
differencebetween
betweenproperties
propertiesof
ofsaturated
saturatedvapor
vaporand
andliquid
liquid
For
Forexample:
example:
vvf ==specific
specificvolume
volumeof
ofsaturated
saturatedliquid
liquid
f
vvg ==specific
specificvolume
volumeof
ofsaturated
saturatedvapor
vapor
g
vvfg ==vvg --vvf
fg g f

Saturated
Saturated pressure
pressure(P
(Psatsat):):
--The
Thepressure
pressurewhen
whenliquid
liquidand andvapor
vaporphases
phasesare
areininequilibrium
equilibriumatataagiven
given
temperature
temperaturevalue.
value.
Saturated
Saturated temperature
temperature(T
(Tsatsat):):
-- The
Thetemperature
temperaturewhen
whenliquid
liquidand
andvapor
vaporphases
phasesare
areininequilibrium
equilibriumatataagiven
given
A rigid tank contains 50 kg of saturated liquid water at 90 oC. Determine the
pressure in the tank and the volume of the tank.
Solution

The state of the saturated liquid water is shown on a T-v diagram. Since
saturation conditions exist in the tank, the pressure must be the saturation
pressure at 90 oC.
P = Psat@90oC = 70.14 kPa (Table A-4)

The specific volume of the saturated liquid at 90 oC is


v = vf@90oC = 0.001036 m3/kg (Table A-4)

Then the total volume of the tank is


V = mv = (50 kg)(0.001036 m3/kg) = 0.0518 m3
A piston-cylinder device contains 2 ft3 of saturated water vapor at 50-psia
pressure. Determine the temperature and the mass of the vapor inside the
cylinder.

Solution

The state of the saturated water vapor is shown on a P-v diagram. Since the
cylinder contains saturated vapor at 50 psia, the temperature inside must be
the saturation temperature at this pressure.
T = Tsat@90oC = 281.03 oF (Table A-5E)

The specific volume of the saturated vapor at 50 psia is;


v = vf@50 psia = 8.518 ft3/lbm (Table A-5E)

Then the mass of water vapor inside the cylinder becomes;


V 2 ft 3
m 3
0.235 lbm
v 8.518 ft /lbm
A mass of 200 g of saturated liquid water is completely vaporized at a
constant pressure of 100 kPa. Determine (a) the volume change and (b) the
amount of energy added to the water.
Solution
(a) The process described is illustrated in a P-v diagram. The volume
change per unit mass during a vaporization process is vfg, which is the
difference between vg and vf.
Reading these values from Table A-5 at 100 kPa and substituting yield
vfg = vg - vf = 1.6940 0.001043 = 1.6930 m3/kg

Thus,
V = mvfg = (0.2 kg) (1.6930 m3/kg) = 0.3386 m3

(b) The amount of energy needed to vaporize a unit mass of a substance at a


given pressure is the enthalpy of vaporization at that pressure, which is;
hfg = 2258.0 kJ/kg for water at 100 kPa.
mhfg = (0.2 kg)(2258 kJ/kg) = 451.6 kJ.
4(b).
4(b).Saturated
SaturatedLiquid-Vapor
Liquid-VaporMixture
Mixture
During
Duringthethevaporization
vaporizationprocess,
process,aasubstance
substanceexists
existsas
aspart
partliquid
liquid
and
andpart
partvapor.
vapor.
To
Toanalyze
analyzethis
thismixture,
mixture,weweneed
needto
toknow
knowthetheproportions
proportionsofofthe
the
liquid
liquidand
andvapor
vaporphases
phasesininthe
themixture.
mixture.
This
Thistotobe
bedone
donebybydefining
definingaanew
newproperty
propertycalled
calledthe
thequality,
quality,xx
as
asthe
theratio
ratioof
ofthe
themass
massofofvapor
vaportotothe
thetotal
totalmass
massofofthe
themixture:
mixture:
mvapor mvapor mg
x ; 0 x 1
mtotal mliquid mvapor m f mg

Consider
Consideraatank
tankthat
thatcontains
containsaasaturated
saturatedliquid-vapor
liquid-vapormixture.
mixture.
The
Thevolume
volumeoccupied
occupiedby bysaturated
saturatedliquid
liquidisisVVf,f,and
andthe
thevolume
volume
occupied
occupiedbybysaturated
saturated vapor isisVVg..The total volume V is the sum
V V f vapor
Vg g The total volume V is the sum
of
ofthe
thetwo;
two;
m m f mg
V mv, V f m f v f , Vg mg vg
4(b).
4(b).Saturated
SaturatedLiquid-Vapor
Liquid-VaporMixture-cont
Mixture-cont
Therefore,
Therefore,
mv m f v f mg v g
mf vf mg v g
v
m m
mg mg
since x
m m f mg
mf m mg
1 x
m m
v (1 x )v f xv g
or v v f x (v g v f )
with v fg v g v f
v vf
x
v fg
This analysis can be repeated for internal energy and enthalpy;
u u f xu fg
h h f xh fg
A rigid tank contains 10 kg of water at 90 oC. If 8 kg of the water is in the
liquid form and the rest is in the vapor form, determine (a) the pressure in the
tank and (b) the volume of the tank.
Solution
(a) Since the two phases coexist in equilibrium, we have a saturated mixture
and the pressure must be the saturation pressure at the given temperature;

P = Psat@90oC = 70.14 kPa (Table A-4)

(b) At 90 oC, we have vf = 0.001036 m3/kg and vg = 2.361 m3/kg (Table A-4)
One way of finding the volume tank is to determine the volume occupied by
each phase and then add them:
V V f Vg m f v f m g v g
(8 kg)(0.001036 m 3 /kg) (2kg)(2.361m 3 /kg)
4.73m 3
(b) Another way is to first determine the quality x, then the average specific
volume v, and finally the total volume:
mg 2 kg
x 0.2
mf 10 kg
v v f xv fg
0.001036 m 3 /kg [(2.361 0.001036)m 3 /kg]
0.473 m 3 /kg
and
V mv (10 kg)(0.473 m 3 /kg) 4.73 m 3
A 80-L vessel contains 4 kg of refrigerant-134a at a pressure of 160 kPa.
Determine (a) the temperature of the refrigerant, (b) the quality, the enthalpy
of the refrigerant, and (d) the volume occupied by the vapor phase.
Solution
(a) Basically, we do not know whether the refrigerant is in the compressed
liquid, superheated vapor, or saturated mixture region.
This can be determined by comparing a suitable property to the saturated
liquid and saturated vapor values. From the given information, we can
determine the specific volume;

V 0.080 m 3
v 0.02 m 3 /kg
m 4 kg
At 160 kPa, we read

v f 0.0007435 m 3 /kg
v g 0.1229 m 3 /kg Table A - 12
Obviously, vf v vg, and, the refrigerant is in the saturated mixture region.
Thus, the temperature must be the saturation temperature at the specified
pressure:
T = Tsat@ 160 kPa = -15.62 oC (Table A-12)
(b) Quality can be determined from;

v vf 0.02 - 0.007435
x 0.158
v fg 0.1229 - 0.0007435

(c) At 160 kPa, we also read from Table A-12 that hf = 29.78 kJ/kg and
hfg = 208.18 kJ/kg. Then;

h h f xh fg
29.78 kJ/kg (0.158)(208.18 kJ/kg)
62.7 kJ/kg
(d) The mass of the vapor is;
mg xmt (0.158)(4 kg) 0.632 kg

and the volume occupied by the vapor phase is;

Vg mg v g (0.632 kg)(0.1229 m 3 /kg) 0.0777 m 3 (or 77.7 L)

The rest of the volume (2.3 L) is occupied by the liquid.


4(c).
4(c).Superheated
SuperheatedVapor
Vapor

In
In the
the region
region to
to the
the right
right of
of the
the saturated
saturated vapor
vapor line
line and
and atat
temperatures
temperatures above
above thethe critical
critical point
point temperature,
temperature, aa substance
substance
exists
existsas
assuperheated
superheatedvapor.
vapor.
Superheated
Superheatedvapor
vaporisischaracterized
characterizedby;by;

Lowerpressures
Lower pressures(P
(P<<PPsatsatatataagiven
givenT)T)
Highertemperatures
Higher temperatures(T(T>>TTsatsatatataagiven
givenP)
P)
Higherspecific
Higher specificvolumes
volumes(v(v>>vvggatataagiven
givenPPor
orT)
T)
Higherinternal
Higher internalenergies
energies(u
(u>>uuggatataagiven
givenPPor
orT)
T)
Higherenthalpies
Higher enthalpies(h
(h>>hhggatataagiven
givenPPor
orT)
T)
Determine the temperature of water at a state of P = 0.5 MPa and
h = 2890 kJ/kg.
Solution
At 0.5 Mpa, the enthalpy of saturated water vapor is hg = 2748.7 kJ/kg. Since
h > hg, now we have superheated vapor.

Under 0.5 MPa. In Table A-6 we read;


T, oC h, kJ/kg
200 2855.4
250 2960.7

Obviously, the temperature is between 200 and 250 oC. By linear interpolation
it is determined to be:
T = 216.4 oC.
4(d).
4(d).Compressed
CompressedLiquid
Liquid

In
Ingeneral,
general,aacompressed
compressedliquid
liquidisischaracterized
characterizedby;
by;

Higherpressures
Higher pressures(P
(P>>PPsatsatatataagiven
givenT)
T)
Lowertemperatures
Lower temperatures(T(T<<TTsatsatatataagiven
givenP)
P)
Lowerspecific
Lower specificvolumes
volumes(v(v<<vvggatataagiven
givenPPor
orT)
T)
Lowerinternal
Lower internalenergies
energies(u
(u<<uug atataagiven
givenPPor
g orT)
T)
Lowerenthalpies
Lower enthalpies(h
(h<<hhggatataagiven
givenPPor
orT)
T)

In
In the
the absence
absence of of compressed
compressed liquid
liquid data,
data, aa general
general
approximation
approximation isis to
to treat
treat compressed
compressed liquid
liquid as
as saturated
saturated liquid
liquid atat
the
thegiven
giventemperature.
temperature.
This
This isis because
because the
the compressed
compressed liquid
liquid properties
properties depend
depend on on
temperature
temperaturemuch
muchmore
morestrongly
stronglythan
thanthey
theydo doon
onpressure.
pressure.
Determine the internal energy of compressed liquid water at 80 oC and 5
MPa, using (a) data from the compressed liquid table and (b) saturated liquid
data. What is the error involved in the second case?
Solution
At 80 oC, the saturation pressure of water is 47.39 kPa, and since
5 MPa > Psat, we obviously have compressed liquid.
(a)From the compressed liquid table (Table A-7)
P 5 MPa
u 333.72 kJ/kg
T 80 C
o

(b)From the saturation table (Table A-4), we read


u u f @ 80 o C 334.86 kJ/kg

The error involved is 334.86 333.72


x 100 0.34 %
333.72
which is less than 1 percent.
EXERCISE
EXERCISE 11
Determine the missing properties and the phase descriptions in the following
table of water:
T, oC P, kPa u, kJ/kg x Phase description

(a) 200 0.6


(b) 125 1600
(c) 1000 2950
(d) 75 500
(e) 850 0.0
EXERCISE
EXERCISE 11
Determine the missing properties and the phase descriptions in the following
table of water:

Answer:

T, oC P, kPa u, kJ/kg x Phase description

(a) 120.23 200 1719.49 0.6 Saturated liquid-vapor mixture


(b) 125 232.1 1600 0.535 Saturated liquid-vapor mixture
(c) 395.6 1000 2950 No meaning Superheated vapor
(d) 75 500 313.90 No meaning Compressed liquid
(e) 172.96 850 731.27 0.0 Saturated liquid
6.
6.The
The Ideal-Gas
Ideal-Gas Equation
Equation of
of State
State
Equation of state: Any equation that relates the
pressure, temperature, and specific volume of a
substance.
The simplest and best-known equation of state
for substances in the gas phase is the ideal-gas
equation of state. This equation predicts the P-v-
T behavior of a gas quite accurately within some
properly selected region.

U = U(T) (Ideal gas) (3.15)


7.
7. Compressibility
CompressibilityFactor
Factor--A
AMeasure
Measureof
of
Deviation
Deviation from
from Ideal-Gas
Ideal-Gas Behavior
Behavior
The
Theideal-gas
ideal-gasequation
equationisisvery
verysimple
simpleand
andthus
thusvery
veryconvenient
convenientto to
use.
use. But,
But, gases
gases deviate
deviate from
from ideal-gas
ideal-gas behavior
behavior significantly
significantly atat
states
statesnear
nearthe
thesaturation
saturationregion
regionand
andthe
thecritical
criticalpoint.
point.
This
Thisdeviation
deviationfrom
fromideal-gas
ideal-gasbehavior
behavioratataagiven
giventemperature
temperatureand and
pressure
pressure can
can accurately
accurately accounted
accounted by
by correction
correction factor
factor called
called as
as
compressibility
compressibilityfactor,
factor,Z.
Z.
Pv
Z
RT
or
Pv ZRT
It can also be expressed as;
v actual
Z
v ideal
7.
7. Compressibility
CompressibilityFactor
Factor--A
AMeasure
Measureof
of
Deviation
Deviation from
from Ideal-Gas
Ideal-Gas Behavior
Behavior
Gases
Gases behave
behave differently
differently atat aa given
given temperature
temperature and
and pressure,
pressure, but
but they
they
behave
behavevery
verymuch
muchthe thesame
sameatattemperatures
temperaturesandandpressures
pressuresnormalized
normalizedwithwith
respect
respecttototheir
theircritical
criticaltemperatures
temperaturesand andpressures.
pressures.
The
Thenormalization
normalizationisisdonedoneas;
as; P T
PR and TR
Pcr Tcr

where
wherePPRR==reduced
reducedpressure,
pressure,TTRR==reduced
reducedtemperature.
temperature.
When
When PP and
and v,v, or or TT and
and v,v, are
are given
given instead
instead of
of PP and
and T,
T, the
the generalized
generalized
compressibility
compressibilitychart chartcancanstill
stillbe
beused
usedtotodetermine
determinethethethird
thirdproperty,
property,but
butitit
would
wouldinvolve
involvetedious
tedioustrial
trialand
anderror.
error.
Therefore,
Therefore, itit isis necessary
necessary toto define
define one
one more
more reduced
reduced property
property called
called the
the
pseudo-reduced
pseudo-reducedspecific specificvolume
volume, ,vvRRas:
as: v
vR actual
RTcr / Pcr

The
The Generalized
Generalized Compressibility
Compressibility Chart
Chart can
can be
be used
used for
for all
all gasses.
gasses.
[Figure
[FigureA-30a
A-30auntil
untilA-30c]
A-30c]
Determine the specific volume of refrigerant-134a at 1 MPa and 50 oC,
using (a) the ideal-gas equation of state and (b) the generalized
compressibility chart. Compare the values obtained to the actual value of
0.02171 m3/kg and determine the error involved in each case.
Solution
The gas constant, the critical pressure, and the critical temperature of
refrigerant-134a are determine from Table A-1 to be;

R 0.0815 kPa. m 3 /kg. K


Pcr 4.067 MPa
Tcr 374.3 K
(a) The specific volume of refrigerant-134a under the ideal-gas assumption is;

v
RT


0.0815 kPa. m 3 /kg. K 323 K
0.02632m 3 /kg
P 1000 kPa
Therefore, treating the R-134a vapor as an ideal gas would result in an error of
(0.02632-0.02171)/0.02171=0.212, or 21.2 percent in this case.
(b) To determine the correction factor Z from the compressibility chart, we can
first need to calculate the reduced pressure and temperature:

P 1 MPa
PR 0.246
Pcr 4.067 MPa
Z 0.84
T 323 K
TR 0.863
Tcr 374.3 K
Thus,
v Zvideal (0.84)(0.02632 m 3 /kg )

The error in this result is less than 2 percent. Therefore, in the absence of
tabulated data, the generalized compressibility chart can be used with
confidence.
Determine the pressure of water vapor at 600 oF and 0.514 ft3/lbm, using (a)
the steam tables (b) the ideal equation, and (c) the generalized
compressibility chart.
Solution
The gas constant, the critical pressure, and the critical temperature of
refrigerant-134a are determine from Table A-1E to be;
R 0.05956 psia. ft 3 /lbm. R
Pcr 3204 psia
Tcr 1165.3 R
(a) The pressure at the specified state is determined from Table A-6E to be;
v 0.0514 ft 3 /lbm
P 1000 psia
T 600 F o

This is the experimentally determined value, and thus it is the most accurate.
(b) The pressure of steam under the ideal-gas assumption is determined from the

P
RT


ideal-gas relation to be;

0.5956 psia. ft 3 /lbm. R 1060 R
1228 psia
3
v 0.514 ft /lbm

Therefore, treating the steam as an ideal gas would result in an error of (1228-
1000)/1000 = 0.228, or 22.8 percent in this case.
(c) To determine the correction factor Z from the compressibility chart
(Fig A-30), we first need to calculate the pseudo-reduced specific volume
and the reduced temperature.
vactual 3
(0.514 ft /lbm)(3204 psia)
vR 3
2.373
RTcr / Pcr (0.5956 psia.ft /lbm. R)(1165.3 R)
PR 0.33
T 1060 R
TR 0.91
Tcr 1165.3 R

P PR Pcr (0.33)(3204 psia) 1057 psia.


Thus,
8.
8. Other
OtherEquations
Equations of
of State
State
Van
Vander
derWaals
WaalsEquation:
Equation: RT a
P 2 a , b constant
V b V
27 R 2Tcr2 RTcr
where a and b
64 Pcr 8 Pcr
Redlich/Kwong
Redlich/KwongEquation:
Equation: RT a
P a,b constant
V b T 1/ 2V (V b)

Soave/Redlich/Kwong
Soave/Redlich/KwongEquation:
Equation:
RT a
P a,b constant
V b V (V b)

Peng/Robinson
Peng/RobinsonEquation:
Equation:
RT a
P 2 a,b constant
V b V 2bV b
8.
8. Other
OtherEquations
Equations of
of State
State cont
cont
Viral
ViralEquation:
Equation:
PV
Z (3.10)
RT

Z a( 1 B'P C'P 2 D'P 3 ...) (3.11)

B C D
Z 1 2 3 ... (3.12)
V V V

B
B' (3.13a )
RT
C B2 D 3BC 2 B 3
C' (3.13b) D' (3.13c)
( RT ) 2 ( RT ) 3
Equations
Equations of
of State
StateApplication
Application
Equation Application
Ideal-gas Pr < 0.05, Tr >1.5
or, P < 2 atm, T > 25 oC
Van der Waals Only for vapor.
Lower pressure.
Viral Equation Only for vapor.
(C = D =0) Tr > 0.436 Pr +0.6
Redlich/Kwong Only for vapor.
Lower pressure.
Soave/Redlich/Kwong Saturated vapor and saturated liquid.
Higher pressure.
Peng Robingson Saturated vapor and saturated liquid.
Higher pressure.
Standard to hydrocarbon industry.
Thank you

Prepared by,
MISS RAHIMAH OTHMAN

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