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Code Division Multiple Access

Dr. Mohammed Alghamri


Association of Engineering
Gaza Palestine April 2014
History Review
Multiple Access Methods
Spread-spectrum
Frequency Reuse
CDMA Channels
Rake receiver
Hand offs
Power control
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
History review:

The first work devoted to this subject was published in 1935 by professor
Dmitriy V. Ageev in the USSR

The technology of CDMA was used in 1957, when the young military radio
engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich in Moscow, made an experimental model of a
mobile phone, called LK-1 with a base station.

One of the early applications for code division multiplexing is in GPS.

The Qualcomm standard IS-95, marketed as cdmaOne 2G.

The Qualcomm standard IS-2000, known as CDMA2000 3G.

The UMTS 3G mobile phone standard, which uses W-CDMA.


WHAT IS MULTIPLE ACCESS ?
NUMBER OF USERS ACCESS AND SHARE
TRANSMISSION MEDIUM
BANDWIDTH AVAILABLE
FOR COMMUNICATION AT THE SAME TIME.
MULTIPLE ACCESS
MULTIPLE SIMULTANEOUS TRANSMISSIONS.
SHARING FINITE SPECTRUM AMONG LARGE NO. OF
SIMULTANEOUS USERS.
NO PRE-ASSIGNED CIRCUIT TO ANY USER.
ANY USER CAN ACCESS ANY CIRCUIT AND MAY ACCESS
DIFFERENT CIRCUITS FOR DIFFERENT CALLS.
DEMAND ASSIGNED CIRCUITS ON FIRST COME FIRST
SERVE BASIS.
PRIVACY.
TRUNKING EFFICIENCY; THEREBY IMPROVEMENT IN
SYSTEM CAPACITY.
Multiple Access Methods
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
FDMA is a multiple access method in which users are assigned specific frequency
bands. The user has sole right of using the frequency band for the entire call
duration.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


In TDMA an assigned frequency band shared among a few users. However, each
user is allowed to transmit in predetermined time slots. Hence, channelization of
user is achieved through separation in time.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Large number of transmissions are combined on the same RF Channel at the same
time but are separated by Codes.
Multiple Access Methods
Multiple Access Methods
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

Chip period
signal pulse duration
Spreading factor
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

Spread-spectrum characteristics of CDMA:

Most modulation schemes try to minimize the bandwidth of the signal since
bandwidth is a limited resource. Spread spectrum techniques use a transmission
bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum
required signal bandwidth.

CDMA is resistant to multipath interference because the delayed versions of


the transmitted pseudo-random codes will have poor correlation with the original
pseudo-random code, and will thus appear as another user, which is ignored at
the receiver.

Some CDMA devices use a rake receiver, which uses multipath delay
components to improve the performance of the system.
Advantages of CDMA:-
Fast Network deployment.
Reduced service interruptions.
Low Maintenance & operational cost.
Better system coverage flexibility
It has Anti-jam and security features.
Better use of the multi-path.
Higher capacity.
Easy cell and frequency planning.
Frequency Reuse
Frequency reuse is the ability to reuse the same radio
channel frequency at other cell sites within a cellular
system. In the FDMA and TDMA systems frequency
planning is an important consideration. The frequencies
used in different cells must be planned carefully to ensure
signals from different cells do not interfere with each other.

In a CDMA system, the same frequency can be used in


every cell, because channelization is done using the pseudo-
random codes.
In GSM freq. Reuse pattern of 7 is usually used.
E F D
C B E F
G C B
D A G C
F D A
B E F D
C B E
A G C B

Frequency Reuse pattern of 7 (FDMA)


A A A
A A A A
A A A
A A A A
A A A
A A A A
A A A
A A A A
CDMA Frequency Reuse
Direct Sequence Spread using Walsh code
Consist of 64 orthogonal codes each 64 bits long
Spreads spectrum to 1.2288 M bps from 9.6 Kbps
Channel Capacity
C=B log2 (1+S/N)
Increasing BW improves Signal Transmission with lower S/N

Narrow Band Waveform


Power
Spectral
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Noise Level
Density
Spread Waveform

Frequency
PROCESSING GAIN
One of the major advantages with a spread spectrum
system is its robustness to interference. The system
processing gain Gp quantifies the degree of
interference rejection. The system processing gain is
the ratio of RF bandwidth to the information rate:
Gp =W/R
=1.2288x 106 /9.6 x 103
=128
dBgain =10log 128
10

=21
ORTHOGONAL SPREADING:-
RX
TX
01101001100101100110
USER INPUT
USER OUTPUT
10011
Cell Cell
1001
1

10011001100110011001
10011001100110011001
CODE
CODE

User Input 1 0 0 1 1

Spreading 1001 1001 1001 1001 1001


Sequence

TX Data 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110


Decoding using correct Orthogonal Function

Rx Data 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110


Correct 1001 1001 1001 1001 1001
Function

1111 0000 0000 1111 1111

1 0 0 1 1
Decoding using incorrect Orthogonal Function

Rx Data 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110

Incorrect 0101 0101 0101 0101 0101


Function

0011 1100 1100 0011 0011

? ? ? ? ?
Spreading Codes
cdmaOne systems use two types of code sequences:
Orthogonal sequences (Walsh codes).
Pseudorandom Noise (PN) sequences.
Walsh Codes:-
In CDMA the traffic channels are separated by Unique
Walsh code. These are
(a) 64 codes of 64 Bit Length.
(b) Forwarded traffic channel Codes.
(c) All codes are orthogonal to each other.
(d) These codes provide Isolation between
multiple signals transmitted by base stations
CDMA Channels
Forward Link Channels (DL)
Pilot Channel
Sync Channel
Paging Channels
Traffic Channels
Reverse Link Channels (UL)
Access Channels
Traffic Channels
CDMA CHANNEL ARCHITECTURE
Pilot channel (W0)
The pilot is used by the subs unit to obtain initial
system synchronization and to distinguish cell
sites. Every sector of every cell site has a unique
pilot channel.
Transmitted constantly.
Allows the mobile to acquire the system.
Provides mobile with signal strength comparison.
Approximately 20% of the radiated power is in
the pilot.
Sync channel (W32)
Used during system Acquisition stage. Sync chl
provides the subs unit with network information
related to cell site identification, pilot transmit
power & cell site PN offset.
Used by mobile to synchronize with the system
Transmits sync message with
- Pilot PN offset - System time
- PN code - System ID
- Network ID - Paging chl data rate
PAGING CHLS (W1-W7)

Provides mobile with


- System Parameter message - Neighbour list
- Access Parameter list - CDMA Channel list

Used by base station to :


- Page mobile - Transmit overhead information
- Assign mobile to traffic channel
Traffic Channels ( W8-W31 & W33-W63)
The traffic chl carries the actual call. That is, the
voice and control information between the subs unit
& base station.
Access CHLS.
(a) Provides communication from Mobile to base
station when mobile is not using traffic Chl. The
access chl is used for call origination & for
response to pages, orders & registration
requests. It is paired with corresponding paging
chl.
(b) Each Access CHL use long PN code.
(c) Base station responds to transmission on a
particular Access CHL.
(d)Mobile responds to base station message by
emitting on Access CHL.
(e) Tx at 4800bps
cdmaOne Modulation
Information
A/D Vocoder
Information Bits

FEC
Code symbols

Chips
Spreading code Spreader OQPSK
generator
Rake receiver
CDMA mobiles use rake receivers. The rake receiver
essentially a set of four or more receivers (or fingers). One of
the receivers constantly searches for different multipaths and
helps to direct the other three fingers to lock onto strong
multipath signals.
Allows combined reception of up to three different paths.
Provides searcher receiver to identify changes in path
characteristics/new cells.
Provides both path diversity and frequency diversity.
Correlator 1 c
o
m
Correlator 2 b
i
n
Correlator 3 e
r

Searcher
Correlator

CDMA mobile rake receiver


Hand offs

CDMA systems use the soft hand off, which is undetectable


and provides a more reliable and higher quality signal rather
than hard hand offs utilized in other cellular systems.
Power control in CDMA
CDMA will not work without an effective power control,
because of the near-far problem, fading & varying path
loss.
There are basically two methods of power control in
CDMA
Open loop power control
Closed loop power
Open loop power control
When the mobile is turned on, it looks on to the pilot,
paging and synch channel.
The mobile estimates the path loss between itself and
the base station.
Then the mobile makes an initial adjustment on its
RF power output based on this estimate.
Closed loop power control
Path losses vary with frequency in the 800 MHz band (up link
band)
Since the mobile responds on the base station on the reverse
channel which is 45 MHz lower in frequency than the forward
channel, the base station therefore, measures the level at which the
mobile's transmission and sends a 1 or a 0 bit in its RF power
control subchannel back to the mobile, a 0 means an increase in
power, while 1 means a decrease in power. These corrections are
done at a rate of 800 a adjustments per second
The mobile responds by making a small adjustments between 0.5
and 2.0 db in its RF output power.
References