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Difraccin de Rayos X

Alejandra Can
Danna Prez
Roberto Mendoza
Cristian Serrano
Rayos X
Son radiaciones electromagnticas de longitud de onda
corta que se producen por la desaceleracin de los
electrones al chocar con un blanco. metlico.

Los valores de longitudes de onda estn


aproximadamente de 10^-5 a 100 .

Tienen la capacidad de lograr una impresin fotogrfica.


Difraccin de Rayos X

Arreglo de los
tomos

Tamao de los Medir


cristales Fenmeno de las longitudes
ondas que se
utiliza para
determinar la
estructura
detallada de un
material en su
estado cristalino

ngulos de Fases
enlace cristalinas
Cuando los rayos X son dispersados por el entorno ordenado de un cristal,
tienen lugar interferencias ya que las distancias entre los centros de
dispersin son del mismo orden de magnitud que la longitud de onda de la
radiacin.

Dos ondas de frecuencia


similar y se superpone la
Constru cresta de una onda y la
ctivas cresta de la otra onda,
dando como resultado una
onda de mayor amplitud.

Cuando la cresta de una


Destruc
onda se superpone al valle
tivas
de otra onda y se anulan.
Ley de Bragg
Determina una correlacin entre la distancia que separa los tomos de un
cristal y los ngulos bajo los cuales estn difractados los rayos X
transmitidos sobre el cristal.
X-ray diffraction is a technique used to
What does? determine the detailed structure of a
material, which makes it possible to know
the natural position of atoms, ions or
molecules that form it.
How it works
It consists in affecting a material a beam
of ray x which is diffracted in multiple
directions given to the interaction
between the electric vector of radiation x
and the atoms or ions in the material, a
dispersion in multiple directions is
obtained, which is amplified by
Constructive interference results from
interaction with a series of atomic
planes, there are several methods.
Laue method

In this method, a stationary


monocrystal is used, and a
photographic plate or flat film enclosed
in a light-proof envelope is placed at a
known distance, generally 5 cm from
the glass. A white X-ray beam is
incident on the glass perpendicular to
the photographic plate.
Laue method by transmission and
Laue method by reflection
The film is placed behind the glass to
record the rays that are transmitted
by the glass.

The film is placed between the X-ray


source and the crystal. Rays that are
diffracted in an earlier direction are
recorded in the form of a hyperbola
Rotary Crystal Method
This method uses a monochromatic ray different diffracted rays that are
collected on a film placed in the contour of a cylindrical camera, whose axis
of rotation coincides with the axis of rotation of glass, for which imaginary
lines are formed that correspond to different cones of Diffraction rays that
comply with Bragg's law and contain diffracted ray points
Powder method or Debye-Scherrer
In this method the sample is sprayed
as finely as possible, which are mixed
with an amorous material to share it
and to obtain a good reflection of the
rays. The method consists of having
the photographic plate and in the
center of the crystalline powder
sample, when the effect of the beam
hits the powder, the rays are reflected
on the photographic plate.
Applications

X-ray diffraction is a non-


destructive method for the
analysis of a wide range of
materials, including fluids,
metals, minerals, polymers,
plastics, pharmaceuticals,
coatings and ceramics.
What do they serve for:
Mineralogical and crystallographic determination of any type of crystalline type material.
Quantitative analysis of phase change in structures
Quantitative determination of elements in carbon and stainless steels
Determination of the size of the glass in the material
Determination of tensions present in the material
Determination of coating thicknesses of reinforced steels
At the scientific and industrial
level
Geological application
Forensic science
Pharmaceutical industry
Chemical industry
Glass Industry
Microelectronics
Bacteria
Solar panels
Equipo
Tubo de Rayos X
Constituido por un tubo de vidrio con alto vaco.
El ctodo (Tungsteno) a temperaturas elevadas emite electrones.
El nodo es una barra gruesa de Cobre al extremo del cual se coloca el ctodo.

Gonimetro
Instrumento utilizado para medir ngulos

Panel de control

Generador de alto voltaje


Con un alto voltaje se a aceleran los electrones a altas velocidades.

Detector
BRUKER OLYMPUS

RIGAKU ANGSTROM