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# Whats missing?

CHANGE
IS THE
ONLY
THING
THAT IS
________
IN
THIS
WORLD.
CHANGE
IS THE
ONLY
THING
THAT IS
CONSTANT
IN
THIS
WORLD.
SUCCESS IS __________ ON
EFFORT.
-Sophocoles
SUCCESS IS DEPENDENT ON
EFFORT.
-Sophocoles
Cause all I know is we said HELLO & your eyes looks like coming
home
All I know is a simple name and EVERYTHING HAS __________.
Cause all I know is we said HELLO & your eyes looks like coming
home
All I know is a simple name and EVERYTHING HAS CHANGED.
Guess what?
INDEPENDENT
VARIABLES
Malene Ysses Ortiz, Zion-Grace Rosareal, Catherine Trespuentes
Variables

Is a measurable
characteristic that
varies. It may change
from group to group,
person to person or
within one person over
time.
Experimental
Variables
Any property of person or thing
that varies and is not fixed; factors
affecting the result of the study.
Experimental
Variables
An experimenter changes or
varies one factor and observes or
measures what happens as a
result of manipulation.
Types
of
Variabl
es
Independent
Variable
the factor that is varied or
manipulated.

## the assumed cause of a

problem.
Independent
Variable
There can be only one
independent variable in an
experiment.

## This is the factor manipulated by

the researcher, and it produces one
or more results, known as
dependent variables.
Independent
Variable
If a scientist conducts an experiment to test the
theory that a vitamin could extend a persons life-
expectancy, then:

## The independent variable is the amount

of vitamin that is given to the subjects
within the experiment.This is controlled
by the experimenting scientist.
Dependent
Variable
The factor that is measured or
observed; the change that is
brought about or is effected by
the change in the independent
variable.

## the assumed effect of

another variable.
Dependent
Variable
If a scientist conducts an experiment to
test the theory that a vitamin could extend a
persons life-expectancy, then:

## The dependent variable, or the

variable being affected by the
independent variable, is the life span.
Controlled
Variable

## The factor that is kept

constant all throughout
the experiment.
Controlled
Variable

## Are not measured in a particular study. Must be held

constant so they will not have biasing effect on the
other variables.
Interveni
ng
Variables

## Are abstract processes that

are not directly observable but
dependent variables.
In language learning and teaching, they are
usually inside the subjects heads, including
various language learning processes which the
researcher cannot observe.
For example, if the use of a particular teaching technique
is the independent variable and the mastery of the
objectives is the dependent variable, then the language
learning processes used by the subjects are intervening
variables.
Moderator
Variables

## Affect the relationship between

the independent and dependent
variables by modifying the effect
the effect of the intervening
variable(s).
Typical moderator variables in TESL and language
acquisition research (when they are not the major
focus of the study) include the sex, age, culture or
language proficiency of the subjects.
Extraneous
Variables
are factors in the research
environment which may have
an effect on the dependent
variable(s) but which are not
controlled.
Extraneous
Variables
Extraneous variables are dangerous.
They may damage a studys validity,
making it possible to know whether the
effect were caused by the independent
and moderator variables or some
extraneous factor.
If they cannot be controlled,
extraneous variables must at least
be taken into consideration when
interpreting results.
THANK
YOU! :D
Resources:
http://linguistics.byo.edu/faculty/henr
ichsenl/ResearchMethods/RM_2_14.html