Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 126

Course Content

Radio Resource Management Overview


Parameter Configuration
Common Channels & Power Control
Load Control
Admission Control
Packet Scheduling
Handover Control
Resource Manager
HSDPA RRM & parameters
HSUPA RRM & parameters
HSPA+ features & parameters

1 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ features & parameters:
Module Objectives

At the end of the module you will be able to:

List the mayor data rate boosters of HSDPA & HSUPA and explain their
principles
Explain how different HSPA+ features improve the spectrum efficiency
Describe the prerequisites and main parameters needed for the described
HSPA+ features

2 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM (RAN1643)
MIMO (RAN1642)
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM (RAN1912)
Dual-Cell HSDPA (RAN1906)
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM (RAN1907)
Flexible RLC in DL (RAN1638)
Dual Band HSDPA (RAN2179)
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer (RAN1702)
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver (RAN1308)
HSUPA 16QAM (RAN1645)
Flexible RLC in UL (RAN1910)
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control (RAN971)
3 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC (RAN1644)
CS Voice over HSPA (RAN1689)
Fast Dormancy (RAN2136)
Fast Dormancy Profiling (RAN2451)
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB (RAN2172)
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL) (RAN1637)
High Speed Cell_FACH (RAN1913)

4 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multicarrier HSPA Evolution in Release 9/10 & beyond
3GPP Rel. 7 UE can receive and transmit only on 1 frequency even if
the operator has total 3-4 frequencies
Uplink Downlink
1 x 5 MHz 1 x 5 MHz

Rel. 8 brought DC-HSDPA, Rel. 9 defined DC-HSUPA


Further Releases will bring multicarrier HSDPA & HSUPA which
allows UE to take full benefit of the operators spectrum
Uplink Downlink
42 x 5 MHz 48 x 5 MHz

5 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA Data Rate Evolution
HSPA has data rate evolution beyond 100 Mbps
RU20 / RU30 / RU40 / RU50 3GPP R10 3GPP R11
3GPP R9
3GPP R8
3GPP R7 336 Mbps
3GPP R6 168 Mbps
3GPP R5 84 Mbps
21-28 42 Mbps 8-carrier
14 Mbps Mbps 4-carrier HSDPA
14 Mbps DC-HSDPA, DC-HSDPA HSDPA + 64QAM
64QAM or + 64QAM + 64QAM
+ 64QAM
D o wn lin k 16QAM + MIMO + MIMO + MIMO (2x2)
MIMO (2x2) or
+ MIMO (2x2)
(2x2) 4-carrier
(2x2) HSDPA
+ 64QAM
+ MIMO (4x4)
70
23 Mbps
23
Mbps
11 Mbps Mbps DC-HSUPA
5.8 11 Mbps DC-HSUPA + 64QAM
0.4 Mbps 16QAM DC-HSUPA
16QAM + 16QAM + MIMO (2x2)
Mbps + 16QAM
Uplink
6 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM (RAN1643)
MIMO
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM
Dual-Cell HSDPA
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM
Flexible RLC in DL
Dual Band HSDPA
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

7 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


64QAM: RAN1643 HSDPA64QAMAllowed Modulation Coding rate 15 codes
Modulation Coding rate 15 codes
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled) 1/4 1.8 Mbps
1/4 1.8 Mbps

QPSK 2/4 3.6 Mbps


64QAM QPSK 2/4 3.6 Mbps
6 bits/symbol 3/4
3/4
5.4 Mbps
5.4 Mbps

2/4 7.2 Mbps


2/4 7.2 Mbps

16QAM 3/4 10.8 Mbps


16QAM 3/4 10.8 Mbps

4/4 14.4 Mbps


4/4 14.4 Mbps

3/4 16.2 Mbps


3/4 16.2 Mbps

64QAM 5/6 18.0 Mbps


64QAM 5/6 18.0 Mbps

4/4 21.6 Mbps


4/4 21.6 Mbps
optional Feature;
RNC License Key required (ON-OFF) HS- max. HS- min. *
MIMO Peak
DSCH DSCH Inter-TTI Modulation
HSDPA peak rate up to 21.1 Mbps category Codes interval
support Rate
UE categories 13,14,17 & 18 supported
13 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ No 17.4 Mbps
optional feature for UE 64QAM
Prerequisites: 14 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ No 21.1 Mbps
64QAM
Flexible RLC, HSDPA 14.4 Mbps,
17 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or 17.4 or 23.4
Dynamic Resource Allocation, HSUPA Dual-Stream MIMO Mbps
18 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or 21.1 or 28
Dual-Stream MIMO Mbps

8 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


64QAM: Channel Quality Requirements
good channel conditions required to apply / take benefit of 64QAM CQI 26 !
64QAM requires 6 dB higher SNR than 16QAM
average CQI typically 20 in the commercial networks

2/4 3/4 5/6 4/4


1/6 1/4 2/4 3/4 2/4 3/4

CQI > 15 CQI > 25


QPSK 16QAM 64QAM
some gain from only available with
no gain from 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

0 Mbps 10 Mbps 14 Mbps 21 Mbps

9 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


64QAM: CQI TB Size # codes Modulation CQI TB Size # codes Modulation
CQI Tables 1 137 1 QPSK 0 1 136 1 QPSK 0

2 173 1 QPSK 0 2 176 1 QPSK 0

3 233 1 QPSK 0 3 232 1 QPSK 0

4 317 1 QPSK 0 4 320 1 QPSK 0

5 377 1 QPSK 0 5 376 1 QPSK 0


TS 25.214: 6 461 1 QPSK 0 6 464 1 QPSK 0

Annex Table 7d 7 650 2 QPSK 0 7 648 2 QPSK 0

Cat 10 UE 8 792 2 QPSK 0 8 792 2 QPSK 0

9 931 2 QPSK 0 9 928 2 QPSK 0

10 1262 3 QPSK 0 10 1264 3 QPSK 0

11 1483 3 QPSK 0 11 1488 3 QPSK 0

12 1742 3 QPSK 0 12 1744 3 QPSK 0

13 2279 4 QPSK 0 13 2288 4 QPSK 0

14 2583 4 QPSK 0 14 2592 4 QPSK 0


TS 25.214: 15 3319 5 QPSK 0 15 3328 5 QPSK 0

Annex Table 7f 16 3565 5 16-QAM 0 16 3576 5 16-QAM 0

Cat 13 UE 17 4189 5 16-QAM 0 17 4200 5 16-QAM 0

18 4664 5 16-QAM 0 18 4672 5 16-QAM 0

19 5287 5 16-QAM 0 19 5296 5 16-QAM 0

20 5887 5 16-QAM 0 20 5896 5 16-QAM 0

21 6554 5 16-QAM 0 21 6568 5 16-QAM 0

22 7168 5 16-QAM 0 22 7184 5 16-QAM 0

23 9719 7 16-QAM 0 23 9736 7 16-QAM 0

24 11418 8 16-QAM 0 24 11432 8 16-QAM 0

25 14411 10 16-QAM 0 25 14424 10 16-QAM 0

26 17237 12 16-QAM 0 26 15776 10 64-QAM 0


TS 25.214 Annex Table 7g 27 21768 12 64-QAM 0
27 21754 15 16-QAM 0
Cat 14 UE: 28 26504 13 64-QAM 0
28 23370 15 16-QAM 0
CQI29: 14 Codes; 32257 bit 29 32264 14 64-QAM 0
29 24222 15 16-QAM 0
CQI30: 15 Codes; 38582 bit 30 25558 15 16-QAM 0 30 32264 14 64-QAM -2

10 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


64QAM: Link Simulations
UE peak data rate increased to 21.1 Mbps (L1 - theoretical)
Max application level throughput ~17.9 Mbps (ideal channel)
64QAM is applicable for better radio conditions

11 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


64QAM
Parameter Bitrate control

MaxBitRateNRTMACDFlow
can be used to restrict the maximum bit rate of NRT MAC-d flow.
The bit rate used in the reservation of the resources for the MAC-d
flow is the minimum value of 1) max. bit rate based on UE capability,
2) max. bit rate of the RAB, 3) activated HSDPA bit rate features and
4) the value of this parameter.
This parameter does not limit the maximum instantaneous bit rate on
air interface.
The value of the parameter is compared to the user bitrate of the NRT
MAC-d flow excluding MAC-hs header, RLC header and padding.
*65535 parameter does not
WCELRNHSPA; 128..2112083968; 128; 65535* restrict the maximum bit rate,
but the maximum bit rate is
restricted by other limits.
Features enabled Suggested Parameter Setting
Range & Default value
No license for HSDPA 15 codes 3456 kbps changed with RU30 to:
0128...83968 ; 128; 0 =
10 / 15 codes 6784 kbps same meaning as 65535 in
10 / 15 codes & 10Mbps per user 9600 kbps RU20 (HSDPA peak rate not
limited by the RNC)
10 / 15 codes & 14Mbps per user 13440 kbps
10 / 15 codes & 64 QAM 21120 kbps
MIMO 27904 kbps
DC HSDPA 42112 kbps
DC HSDPA & MIMO 84224 kbps

12 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM
MIMO (RAN1642)
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM
Dual-Cell HSDPA
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM
Flexible RLC in DL
Dual Band HSDPA
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

13 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MIMO Principle (1/2)
Signal from jth Tx antenna
Sj
T1 R1
put1
In

MIMO
Input Input 2 T2 R2 Output
Processor


Inp
ut
m

MxN
Tm Rn
MIMO
system
MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple Output
M transmit antennas, N receive antennas form MxN MIMO system
huge data stream (input) distributed toward m spatial distributed antennas; m parallel bit streams
(Input 1..m)
Spatial Multiplexing generate parallel virtual data pipes
using Multipath effects instead of mitigating them

14 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MIMO Principle (2/2)
Signal from jth Tx antenna Signal at ith Rx antenna
Sj h1,1
Yi
T1 hn,1 h2,1 R1
pu t1 h1,m
In h1,2 MIMO
h2,2 P
r
Input Input 2 T2 hn,2 h2,m R2 o Output
c
e
s
hn,m s
Inp o
ut
m
r
Tm MxN Rn
MIMO
h1,1 h1,2 h1,m Receiver learns Channel Matrix H
h2,1 h2,2 h2,m inverted Matrix H-1 used for
H=


recalculation
of original input data streams 1..m
m
hn,1 hn,2
hn,m
yi hi , j s j ni ni: Noise at receiver

j 1
15 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
MIMO: RAN1642 MIMOEnabled
RU20 (3GPP Rel. 7) introduces 2x2 MIMO with 2-Tx/2-Rx WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)
Double Transmit on BTS side (D-TxAA), 2 receive antennas on UE side
System can operate in dual stream (2x2 MIMO) or single stream (Tx diversity) mode
MIMO 2x2 enables 28 Mbps peak data rate in HSDPA WBTS: 2 Tx-
28 Mbps peak rate in combination with 16QAM antennas
64QAM: no simultaneous support of 64QAM & MIMO (not yet) 1
Dual-Cell HSDPA: not possible to enable MIMO & DC-HSDPA in a cell in parallel a m
s tre 2
Benefits: MIMO increases single user peak data rate, t a am
Da stre
t a
overall cell capacity, average cell throughput & coverage Da
UE categories for MIMO support: Cat. 15, 16, 17 & 18

HS- max. HS- min. *


MIMO Peak
DSCH DSCH Inter-TTI Modulation
UE: 2 Rx- category Codes interval
support Rate
antennas 15 15 1 QPSK/16QAM Yes 23.4 Mbps
16 15 1 QPSK/16QAM Yes 28 Mbps
17 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or 17.4 or 23.4
optional Feature (ASW) Dual-Stream MIMO Mbps
RNC License Key required (ON-OFF) 18 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or 21.1 or 28
Dual-Stream MIMO Mbps
Prerequisites:
double Power Amplifier units & antenna lines per cell;
must be enabled: HSDPAEnabled, HSUPAEnabled, HSDPA14MbpsPerUser, HSDPADynamicResourceAllocation,
FDPCHEnabled, HSDPAMobility, FDPCHEnabled, FRLCEnabled; must not be enabled: DCellHSDPAEnabled

16 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MIMO
S-CPICH Power & Code allocation
MIMO enabled cell: S-CPICH is broadcast for DL channel estimation in UE S-CPICH tx power =
S-CPICH transmission power is controlled with existing parameter PtxPrimaryCPICH
-10..50; 0.1; 33 dBm
UE must be able to estimate each of the 2 signals separately
P-CPICH is broadcast along with data stream 1
S-CPICH (new with RU20) is broadcast along with data stream 2
SF 256 spreading code must be allocated in DL to support S-CPICH transmission
,0

S-CCPCH
E-RGCH
HS-SCCH E-HICH

ms
depending on s
H H 2m IMO CH
PIC PC ICH H
FACH / PCH 10 H
C H M P
P- C C A PIC configuration
GC GC ICH -D
P- E-
A -A F
E CP
S-

17 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MIMO 2x2 / 28 Mbps RNC checks following conditions, before
MIMO allocation to a UE:
Allocation of MIMO for a UE (if at least one of the conditions is false during
Start active MIMO allocation, MIMO will be deactivated)

no
MIMOEnabled
MIMO Parameter Enabled WCEL; 0 (Disabled),
yes 1 (Enabled)
optional
no
feature for BTS is MIMO capable
UE yes
no
UE is MIMO capable
yes

no
RAB configuration for UE allows MIMO
yes
no
Streaming RAB state changes to inactive
yes
FDPCHEnabled no
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), SRB* can be mapped to HSPA (F-DPCH)
1 (Enabled)
yes
FRLCEnabled no
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), MAC-ehs can be allocated (Flexible RLC)
1 (Enabled) yes

yes allocate MIMO no do not allocate MIMO


* i.e. SRB must be mapped to HSPA

18 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MIMO: Layering & Mobility
Layering: MIMO
RU20 MIMO supports following site configurations: Layer
1/1/1
2/2/2
3/3/3
more than one MIMO layer not possible in RU20.

Mobility
Once allocated to a UE, MIMO will be kept also during
mobility procedures
Service Cell Change can be used to allocate / de-allocated
MIMO for a UE
If target cell is not supporting MIMO or MIMO can not be
enabled, RNC deactivates MIMO for the UE
Compressed Mode is started for a UE having MIMO
allocated
MIMO Mobility over Iur interface NOT supported in RU20

19 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MIMO 2x2 / 28 Mbps
Performance
mean cell throughput vs. UE throughput at the Cell Edge,
various scheduling schemes middle of the cell & cell center

Single-stream Dual-stream Single-stream Dual-stream


CLM: Closed Loop Mode; Single-Stream with Rx- & Tx-Diversity

20 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM
MIMO
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM (RAN1912)
Dual-Cell HSDPA
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM
Flexible RLC in DL
Dual Band HSDPA
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

21 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


RAN1912: MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM
64QAM
6 bits/symbol 2x2 MIMO & 64QAM WBTS: 2 Tx-
antennas
up to 42 Mbps
1 Da m 1
ta st a
ream tre
ata s
e am2
D
t a str
Da
2x2 MIMO

MIMOWith64QAMUsage
Basics: WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)
optional Feature; RNC License Key required (ON-OFF)
RU20 enables either 2x2 MIMO (RAN1642) or 64QAM (RAN1643)
RU30 enables simultaneous 2x2 MIMO and 64QAM operation (RAN1912)
Peak Rates: up to 2 x 21 Mbps = 42 Mbps
3GPP Rel. 8 HS- max. HS- MIMO
Peak
DSCH DSCH Modulation suppor
Rate
new UE Categories: 19, 20 category Codes t

Requirements 19 15 QPSK/16QA Yes 35.3 Mbps


M/ 64QAM
Flexible RLC, F-DPCH, MIMO 28 Mbps, HSDPA 64QAM 20 15 QPSK/16QA Yes 42.2 Mbps
M/ 64QAM

22 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Allocating MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM

64QAM is allocated with MIMO whenever possible


Switching can occur when conditions change, i.e. when it becomes possible
to support MIMO with 64QAM, or when it is no longer possible to support
MIMO with 64QAM
The conditions required to support MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM are:
it must be possible to support MIMO
it must be possible to support HSDPA 64QAM
The WCEL MIMOWith64QAMUsage parameter must be set to enabled
The BTS and UE must support simultaneous use of MIMO and 64QAM
If MIMO with 64QAM is not possible but MIMO without 64QAM, or 64QAM
without MIMO is possible, MIMO shall be preferred

23 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM
MIMO
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM
Dual-Cell HSDPA (RAN1906)
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM
Flexible RLC in DL
Dual Band HSDPA
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

24 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA Principles (1/2)
prior to 3GPP Release 8, HSDPA channel bandwidths limited to 5 MHz
Dual-Cell HSDPA: 3GPP Rel. 8 allows 2 adjacent channels to be combined
effective HSDPA channel bandwidth of 10 MHz (RU20 feature)
3GPP Rel. 8: Dual Cell HSDPA can be combined with 64QAM but not with MIMO
(Release 9 allows combination with both, 64QAM & MIMO)
42 Mbps HSDPA peak rate DCellHSDPAEnabled
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)

Basic Approach Dual Cell Approach


2 UE, each using 5 MHz RF Channel 1 UE, using 2 5 MHz RF Channels
Peak Connection Throughput = 28 Mbps Peak Connection Throughput = 42 Mbps

5 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz

F1 F2 F1 F2

MIMO (28 Mbps), or DC-HSDPA & 64QAM


64QAM (21 Mbps) (42 Mbps)

25 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA Principles (2/2)
DC-HSDPA provides greater flexibility to the HSDPA Scheduler, i.e. the scheduler can
allocated resources in the frequency domain as well as in the code and time domains

Gains of DC-HSDPA:
1 1) Improved Load Balancing
r rier F
Hz ca 2) Frequency Selectivity
5M rie r F2 3) Reduction of Latency
r
Hz ca 4) Higher Peak Data Rates
5M
5) Improved Cell Edge
User Experience

Channel conditions good Channel conditions good Channel conditions good


on both RF carriers on RF carrier 1 on RF carrier 2

F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2

UE1 UE1 UEx UEx UE1

26 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA: UE Cat & Requirements

RU20 (3GPP Rel. 8) introduces DC-HSDPA (RAN1906)


DC-HSDPA & 64QAM enable DL 42 Mbps peak rates
UE categories for DC-HSDPA support: Cat. 21, 22, 23 & 24
optional feature; requires long term
RNC license for specific number of cells HS- max. HS-
MIMO Peak
following features must be enabled: DSCH DSCH Modulation
support Rate
category Codes
HSDPA (HSDPAEnabled)
HSUPA (HSUPAEnabled)* 23.4
21 15 QPSK/16QAM No
Mbps
HSDPA 15 codes (HS-PDSCHcodeset)
22 15 QPSK/16QAM No 28 Mbps
HSDPA 14 Mbps per User (HSDPA14MbpsPerUser)
QPSK/16QAM 35.3
HSDPA Serving Cell Change (HSDPAMobility) 23 15
/64QAM
No
Mbps
Fractional DPCH (FDPCHEnabled)
QPSK/16QAM 42.2
DL Flexible RLC (FRLCEnabled) 24 15 No
/64QAM Mbps
Shared Scheduler for Baseband Efficiency
HSPAQoSEnabled must be configured with the same value
in both DC-HSDPA cells
MaxBitRateNRTMACDFlow (def. 65535 = not restricted)
should be configured to allow the peak throughput
RU20: MIMO + DC-HSPDA must not be enabled for all cells belonging to the Node B
(MIMOEnabled); ;
RU340: MIMO + DC-HSDPA possible DC-HSDPA + MIMO possible in RU340

27 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1 * at least 1 of the RF carriers


DC-HSDPA: Requirements
SectorID = 1 SectorID = 3
DC HSDPA cells require:
adjacent RF carriers UARFCN SectorID = 2
same sector SectorID RF Carrier 2
same Tcell value
SectorID = 1 SectorID = 3

SectorID = 2
RF Carrier 1

DC-HSDPA: Tcell Configuration (I)


2+2+2 Node B with DC-HSDPA Tcell = 0 Tcell = 6
requires:
Tcell = 3
each cell belonging to the same sector
RF Carrier 2
must have the same Tcell value
Tcell values belonging to different sectors
must belong to different Tcell groups Tcell = 0 Tcell = 6
Configuration requires 3 HSDPA Efficient
Tcell = 3
Baseband Schedulers
RF Carrier 1
RF carriers 1 & 2 must be adjacent

Tcell: defines start of SCH, CPICH, Primary CCPCH & DL Scrambling Code(s) in a cell relative to BFN

28 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA: Tcell Configuration (II) Tcell Groups
Group 1: Tcell values 0, 1, 2
3+3+3 Node B with DC-HSDPA Group 2: Tcell values 3, 4, 5
requires: Group 3: Tcell values 6, 7, 8
each DC-HSDPA cell belonging to Group 4: Tcell value 9
same sector to have same Tcell value
DC-HSDPA Tcell values belonging to
different sectors must belong to Tcell = 0 Tcell = 1
different Tcell groups
Configuration requires 4 HSDPA Tcell = 2
Efficient Baseband Schedulers RF Carrier 3
RF carriers 1 & 2 must be adjacent
Cells belonging to RF carriers 1 & 2 Tcell = 3 Tcell = 6
must be within the same LCG
Tcell = 9
Cells belonging to RF carrier 3 must be RF Carrier 2
within a further LCG
Tcell = 3 Tcell = 6

Tcell = 9
RF Carrier 1

LCG: Local Cell Group

29 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA: HSDPA Scheduler

A single HSDPA shared scheduler for baseband efficiency is required per DC-HSDPA cell pair
3 HSDPA shared schedulers are required for a 2+2+2 Node B configuration with DC-HSDPA
Each scheduler is able to serve both HSDPA & DC-HSDPA UE on both RF carriers
Link Adaptation is completed in parallel for each RF carrier

HSDPA UE on f2

Shared Scheduler DC-HSDPA UE with


per DC-HSDPA cell serving cell on f2
pair
HSDPA UE on f1

DC-HSDPA UE with
serving cell on f1

30 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM
MIMO
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM
Dual-Cell HSDPA
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM (RAN1907)
Flexible RLC in DL
Dual Band HSDPA
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

31 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA with MIMO & 64QAM
DC-HSDPA, WBTS: 2 Tx-
64QAM
antennas
6 bits/symbol 2x2 MIMO & 64QAM
1
up to 84 Mbps a m
1 Da s tre 2
t a am
ta st
ream Da stre
ta
Da
2x2 MIMO

Basics:
enables simultaneously: DC HSDPA, MIMO & 64QAM ie r F1
MIMO uses Single Stream or Double Stream c arr
MHz 2
transmission 5
rr ier F
DC-HSDPA uses 2 cells (in 1 sector) at same BTS; Hz ca
5M
same frequency band & adjacent carriers to a UE Dual-Cell (DC-)
64QAM 6 bits/symbol HSDPA
Benefits:
higher Peak Rate: up to 2 x 2 x 21 Mbps = 84 Mbps
better Coverage due to DC-HSDPA & MIMO
More robust transmission due to MIMO & DC HSDPA usage

32 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA with MIMO & 64QAM
w/o
42 Mbps 42 Mbps 56 Mbps 64QAM

MIMO + 64QAM DB-DC-HSDPA + 64QAM DC-HSDPA + MIMO


RASN1912 / 3GPP Rel. 87 RASN2179 / 3GPP Rel. 9 3GPP Rel. 9

max. Peak Rate 84 Mbps both supported


in RU340 by RAN1907
DC-HSDPA + MIMO + 64QAM
3GPP Rel. 9

Feature Enabling:
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84 Mbps: optional feature; DCellAndMIMOUsage
but: w/o own license; required licenses: WCEL; 0 (DC-HSDPA & MIMO disabled),
RAN1642 MIMO (28 Mbps) 1 (DC-HSDPA & MIMO w/o 64QAM enabled),
RAN1643 HSDPA 64QAM 2 (DC-HSDPA & MIMO with 64QAM enabled)
RAN1906 DC-HSDPA 42 Mbps
DC-HSDPA + MIMO can be enabled w/o 64QAM MIMOWith64QAMUsage
Peak Rate up to 56 Mbps WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)
to enable Peak Rate = 84 Mbps
DCellAndMIMOUsage must be enabled &
MIMOWith64QAMUsage = 2
33 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
DC-HSDPA: UE Categories & Requirements
MaxBitRateNRTMACDFlow*
Requirements can be used to restrict max. bit rate of NRT
MAC-d flow
RAN1642 MIMO 28 Mbps
UE Categories WCELRNHSPA; 0128... 83968 ; 128; 0
RAN1638 Flexible RLC value 0 / 65535 (before): HSDPA peak rate
(3GPP Rel. 9; TS 25.306) not limited by the RNC
RAN1906 DC HSDPA
RAN1643 64QAM HS- max. HS- DC-
MIMO Peak
RAN1912 MIMO 42Mbps + DSCH DSCH Modulation
support
HSDPA
Rate
category Codes support
64QAM
QPSK/16QAM 35.3
19 15 / 64QAM Yes No Mbps
64QAM with MIMO
QPSK/16QAM 42.2
(w/o DC-HSDPA) 20 15 / 64QAM Yes No Mbps
23.4
DC-HSDPA 21 15 QPSK/16QAM No Yes
Mbps
(w/o MIMO, 64QAM) 22 15 QPSK/16QAM No Yes 28 Mbps
QPSK/16QAM 35.3
23 15 No Yes
/ 64QAM Mbps
DC-HSDPA with 64QAM
QPSK/16QAM 42.2
(w/o MIMO) 24 15
/ 64QAM
No Yes
Mbps
46.7
25 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes Yes
DC-HSDPA with MIMO Mbps
(w/o 64QAM) 26 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes Yes 56 Mbps

27 15
QPSK/16QAM
Yes Yes 70.6
/ 64QAM Mbps
DC-HSDPA with MIMO & 64QAM
28 15
QPSK/16QAM
Yes Yes 84.4
/ 64QAM Mbps

* parameter value range has been updated


34 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
DC-HSDPA: Mobility
Hard
Carr Handover HHO
ier f1
ri er f1
r
Carr Ca i er f2
rr
ier f2 Ca

DC-HSDPA with MIMO can be maintained, activated or de-activated during mobility


Availability of DC-HSDPA with MIMO checked in target cell when SCC or HHO initiated
If DC-HSDPA with MIMO cannot be used in the target cell mobility proceeds without it:
DC-HSDPA or MIMO is used if possible, according to the parameter DCellVsMIMOPreference
If HSUPA IFHO can be used DC-HSDPA & MIMO is not be deactivated but is maintained
during Inter-Frequency measurements
If HSUPA IFHO cannot be used, E-DCH to DCH switch is completed before inter-frequency
measurements; DC-HSDPA with MIMO is deactivated at the same time
DC-HSDPA with MIMO is not supported across the Iur
S-RNC does not configure DC-HSDPA with MIMO if there are radio links over the Iur in the
active set
defines whether RNC primarily activates DC-HSDPA
DCellVsMIMOPreference
or MIMO for a UE, which supports both DC-HSDPA &
WCELRNHSPA; DC-HSDPA preferred (0), MIMO in case simultaneous usage of DC-HSDPA &
MIMO preferred (1) MIMO is not possible.

SCC: Serving Cell Change

35 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DC-HSDPA: Gain in Throughput & Coverage
Gain of DC-HSDPA &
MIMO compared to
SC-HSDPA:
Throughput: + 220%
Coverage: + 57%
Furthermore:
Some 29% more
More Throughput

subscriber can be served

more Coverage

SC-HSDPA: Single Carrier HSDPA


DC-HSDPA: Dual-Carrier HSDPA
TP: Throughput

36 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM
MIMO
MIMO 42Mbps with 64QAM
Dual-Cell HSDPA
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps & 64QAM
Flexible RLC in DL (RAN1638)
Dual Band HSDPA
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

37 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Flexible RLC (DL): RAN1638
included in RU20 basic software package no license
needed FRLCEnabled
HW Prerequisites: Flexi Rel2, UltraSite with EUBB RNCRNFC; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)
Flexible RLC used, if:
Cell Flexible RLC capable & enabled
UE supports Flexible RLC
AM RLC is used
HS-DSCH & E-DCH selected as transport channels
Dynamic Resource Allocation enabled
prior Rel. 7 Rel. 7 Flexible RLC

PDCP IP packet (max. 1500 byte) IP packet (max. 1500 byte)

segmentation no segmentation

RLC IP packet (max. 1500 byte)


RLC PDU: 336 bit or 656 bit adapts RLC-PDU size to
16 bit RLC Header 4.8% or 2.4% Overhead actual size of higher layer data unit

concatenation segmentation

MAC-hs TBS (depending on scheduling)

AM: Acknowledged Mode

38 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DL Flexible RLC
Background

Prior to Rel. 7: RLC layer segments high layer data units (IP packets) in RLC PDU
sizes of 336 and 656
336 is 320 net bit plus 16 bit RLC OH
656 is 640 net bit plus 16 bit RLC OH
On MAC-d layer did not increase Overhead
Data was passed directly to MAC-hs layer (MAC-d)
Several MAC-d PDUs were concatenated to form a MAC-hs data block
BTS selects proper MAC-hs data block size based on
available user date in BTS buffer and
radio conditions for that UE
With DL Flexible RLC the RNC adapts the RLC-PDU size to the actual size of the
higher layer data unit (IP)
maximum size of 1500 Byte is supported (IP packet length in Ethernet)

39 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DL Flexible RLC
Advantages
Major improvements with DL Flexible RLC
less processing in RNC & UE
higher end user application throughput
lower latency for packet access
Significantly lower Overhead
Much less padding bits
Lower risk for RLC stalling because of too small transmission windows
Overhead

IP packet size [byte]

40 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements:
64QAM
MIMO
MIMO 42Mbps
Dual-Cell HSDPA
DC-HSDPA with MIMO 84Mbps
Flexible RLC in DL
Dual Band HSDPA (RAN2179)
HSUPA Improvements
Other features

41 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


DBandHSDPAEnabled
Dual Band HSDPA: RAN2179 WCEL; (0) Disabled, (1) Enabled
Included in RU40 application software package license required
HW prerequisites: Flexi rel.2
Can be used if: DC-HSDPA and HSPA Peak Rate Upgrade features are active
Brief Description:
This feature introduces for a single UE the possibility of using simultaneously two carriers
in DL that are situated on two different WCDMA frequency bands
Feature enables achieving 42 Mbps peak rate for user in DL (assuming 64QAM and 15
codes usage on both frequencies)
Comparing to single carrier case gives possibility to increase cell throughput
Feature is much similar to DC-HSDPA in function
Feature restricts single carrier usage in UL (DB or DC-HSUPA is not allowed)
Motivations and Benefits:
High Throughputs This feature enables throughputs as high as 42 Mbps.
Better Coverage Dual Band allows using two different frequency bands. For cases
where high coverage is needed, lower Band of the two can be used to enhance coverage.
Configurations flexibility This feature with carriers from 2 different frequency bands
allows more flexibility in spectrum assignments

42 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Dual Band HSDPA: With and Without the Feature
Without
Without DB-HSDPA
DB-HSDPA feature
feature there
there is
is no
no With
With DB-HSDPA
DB-HSDPA feature
feature there
there is
is
possibility
possibility to
to establish
establish data
data connection
connection possibility
possibility to
to establish
establish data
data connection
connection
with
with to
to different
different band
band at
at the
the same
same time
time with
with to
to different
different band
band at
at the
the same
same time
time

*Presented frequency bands are only exemplary detailed configurations options presented later on
DC-HSDPA DL transmission options DB-HSDPA DL transmission options
2 x 5 MHz 2 x 5 MHz 2 x 5 MHz
f1 f2 f1 f2 f1 f2
U2100 U900
U2100 U900
SC-HSDPA DL transmission options
5 MHz 5 MHz
f1 f1

U2100 U900

U2100* U2100*
U900* U900*

43 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer (RAN1702)
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver (RAN1308)
HSUPA 16QAM (RAN1645)
Flexible RLC in UL (RAN1910)
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control (RAN971)
Dynamic HSUPA BLER (RAN2302)
Other features

44 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer (RAN1702)
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver
HSUPA 16QAM
Flexible RLC in UL
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control
Dynamic HSUPA BLER
Other features

45 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Frequency Domain Equalizer fdeEnabled
BTSSCW; 0 (Disabledfalse), 1 (Enabledtrue)
Basics:
before RU30: Node B receiver based on RAKE receiver technology
RAKE unable to receive high data rates even in total absence of other cell
interference short spreading codes (SF2) vulnerable to ISI
RU30 introduces:
RAN1702: Frequency Domain Equalizer FDE
RAN1308: HSUPA Interference Cancellation IC
FDE can remove ISI, leaving other users of same cell & surrounding
cells to be main limiting factors for UL data rates
Interference from other users of the own cell can reduced by HSUPA IC
FDE is prerequisite for UL 16QAM (RU430)
removes ISI
UL RAKE UL FDE enables higher
Noise Noise throughput
PrxMaxTargetBTS PrxMaxTargetBTS
Power Power
prerequisite for
HSUPA 16QAM

4 Mbps 8 Mbps

FDE: Frequency Domain Equalizer


IC: Interference Cancellation
ISI: Inter-Symbol-Interference

46 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Frequency Domain Equalizer
Challenges for UMTS receiver

Multipath delays --> handled by time delay synchronization


Phases of the multipath component --> handled by carrier phase synchronization
Amplitudes of the multipath components --> handled by amplitude tracking

47 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Frequency Domain Equalizer
Only Rrake receiver was used in RU20 & earlier releases

RAKE delivers adequate performance for data rates below 2 Mbps; its main tasks are:
Identify the time delay positions at which significant energy arrives and allocate
correlation receivers, i.e. Rake fingers, to those peaks.
Within each correlation receiver, track the fast-changing phase and amplitude
values originating from the fast fading process and utilize them.
Combine the demodulated and phase-adjusted symbols across all active fingers
and present them to the decoder for further processing.

48 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Frequency Domain Equalizer
FDE = linear equalizer + fast convolution
FDE (LMMSE) provides optimal linear estimate of transmitted signal accounting for both:
Channel impact (fading)
Interference + noise
FDE is a combination of linear equalization & fast convolution.
Convolution is relatively demanding in terms of computation
Convolution can be replaced by multiplication if completed in the frequency domain FFT
FDE reduces the effects of ISI arising from users own signal due to multipath propagation.
FDE applied to users with granted 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 (QPSK or 16-QAM) up to 11.5 Mbps.

signal FFT

Despreading
IFFT and bits
detection
Channel MMSE filter
pilot coefficient
estimation
calculation Time domain
FDE scheme
Frequency domain
(I)FFT: (Inverse) Fast Fourier Transformation
ISI: Inter-Symbol-Interference
LMMSE: Linear Minimum-Mean-Square-Error

49 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Frequency Domain Equalizer ETFCIBoost
RNC; 0..127; 1; 1032
E-DPCCH boosted mode
FDE sensitive to channel estimation => E-DPCCH boosted mode used for channel & SIR estimation
E-DPCCH boosted mode E-DPCCH bound to E-DPDCH power (not to DPCCH, as usual)
Starting from ETFCIBoost E-TFCI Default value, UE selects 16QAM & start to use boosted mode.
Boosted mode introduction to increase E-DPCCH power proportionally to high data rates. High data rates are
source of high self interferences boosted E-DPCCH useful for E-DPDCH channel estimation & demodulation.
not mandatory for UE to support E-DPCCH power boosting (requires Rel. 7 or newer UE)
UE indicates support of E-DPCCH power boosting within RRC Connection Setup Complete message
RNC signals E-DPCCH power boosting parameters to UE
non-boosted mode boosted mode

50 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver (RAN1308)
HSUPA 16QAM
Flexible RLC in UL
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control
Dynamic HSUPA BLER
Other features

51 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver

Basics:
reduces UL Intra-cell interference with non-linear Interference Cancellation IC
method called Parallel Interference Cancellation (PIC)
RAN1308: Basic PIC decreases interference from HSUPA 2 ms TTI users to
other UL channels
improved coverage e.g. for AMR calls existing in parallel with peak rate users
RAN2250: Enhanced PIC (RU450) decreases interference from HSUPA 2 ms
TTI users on each other
larger peak HSUPA data rates (also 16-QAM)
Improving FDE & HSUPA 16QAM (RU430)
Feature activated by BTS license key

IC users: Non-IC users:


Users mapped on E-DCH with 2ms TTI for Rest of 2ms TTI E-DCH users, all 10ms TTI
which Interference Cancellation IC is applied E-DCH users and all DCH users
usually users with the highest power Interference is reduced for non-IC users only
IC users do not get any direct benefit from IC
(indirectly from lower Tx power of other users)

52 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Basic Parallel Interference Cancellation (PIC) method
UL signal received with Rake Receiver or FDE technique
Turbo decoding obtain 2 ms TTI E-DCH signals
Decoded data used to reconstruct original 2 ms TTI signals (interference for other users)
Reconstruction includes turbo encoding spreading & modulation.
Cancel interference from 2 ms TTI user: Reconstructed signals are summed up & subtracted
from the original antenna signal non-IC users signal (residual signal)
Non-IC users signals are demodulated on the residual signal, benefiting from a lower
interference level improving cell coverage & capacity

UL signal from
antenna
Non-IC users
10ms HSUPA,
De-modulate Re-modulate De-modulate
2ms HSUPA 2ms HSUPA other
DCH
user data

IC users 2ms HSUPA


2ms HSUPA Interference cancelled
user data Non-IC users signal
(Residual signal)
FDE: Frequency Domain Equalizer
PIC: Parallel Interference Cancellation

53 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Enhanced PIC method
Basic PIC: IC users do not benefit directly from reduced interference
their signals are demodulated in parallel on the original antenna signal
Enhanced PIC (RAN2250):
demodulate IC users signals again after residual signal reconstruction for these
signals
(to gain from IC of Basic PIC).
Residual Stream Reconstruction RSR: individual residual signal generated for each
2 ms TTI user, adding its reconstructed signal to common residual signal. Non-IC users
interference from 2 ms TTI users canceled from other 2 ms TTI users signals
2ms HSUPA
10ms HSUPA,
UL signal from interference De-mod
cancelled all others
DCH
antenna
user data

De-modulate Re-modulate Common


2ms HSUPA 2ms HSUPA Residual signal
IC users

De-mod 2ms HSUPA


RSR
First stage 2ms HS user data
detected
FDE: Frequency Domain Equalizer IC users data 2nd stage detected
PIC: Parallel Interference Cancellation Individual IC users data
RSR: Residual Stream Reconstruction Residual signal

54 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Effect of IC / HSUPA scheduling with Basic PIC
Part of received total wideband power is cancelled
RTWP = PNoise + PR99 + P10ms + P2ms
Residual RTWP = PNoise + PR99 + P10ms + (1-) * P2ms
Achievable interference reduction factor highly dependent on:
Quality of signal that should be cancelled (2ms TTI UEs) BTS uses 2 scheduling targets
Data rate of UE to be cancelled for HSUPA:
Radio channel of the UE: Multi-path profile, UE Velocity RTWP < PrxMaxOrigTargetBTS
Residual RTWP < PrxMaxTargetBTS
RTWP Residual PrxMaxOrigTargetBTS
RTWP WCEL; 0..30; 0.1; 8 dB
PrxMaxOrigTargetBTS
PrxMaxTargetBTS
HSUPA 2 ms WCEL; 0..30; 0.1; 6 dB
PrxMaxTargetBTS
HSUPA 2 ms
HSUPA HSUPA
10 ms 10 ms

R99 users R99 users

Noise Noise

RTWP: Received Total Wide Band Power

55 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


PIC pool & state
PIC pool:
set of cells within 1 BTS that are candidates for
f2 interference cancellation (IC)
f1 supports up to 6 cells
3 cells may perform IC simultaneously
PIC pool configuration done by operator via BTS
configuration
f2 f2
max. 4 PIC pools per BTS
f1 AssignedPICPool
f1 AssignedPICPool indicates WCEL; 0 (off); 1; 2; 3; 4
which PIC pool the cell belongs to
Basic PIC functionality takes fixed number of CE per
PIC pool: 48 CE
PIC-state of a cell in a PIC-Pool can be changed by
AdminPICState*.
PIC-deactivated, PIC-activated, PIC-automatic
cells in PIC pool PIC state change of cells with PIC-Automatic is
controlled by BTS
Cells with highest traffic shall be selected for IC
cells performing Interference
Cancellation Cell are deselected for IC if traffic has decreased
AdminPICState
WCEL; 0 (ActivateEnabled), 1
*There may be restriction in WBTS for changing the PICState. If (DeactivateDisabled), 2 (Automatic)
the change is not possible, then the PICState remains.
PIC: Parallel Interference Cancellation

56 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver
HSUPA 16QAM (RAN1645)
Flexible RLC in UL
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control
Dynamic HSUPA BLER
Other features

57 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA 16QAM: RAN1645 HSUPA16QAMAllowed
WCEL; Disabled (0), Enabled (1)
Brief description of 16 QAM in UL
Dual 4PAM modulation is used (4PAM 4 symbols & 2 bits per symbol) Dual 4PAM
Variable SF2 for Bit Rate (BR) adjustment 4 bits/symbol
Multicode operation is needed to maximise Bit Rate after max SF is used
(max 4 data codes in parallel when no DPDCH configured)
With W=3.84McpsSymbol rate=2W/SF2+ 2W/SF4=5760 ksps
BRmax=25760ksps=11520 kbps

Motivation & benefits


Using higher order modulation, more symbols can be transmitted, therefore
more bits can be assigned to each symbol, while the duration of symbol is
kept. This results in higher Bit Rate.
Most beneficial with low intra-cell interferences.
Interference cancellation techniques are welcome to lower the intra-cell
noise.

Drawbacks
Reduction of the Euclidean distance between adjacent symbols. This
results in stricter requirement in SNR per symbol to achieve the same BER
RoT limit requirement rises high, as the own signal interferences from
16QAM are high. Therefore this feature is dedicated for micro, pico cells.

58 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA 16QAM: Spreading for E-DPDCH/E-DPCCH
Multi-code transmission
Eb Es Ec
SF=2
Cch,2,1 ed,1
4 symbols
E-DPDCH1 4PAM modulation
+ mapper
SF=4
Cch,4,1 ed,3
4 symbols

E-DPDCH3 I
4PAM modulation
mapper

Cch,256,1 ec
E-DPCCH BPSK modulation
mapper = 16
I+jQ
symbols
S =16QAM
SF=2
Cch,2,1 ed,2

4 symbols E-DPDCH2 4PAM modulation


mapper
+ SF=4
Cch,4,1 ed,4


Q
E-DPDCH4 4PAM modulation
4 symbols mapper

Cch,256,0 c j

DPCCH BPSK modulation


mapper

59 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA 16QAM: Switching Point to 16QAM
ECR vs RLC bitrate for 2ms TTI
1 Switch to 16 QAM when:
0.9 RLC Bit Rate>4000kbps (when Effective Code Rate
0.8 QPSK>0.712, then switch to 16QAM)
0.7
UE selects 16QAM when E-TFCI is >103 (Table2) or
0.6
Switch >69 (Table3)
ECR [-]

0.5 Channel Bits per TTI vs RLC bitrate for 2ms TTI
to
0.4
Switch 16QA
to 2xM2+2xM4
0.3 16QAM
M
0.2 Table 2

Code and Modulation Combination


Table 3
0.1

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Table 2
RLC bitrate [kbps] Table 3
2xN2+2xN4
16QAM:
2xN2
2xM2 means 2*SF2 modulated with 4PAM Switch to
2xM4 means 2*SF4 modulated with 4PAM 2xN4 16QAM
N4
N8
QPSK: N16
N32
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
RLC bitrate [kbps]
2xN2 means 2*SF2 modulated with BPSK
2xN4 means 2*SF4 modulated with BPSK

60 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver
HSUPA 16QAM
Flexible RLC in UL (RAN1910)
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control
Dynamic HSUPA BLER
Other features

61 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Flexible RLC in UL: RAN1910
Included in RU40 basic software package no license needed
HW prerequisites: Flexi rel.2
Can be used if: Flexible RLC in DL and Basic HSUPA are both active
Prior Rel.8 Rel.8 Flexible RLC in UL
TCP/IP TCP/IP
header
TCP/IP Payload header
TCP/IP Payload
MTU: 1500 bytes MTU: 1500 bytes

RLC SDU RLC SDU

MAC-es/e RLC MAC-is/i RLC


headers PDUs Paddings headers PDU Padding

19 MAC-es/e 19 fixed RLC PDUs One MAC-is/i One RLC PDU is


headers required (656 bits each) required header required required per 1500
+ optional padding per 1500 bytes IP packet + optional padding bytes IP packet

Control data = 3.72% of whole transport block Control data = 0.27% of whole transport block
When the transmission error occurs one small RLC PDU It corresponds to 93% drop of control data for typical IP
needs to be retransmitted packet size of 1500 bytes
When the transmission errors occur one big RLC PDU
62 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
needs to be retransmitted
Flexible RLC in UL: Background
UE selects the E-TFC and TBS according to current grant on TTI basis
RLC operations (segmentation and concatenation) on RLC SDUs are performed to
fit maximum RLC PDU size
New MAC-is/i are introduced in order to handle flexible instead of fixed size RLC
PDUs
MAC-i is introduced in the UE and BTS
MAC-is is introduced in the UE and RNC

UE BTS RNC

RLC RLC

MAC-d MAC-d

MAC-is/i MAC-i MAC-is

Uu Iub
63 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
Flexible RLC in UL: Advantages
Relative overhead and padding depends on the number of used PDUs
For the typical IP packet size the relative overhead and padding is reduced from
3.72% to 0.27%, it relates to 93% of drop of control data
25%
Fixed RLC PDU
Relative overhead and padding
Flexible RLC PDU
20%
Length indicator
RLC PDU changed Relative overhead and
changed from 7 to 15
from 336 to 656 bits padding is equal to 3.72%
bits
15%

Relative overhead and


padding is equal to 0.27%
10%

5%

0%
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
RLC SDU size [bytes]

Cell throughput for UE categories VIII and IX is increased


Peak RLC throughput for UE categories VIII and IX is also increased
64 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver
HSUPA 16QAM
Flexible RLC in UL
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control (RAN971)
Dynamic HSUPA BLER
Other features

65 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control: RAN971

Included in RU40 basic software package no license required


HW prerequisites: Flexi rel.2
Can be used if: Basic HSUPA, HSUPA BTS Packet Scheduler and HSUPA Basic RRM
are active
Brief description:
This feature introduces power control for following CH
F-DP
downlink physical control channels: CH
E-HI
E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH) GCH
E-R
CH
E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH) E-AG
E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (E-HICH)
Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH)
Controlling the transmit powers of the HSUPA downlink control channels based on the
feedback received from UE
Motivation and benefits:
Reduction of average downlink power need
The coverage area for 2ms E-DCH TTI may be increased
Increased number of CS Voice over HSPA (RU20 72 users, RU40 128 users)

66 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control: RAN971
Prior to RU40 RU40 HSUPA Downlink Physical
Channel Power Control
Transmitted
Transmitted Power
Power of
of HSUPA
HSUPA Downlink
Downlink Physical
Physical Transmitted
Transmitted Power
Power ofof HSUPA
HSUPA Downlink
Downlink Physical
Physical
channels is controlled through Power Offsets
channels is controlled through Power Offsets channels
channels is
is controlled
controlled dynamically.
dynamically.
between
between HSUPA
HSUPA DLDL channels
channels and:
and: Value
Value of
of Tx
Tx power
power isis changed
changed and
and is
is
CPICH
CPICH RU10
RU10 incremented
incremented for the UE which are at aa bigger
for the UE which are at bigger
DL
DL DPCCH
DPCCH RU20
RU20 & & RU30
RU30 distance from the NodeB
distance from the NodeB

E-AGCH
E-AGCH Power
Power Offset
Offset TX
TX power
power is
is controlled
controlled dynamically
dynamically

RU10

E-RGCH
E-RGCH Power
Power Offset
Offset //
E-HICH
E-HICH Power
Power Offset
Offset

Better common control channels power utilization


The saved power of the DL HSUPA control channels provides increased HSDPA capacity
67 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements:
Frequency Domain Equalizer
HSUPA Interference Cancellation Receiver
HSUPA 16QAM
Flexible RLC in UL
HSUPA Downlink Physical Channel Power Control
Dynamic HSUPA BLER (RAN2302)
Other features

68 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Dynamic HSUPA BLER: RAN2302 HSUPADynBLEREnabled
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)

With
With the
the Dynamic
Dynamic HSUPAHSUPA BLER
BLER feature
feature
Without
Without thethe Dynamic
Dynamic HSUPA
HSUPA BLER
BLER
the
the BLER
BLER target
target is
is optimized
optimized for
for different
different
feature
feature the
the BLER
BLER target
target evaluation
evaluation is
is the
the
user
user scenarios
scenarios and
and radio
radio conditions:
conditions:
same
same regardless
regardless to:
to: Close
Close to
to BTS:
BTS: optimizing
optimizing BLER
BLER to to get
get peak
peak
UE
UE -- BTS
BTS distance
distance (cell
(cell edge
edge // close
close to
to the
the
rates
rates
BTS)
BTS) Cell
Cell edge
edge continuous
continuous data
data transmission:
transmission:
Bursty
Bursty // continuous
continuous data
data transmission
transmission
optimizing
optimizing radio
radio coverage
coverage andand cell
cell capacity
capacity
Bursty
Bursty traffic:
traffic: optimizing
optimizing latency
latency
OLPC
OLPC algorithm
algorithm (RNC)
(RNC) enhancement
enhancement
Support
Support for
for different
different BLER
BLER targets
targets
adapted
adapted
to
to current
current radio
radio transmission
transmission conditions
conditions

A A
UP UP

HSUP
HS HS
HSUPA

PA

A
SU
H
10%BLER 1%BLER
10%BLER
10%BLER
10%BLER
after 1st
69 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1 NACK
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC (RAN1644)
CS Voice over HSPA (RAN1689)
Fast Dormancy (RAN2136)
Fast Dormancy Profiling (RAN2451)
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB (RAN2172)
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL) (RAN1637)
High Speed Cell_FACH (RAN1913)

70 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC (RAN1644)
CS Voice over HSPA
Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy Profiling
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL)
High Speed Cell_FACH

71 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: Continuous Packet Connectivity
Introduction
Discontinuous UL DPCCH Transmission & Reception during UE UL traffic inactivity
(UL DPCCH gating + DRX at BTS) CPCEnabled
CQI reporting reduction (switched from periodical to synchronized with DPCCH burst)
RNCWCEL; 0 (Disabled),
Stopping E-DPCCH detection at NodeB during DPCCH inactivity
1 (Enabled)
Discontinuous DL Reception (DRX at UE)
Stop receiving HS-SCCH, E-AGCH & E-RGCH when not needed
Faster response times
Increased number of low activity packet users in CELL_DCH state
Motivation / Benefits:
Increased capacity for low data rate applications
Longer battery life
Network:
optional feature; ON-OFF RNC License
CPC Sub-features:
Prerequisites:
UE must support CPC UL DPCCH Gating (UL DTX)
F-DPCH enabled CQI Reporting reduction
Discontinuous UL Reception (MAC
DTX)
Discontinuous DL Reception (DL DRX)

72 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: UL Gating (UL DTX)

UL Gating (UL DTX): reduces UL control channel (DPCCH) overhead


no data to sent on E-DPDCH or HS-DPCCH UE switchs off UL DPCCH
DPCCH Gating is precondition for other 3 sub-features

Rel99 Service DPDCH


Voice (20ms) DPCCH

E-DPDCH
Rel6 Voice 2ms
(Rel6 VoIP) DPCCH

Rel7 Voice 2ms


E-DPDCH
(Rel7 VoIP)
UL DPCCH Gating DPCCH

73 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: UL Gating
UL DPCCH Gating (UL DTX)
UE specific Packet Scheduler provides CPC parameters
These are service & UL TTI specific & part of parameter groups
Voice 2ms, 10ms; RNCRNHSPA: CPCVoice10msTTI, CPCVoice2msTTI
Streaming 2ms, 10ms; RNCRNHSPA: CPCStreaming10msTTI, CPCStreaming2msTTI
Interactive, Background 2ms, 10ms; RNCRNHSPA: CPCNRT10msTTI, CPCNRT2msTTI
Following parameters are parameters from CPCNRT2msTTI group (per sub-feature):
DPCCH Gating (UL DTX):
N2msInacThrUEDTXCycl2: number of consecutive E-DCH TTIs without an E-DCH transmission, after
which the UE should immediately move from UE DTX Cycle 1 to UE DTX Cycle 2. RNCRNHSPA; Range:1
(0), 2 (1), 4 (21), 8 (32), 16 (43), 32 (54), 64 (65), 128(76), 256 (87); default: 64 (65) TTIs
N2msUEDPCCHburst1: UL DPCCH burst length in subframes when UE DTX Cycle 1 is applied.
RNCRNHSPA; Range:1 (0), 2 (1), 5 (2); default: 1 (0) subframes
N2msUEDPCCHburst2: UL DPCCH burst length in subframes when UE DTX Cycle 2 is applied.
RNCRNHSPA; Range:1 (0), 2 (1), 5 (2); default: 1 (0) subframes
N2msUEDTXCycle1: UL DPCCH burst pattern length in subframes for UE DTX Cycle 1. RNCRNHSPA;
Range: 1 (0), 4 (1), 5 (2), 8 (3), 10 (4), 16 (5), 20 (6); default: 8 (3) subframes
N2msUEDTXCycle2: UL DPCCH burst pattern length in subframes for UE DTX Cycle 2. RNCRNHSPA;
Range: 4 (0), 5 (1), 8 (2), 10 (3), 16 (4), 20 (5), 32 (6), 40 (7), 64 (8), 80 (9), 128 (10), 160 (11); default: 16
(4) subframes

74 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: UL Gating / DPCCH Gating
UL Gating, E-DCH 2ms TTI example: CPCNRT2msTTI
N2msInacThrUEDTXCycl2
RNCRNHSPA; 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256; 64 TTIs
CFN 10ms Radio Frame 10ms Radio Frame 10ms Radio Frame

Inactivity Threshold for UE cycle 2


E-DPDCH
Tx, 2ms TTI
no data on E-DPDCH

DPCCH N2msUEDPCCHburst1
pattern RNCRNHSPA; 1, 2, 5; 1 subframe(s)

N2msUEDPCCHburst2
synch reference RNCRNHSPA; 1, 2, 5; 1 subframe(s)
UE_DTX_Cycle_1
N2msUEDTXCycle1
UE_DTX_Cycle_2 RNCRNHSPA; 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20; 8 subframes UE_DTX_Cycle_2

N2msUEDTXCycle2
RNCRNHSPA; 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 32, 40,
DPCCH with 64, 80, 128, 160; 16 subframes
E-DCH, 2ms TTI

2ms subframe cycle 1 cycle 2

UE_DTX_DRX_offset is UE specific offset granted from BTS switch to UE cycle 2


CFN: Connection Frame Number; used for any synchronized procedure in UTRAN
Pre/Postambles not shown here

75 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: Reduced CQI Reporting

CQI Reporting reduction:


CQI Reporting Reduction reduce the Tx power of the UE by reducing the CQI reporting; this
means
to reduce the interference from HS-DPCCH in UL when no data is transmitted on HS-PDSCH in
DL
Reduced CQI reporting takes place only if the CQI reporting pattern defined by the last HS-DSCH
transmission and CQI cycle overlaps the UL DPCCH burst of the UE DTX pattern
N2msCQIDTXTimer: defines the number of subframes after an HS-DSCH reception, during which the CQI
reports have higher priority than the DTX pattern. RNCRNHSPA; 0 (0), 1 (1), 2 (2), 4 (3), 8 (4), 16 (5), 32 (6),
64 (7), 128 (8), 256 (9), 512 (10), Infinity (11); 64 (7) subframes
N2msCQIFeedbackCPC: defines the CQI feedback cycle for HSDPA when the CQI reporting is not reduced
because of DTX. RNCRNHSPA; 0 (0), 2 (1), 4 (2), 8 (3), 10 (4), 20 (5), 40 (6), 80 (7), 160 (8); default: 10 (4) 8
(3) ms; Note: Bigger CQI reporting cycles 10ms are not recommended.

76 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: Reduced CQI Reporting
CQI Reporting Reduction reduces the CQI reporting when there Reduction of interference
are no data transmitted on HS-DSCH for a longer period of time from UL HS-DPCCH
Reduced CQI reporting
N2msCQIDTXTimer takes place only if the CQI
RNCRNHSPA; 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, reporting pattern defined by
256, 512, infinity; 64 subframes
the last HS-DSCH
transmission and CQI cycle
HS-DSCH reception CQI_DTX_TIMER CQI_DTX_Priority set to 0
overlaps the UL DPCCH
ACK/NACK
7.5 burst of the UE DTX pattern
transmission slots
CQI_DTX_Priority set to 1

DPCCH
pattern
UE_DTX_cycle_1 UE_DTX_cycle_1

UE_DTX_cycle_2 UE_DTX_cycle_2 UE_DTX_cycle_2


CQI transmission

CQI period 2ms

CQI period 4ms

CQI period 8ms

CQI transmission time defined by CQI period, but not overlapping with
DPCCH transmission no CQI transmission

CQI Transmission N2msCQIFeedbackCPC


CQI feedback cycle (when CQI reporting not reduced)
RNCRNHSPA; 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ; 108 ms

77 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: Discontinuous UL & DL Reception
(MAC DTX & DL DRX)
During E-DCH inactivity, E-DPCCH detection happens at the BTS only every MAC_DTX_Cycle subframes. It is
stopped at Node B after MAC_inactivity_threshold subframes of E-DCH inactivity. As a consequence, the UE
experiences a delay regarding the transmission start time. The UE-specific offset parameter UE_DTX_DRX_Offset
allows to stagger the processing of several UEs in time to save the BTS resources.
Discontinuous UL Reception (MAC DTX):
N2msMACDTXCycle: length of MAC DTX Cycle in subframes. This is a pattern of time instances where
the start of the UL E-DCH transmission after inactivity is allowed. RNCRNSHPA; Range: 1 (0), 4 (1), 5 (2), 8
(3), 10 (4), 16 (5), 20 (6); default: 8 (3) subframes
N2msMACInacThr: E-DCH inactivity time in TTIs after which the UE can start E-DCH transmission only at
given times. RNCRNHSPA; iInfinity (0), 1 (1), 2 (2), 4 (3), 8 (4), 16 (5), 32 (6), 64 (7), 128 (8), 256 (9), 512
(10) TTIs; default: Infinity (0)
Discontinuous DL Reception (DL DRX):
N2msInacThrUEDRXCycle: number of subframes after an HS-SCCH reception or after the first slot of an
HS-PDSCH reception, during which the UE is required to monitor the HS-SCCHs in the UE's HS-SCCH set
continuously. RNCRNHSPA; Range: 0 (0), 1 (1), 2 (2), 4 (3), 8 (4), 16 (5), 32 (6), 64 (7), 128 (8), 256 (9),
512 (10); default: 64 (7) subframes
N2msUEDRXCycle: HS-SCCH reception pattern (UE DRX Cycle) length in subframes. This parameter is a
multiple or a divisor of the parameter UE DTX Cycle 1. If the value is not allowed, the parameter value
minus
1 is used to calculate a new value, and so on. RNCRNHSPA; Range: 0.5 (0), 1 (1), 2 (2), 3 (3), 4 (4);
default: 2 (2)
subframes
78 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
CPC: Discontinuous UL Reception
Discontinuous UL Reception (MAC-DTX) NSN implemented parameters

N2msMACInacThr
RNCRNHSPA; iInfinity, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512; iInfinity subframes

DTX N2msMACDTXCycle
length of MAC DTX Cycle
UE can transmit E-DPDCH data RNCRNHSPA; iInfinity, 1, 4,
5, 8, 10, 16, 20; 8 subframes
only at predefined time instances.

79 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC: Discontinuous DL Reception
Discontinuous DL Reception (DL DRX)

When the UE DRX is enabled, the UE may turn off the receiver when there is no need to
receive
anything in DL
The DL DRX can be enabled only in conjunction with UL DTX
N2msInacThrUEDRXCycle
UE DRX Inactivity threshold
RNCRNHSPA; 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512; 64 subframes

S- SCCH
H
D SC Hs
HS- P
DRX

N2msUEDRXCycle
length of UE DRX Cycle DL DRX
RNCRNHSPA; 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4; 2 subframes only with UL DTX !

N2msInacThrUEDRXCycle: number of subframes after an HS-SCCH reception or after the 1st slot of an HS-PDSCH reception,
during which the UE is required to monitor the HS-SCCHs in the UE's HS-SCCH set continuously; UE DRX Inactivity threshold;
RNCRNHSPA; 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512; 64 subframes
N2msInacThrUEDRXCycle: HS-SCCH reception pattern (UE DRX Cycle) length in subframes; RNCRNHSPA; 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4; 2
subframes

80 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CPC & Power Control
Power Control

New parameter introduced to control step size for DL Inner Loop PC

DLInLoopPCStepSizeCPC m and
com
RNCRNSPA: 0.5..2; 0.5; 1.5 dB TPC

DLInLoopPCStepSizeCPC:
used by the WCDMA BTS to calculate the power increase/decrease step size when receiving TPC commands.
It is applied when CPC (UE DTX, etc.) is activated for the UE.
Note: If CPC is not used for a UE, BTS applies DownlinkInnerLoopPCStepSize

DownlinkInnerLoop
PCStepSize
RNCRNAC : 0.5..2; 0.5; 1
dB
81 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
CPC: Extra-inactivity timer for
Transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH
InactivityTimerUL_DLDCH
RNCRNHSPA; structured parameters
CELL_ Range: 0 .. 20 s; Step: 1 s; default:
DCH UE Node B RNC for 8, 16 & 32 kbps: 5 s
for 64 kbps: 3 s
for 128, 256, 320 & 384 kbps: 2 s
PDU Transport on the DCH/DPCH
All data sent &
RLC-U buffer empty
Start
Inactivity detected

InactivityTimerULDCH
InactivityTimerDLDCH
Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Expiry
CELL_
FACH Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

as soon as L2 in RNC indicated RB inactivity, RNC allocates extra - InactCPCNoBatOptT: 180 s


inactivity timer to keep the UE in Cell_DCH
InactCPCBatOptT: 90 s
This depends on: InactNonCPCNoBatOptT: 0 s
CPC is allocated for a UE or not (CPC or NonCPC)
InactNonCPCBatOptT: 0 s
UE Device Type RNC knows from UE capabilities
UE benefits / does not benefit from Power Consumption Optimization all parameters: RNCRNHSPA; 0s..48h
(BatOpt / NoBatOpt) & infinity; several steps;

82 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC
CS Voice over HSPA (RAN1689)
Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy Profiling
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL)
High Speed Cell_FACH

83 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CS Voice Over HSPA (RAN1689) HSPAQoSEnabled
RNCWCEL; 0..4*; 1; 0 = disabled
Requirements 0 = QoS prioritization is not in use for HS transport
1 = QoS prioritization is used for HS NRT channels
Network: 2 = HSPA streaming is in use
optional RU20 feature; ON-OFF RNC License 3 = HSPA CS voice is in use
4 = HSPA streaming & CS voice are in use
UE:
must support CSvoiceOverHSPA QoSPriorityMapping
optional feature in Rel. 7/8 RNCRNPS; 0..15; 1; 14 for CS Voice over HSPA
Priority must be lower than SRB (15)
required Network Features: Priority must be higher than Streaming 13)
HSDPA Dynamic Resource Allocation
QoS Aware HSPA Scheduling HS-
CPC D SCH
F-DPCH
HSPA with simultan. AMR Voice
E-D
SRB must be mapped to HSPA C H
supported RAB combinations: for Voice, SRB
Speech CS RAB
& other services
Speech CS RAB + PS streaming PS RAB
Speech CS RAB + 1...3 IA/BG PS RABs
Speech CS RAB + PS Streaming PS RAB +
Codecs supported for CS Voice Over HSPA:
1...3 IA/BG PS RABs AMR (12.2, 7.95, 5.9, 4.75), (5.9, 4.75) & (12.2)
Load based AMR selection algorithm not used AMR-WB (12.65, 8.85, 6.6)
while CS Voice is mapped on HSPA
* if HSPA streaming or CS voice is activated, then QoS
BG: Background prioritization for NRT HSPA connections is in use, too
IA: Interactive

84 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Enabling the feature: CS Voice Over HSPA
Pre-conditions

CS voice over HSPA license exists & state is 'On


HSDPA with Simultaneous AMR Voice Call license exists & state is 'On'
HSUPA with Simultaneous AMR Voice Call license exists & state is 'On'
AMRWithHSDSCH & AMRWithEDCH: HSPA with Simultaneous AMR Voice Call
enabled
HSDPAenabled & HSUPAenabled : HSPA enabled in all Active Set cells
HSDPA Dynamic Resource Allocation license exists & state is 'On
HSDPADynamicResourceAllocation is enabled
QoS Aware HSPA Scheduling license exists & state is 'On
HSPAQoSEnabled is set to HSPA CS voice in all Active Set cells
CPC & Fractional DPCH licenses exists & state is 'On
CPCEnabled in all Active Set cells
FDPCHEnabled: Fractional DPCH enabled in all Active Set cells

85 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CS Voice Over HSPA
Efficiency

Two different voice transmission scenarios are being considered with IP:
VoIP UE connects with network as in standard Packed Data transmission and by using web
communicators a connection can be established
(hard to establish appropriate charging schemes)
CS voice over IP voice is being carried by HSPA transport channels transparent for the user

Assumed IP
Header
Compression

86 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


CS Voice Over HSPA
Concept / Protocol Stack
In UL there is a so called Dejitter buffer implemented in RNC PDCP
used to align the UL data stream before routing to MSC or MSS system
In DL MAC-ehs is used to support flexible RLC PDU sizes CS
supporting different AMR rates
RAN Core
CS Voice
CS Dejitter
CS over buffer
Voice Core HSPA
over RAN PDCP
DCH
TM RLC UM RLC

DCH HSPA

Inter system mobility between 2G & 3G is as today, the CS Voice Over HSPA is just RAN internal
mapping and it is not visible outside of the RAN. Handover signaling is not affected and RAN provides
the measurement periods for UE using compressed mode as today
AMR rate adaptation can be used to provide even higher capacity gains by lowering the AMR coding
rate
Voice related RRM algorithms like pre-emption are expanded to cover also the Voice Over HSPA
Air interface capacity gain of the feature depends on parameterisation of HSUPA including CPC
parameters, allowed noise rise and voice activity
87 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
CS Voice Over HSPA
Admission Control: PtxNCTDCH + PtxNCTHSDPA + Pnew < PtxTargetTot
CS Voice over HSPA connection
admitted if: && PtxNCTHSDPA + Pnew < PtxMaxHSDPA

PtxMaxHSDPA PtxTargetTotMax
max. target pwr for NCT* load
max. allowed PtxCellMax WCEL; -10..50; 0.1; 4132767 dBm
HSDPA power HSDPA PS streaming Special value: Use of dynamic DL
WCEL; 0..50 dBm;
target power is disabled
0.1 dB; 43 dBm PtxTargetTotMax
NCT Tx power target
HSDPA NRT PtxTargetTot for DCH + HSPA
PtxTargetTotMin
PtxTargetTotMin
PtxNCTHSDPA HSDPA voice + SRBs min. target pwr for NCT* load
PtxTarget WCEL; -10..50; 0.1; 4032767 dBm
Special value: Use of dynamic DL
DCH PS streaming NCT Tx power target target power is disabled
for DCH
DCH NRT
DCH RT + SRBs PtxTargetTot
PtxNCTDCH (excluding PS streaming)
is calculated always when
Common Channels NCT* load services
are admitted
PtxNCTHSDPA: power used by HSDPA conversational services
PtxNCTDCH: power used by DCH services associated as NCT load * Non-Controllable Traffic NCT: CS services & PS conversational services

88 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Dynamic target power for NCT load
The min. & max. value for dynamic target power Rules:
for NCT load (CS services & PS conversational
PtxTargetTotMin PtxTargetTot
services) can be set :
PtxTargetTotMax
PtxTargetTotMin PtxTargetTotMin PtxTargetTotMax
WCEL; -10..50 dBm; 0.1 dBm; 4032767 dBm PtxTarget PtxTargetTotMin
PtxTargetTotMax PtxTargetTotMax PtxCellMax
WCEL; -10..50 dBm; 0.1 dBm; 4132767 dBm
Dynamic target power is used when in cell there are SRBs or conversational services (NCT load) mapped to HS-
DSCH transport channel. Dynamic target power varies between PtxTargetTotMin & PtxTargetTotMax depending on
the mix of services mapped to DCH & HS-DSCH transport channels.
However, NCT load caused by services mapped to DCH transport channels must still stay below PtxTarget.
Power margin between PtxCellMax & PtxTargetTotMax is needed to protect the already admitted services
mapped to HS-transport channels by giving time for the overload control to adjust PS DCH load before high priority
HS-DSCH load is affected.

PtxTargetTot is calculated whenever a NCT connection is admitted

PtxTargetTotMax
PtxTargetTot = PtxTargetTotMax - PtxNCTDCH ( PtxTarget
-1
)
PtxNCTDCH: power used by DCH services associated as NCT load
NCT: Non-Controllable Traffic

89 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


PtxTargetPS Target Calculation

The introduction of CS Voice over HSPA impacts the calculation of the target for PtxTargetPS
The original calculation in RAS06 was:

PtxTargetPSTarget = Ptx_nc + [(Pmax - Ptx_nc) x WeightRatio]

This calculation shares the power left over from non-controllable load between HSDPA & NRT
DCH connections
The calculation was updated in RU10 to account for HSDPA streaming:

PtxTargetPSTarget = Ptx_nc + [(Pmax - Ptx_nc- Ptx_hsdpa_stream) x WeightRatio]

The updated calculation reduces the quantity of power to be shared by effectively including HSDPA
streaming power as non-controllable power
The calculation is further updated when CS Voice over HSPA is enabled

PtxTargetPSTarget = Ptx_nc + [(Pmax - Ptx_nc- Ptx_hsdpa_stream- Pnc_hsdpa) x WeightRatio]

CS Voice over HSPA transmit


power

90 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


UL Power Allocation: dynamic threshold PrxTargetAMR
PrxTargetAMR is used for the admission of UL PrxTargetMax
max. UL target power for CS
DCH & E-DCH, SRB & CS AMR connections speech service allocation
PrxTargetAMR shall be applied always, w/o WCEL; 0..30; 0.1; 465535 dB
considering the activation of the feature CS voice
over HSPA.
PrxTargetAMR varies between PrxTarget & PrxTargetMax
PrxTargetMax depending upon the UL load of HSUPA NRT
data services PrxTargetAMR
PrxTargetAMR is calculated by cell specific AC PrxTarget
inside RNC HS/DCH CS AMR
NCT can always use power up to PrxTarget
DCH CS data PrxTargetPS
Standalone SRB & CS AMR can be admitted
even if the NC interference power exceeds DCH PS NRT
PrxTarget as long as the RSSI is below PrxDataDCHNST
PrxTargetAMR HSUPA PS streaming
SCT load of the HSUPA & UL DCH streaming DCH PS streaming
services can take all power left from the NCT
load up to PrxTarget other interference,
DCH PS NRT services can use power up to Noise power
dynamic UL DCH target PrxTargetPS
Semi-Controllable Load Controllable Load
HSUPA PS NRT services can take all power left
from all other services Non-Controllable Load
NST: Non-Scheduled Transmission
SCT: Semi-controllable traffic

91 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSUPA Non-Scheduled Transmission NST
NST is used for the UL of CS Voice over HSPA
HSUPA TTI = 2 ms 1 HARQ process is allocated for the E-DCH MAC-d flow
EDCHMuxVoiceTTI2 & EDCHMuxVoiceTTI10 define whether or not other E-DCH MAC-d flow data
can be multiplexed within the same MAC-e PDU as CS Voice
The max. Number of Bits per MAC-e PDU for NST indicates the number of bits allowed to be
included in a MAC-e PDU per E-DCH MAC-d flow configured for non-scheduled transmissions
Generally the MAC-d flow of the SRB has higher SPI value, being prioritized over the CS voice in
the E-TFC selection
The max. SRB bit rate will be limited so that the at least 1 CS voice frame can always transmitted
together with the signaling when the max. puncturing is applied, for minimizing the CS voice delay
2 ms TTI is selected whenever possible, otherwise 10 ms TTI is used

The maximum target value for the RTWP in UL for CS speech service allocation:
PrxTargetMax
defines the max. target value for the RTWP in the UL resource allocation for the CS speech services. A dynamic
target of RTWP is applied in the resource allocation for the CS speech services and for the establishment of the link.
Dynamic target is the closer to the value of this parameter, the less there is PS NRT R99 data traffic and RT data R99
and HSPA traffic in the cell. Establishment of the stand alone signaling link or a single service CS speech can be
admitted in UL even the received non-controllable interference exceeds the value of the parameter "Target for
received power" so long as the RTWP keeps below the dynamic target value defined with this parameter.
WCEL: 0..30 dB; 0.1 dB; 465535 dB

NST: Non-Scheduled Transmission

92 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC
CS Voice over HSPA
Fast Dormancy (RAN2136)
Fast Dormancy Profiling
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL)
High Speed Cell_FACH

93 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Fast Dormancy: Background (1/2)
Smart phones with many applications, requiring frequent UTRA RRC Connected Mode
transmission of small amount of data # (always-on) URA_PCH CELL_PCH
To save battery power, 3GPP defines transition from states
with high power consumption (Cell_DCH, Cell_FACH) to
those with low consumption (Cell_PCH, URA_PCH) CELL_FACH
CELL_DCH
approx. battery consumption in different RRC states:
Idle = 1 (relative units)
Cell_PCH < 2*1
URA_PCH Cell_PCH*2
Cell_FACH = 40 x Idle Idle Mode
Cell_DCH = 100 x IdleTypical terminal power consumption
300

250consumption [mA]
Power

200

150

100

50

0
URA_PCH / Cell_PCH / Idle Cell_FACH Cell_DCH
*1
depends on DRX ratio with Idle & mobility
*2 < in mobility scenarios, = in static scenarios
#
e.g. sending frequent polls or keep-alives

94 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Fast Dormancy: Background (2/2)

Problem for UE:


many networks with rel. long inactivity timers for Cell_DCH UTRA RRC Connected Mode
& Cell_FACH and/or PCH states not activated URA_PCH CELL_PCH

UE vendors introduced proprietary Fast Dormancy:
UE completes data transfer CELL_DCH CELL_FACH
UE sends Signaling Connection Release Indication SCRI
(simulating a failure in the signaling connection)
RNC releases RRC connection UE to RRC Idle mode
Disadvantages: Idle Mode
increasing signaling load due to frequent packet
connection setup (PS RAB),
large number of signaling connection failures
increased latencies

95 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Fast Dormancy: Principle
3GPP Rel. 8: Fast Dormancy
UTRA RRC Connected Mode
modifying SCRI message; new cause value indicating
packet data session end URA_PCH CELL_PCH
RNC can keep UE in RRC connected mode, moving it
into CELL_PCH/URA_PCH
CELL_DCH CELL_FACH
UE battery life remains prolonged because power
consumption in CELL_PCH/ URA_PCH is low
Network again in charge of RRC state; clarification of
signaling connection failures Idle Mode
Reduction of signaling load & latency times
Cause value of
3GPP TS 25.331 UE Requested
10.3.3.37a Signalling Connection Release Indication Cause PS Data Session
This IE is used to indicate to the UTRAN that there is no more PS data for a prolonged period. End defined

SRCI: Signalling Connection Release Indication

96 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Fast Dormancy
FastDormancyEnabled
SIB1: T323 BTS
RNFC; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)

MSActivitySupervision SCRI: UE Requested PS Data Session End


MSActivititySupervision
RNC; 0..1440; 1; 29 min Physical Channel Reconfig. move to CELL_PCH

UE RNC
RAN2136: Fast Dormancy (FD)
Basic SW; no activation required; enabled by default
MSActivitySupervision to be configured with value > 0 to enable PCH states
Enabling FD results in T323 being broadcast within SIB1
T323:
Inclusion of T323 within SIB1 allows UE to detect that network supports FD
Setting a min. delay between 2 SRCI messages for FD; prevents, that UE is sending a flow of SCRI
messages, if network is temporarily unable to move UE to a battery-saving state

Fast Dormancy - RNC Actions:


T323
After receiving SCRI message with cause value UE Requested PS Data Session End:
RNC; 0..7; 1; 10
s FD functionality overrides inactivity timers
(hardcoded) RNC instructs UE to make state change to CELL_PCH/URA_PCH
If RNC receives an SCRI message without a cause value then the existing legacy
functionality is applied & the UE is moved to RRC Idle mode

SRCI: Signalling Connection Release Indication


97 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC
CS Voice over HSPA
Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy Profiling (RAN2451)
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL)
High Speed Cell_FACH

98 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Fast Dormancy Profiling: RAN2451
Included in RU40 application software package license is required
Brief description:
Identifies legacy Fast Dormancy phones which cause unnecessary signaling load
Provides with better network resources utilization due to shorter inactivity timers
Less signaling load because LFD (Legacy Fast Dormancy) Phones are being forced
to stay in Cell_PCH
Benefits:
Signaling load reduction on Iub, UU and Iu interfaces
Signaling load reduction in the RNC
Longer UE battery life
Overview: RAN supports Fast dormancy
Application has no more data to transfer
UE wants go to more battery efficient RRC
state
SCRI

RNC: Data session ended SIB1 contains info about T323 Go to URA/Cell_PCH
RNC: UE move to more battery efficient state
99 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
Fast Dormancy Profiling: Background
Legacy Fast Dormancy phone detection:
The UE is detected as Legacy Fast Dormancy phone (LFDphone) when network receives
RRC:Signaling Connection Release Indication without any cause
If the Fast Dormancy Profiling feature is activated then RRC state transition is performed
according to Fast Dormancy functionality
SCRI - without any cause
RNC checks if
the license is ON

If the license is available - Go to Cell_PCH


Handling the PS Connection Establishment:
The LFD Phone after sending SCRI without any cause may still silently goes to Idle
After receiving RRC: Initial Direct Transfer, RNC checks if Iu-PS connection already exists
If yes, then all existing PS RAB resources locally and the old Iu connection are released
New Iu connection is established for pushing RRC: Initial Direct Transfer to SGSN
Iu
RNC checks
if Iu-PS RRC: Initial Direct Transfer
connection
for this UE
already
exists
100 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
Fast Dormancy Profiling: Principle
Shorter Inactivity Timers for LFD Phone and Smartphones:
Shorter inactivity timers should be used for moving smartphones and LFD Phones to
Cell_PCH state - saving UE battery
It gives possibility to avoid unnecessary movement to IDLE_mode less signaling load
Higher Traffic Volume Thresholds for LFD Phone and Smartphones:
Higher traffic volume thresholds should be used for moving smartphones and LFD Phones
to Cell_DCH state
It gives possibility to avoid unnecessary movement to Cell_DCH only for sending keep-
alive message
Stored IMSI gives possibility to faster usage of higher traffic volume thresholds

101 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC
CS Voice over HSPA
Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy Profiling
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB (RAN2172)
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL)
High Speed Cell_FACH

102 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Brief description:
RU30 (RAN 2172); optional RAN feature; RNC level license
RU20 & earlier, Intra-/Inter-band Redirections/Handover:
Capability based redirection (e.g. HSPA/non HSPA capable UEs HSDPA/non HSPA)
HSPA capability based IFHO (pushes HSPA capable UEs to HSPA layers;
no load check in target cells before HO)
Load based HO (moves non-HSPA calls; HSPA load cant trigger load based HO)
New/extended in RU30: HSPA+ capable Inter-Band Handovers/ Redirections
Target cell selection can depend on:
UE capability & service,
frequency band,
target/source cell load,
UE distance from source/target cells.
Motivation & benefits:
Better frequency resource utilization, directing UE to different frequency bands/layers in multi-band
networks. Capability, service, load & distance based HO are now possible for HSPA+ between
e.g. UMTS 2100 & 900/850 cells
DCH/HSPA cell (band Z) DCH/HSPA cell (band Z)

DCH/HSPA cell (band Y, RF2) DCH/HSPA cell (band Y, RF1)

DCH/HSPA cell (band X)

103 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB

MBLB (RU30; RAN 2172) includes RAN2289 Blind IFHO in RAB setup phase.
MBLB can trigger in 4 different phases which all can be activated separately:

RAN 2172
Multi-band Load Balancing

RAN2289

Blind IF-HO Inactivity Layering in Mobility


at RAB setup triggered state change triggered
either first RAB, or AMR RAB for a inactivity detected for last state transitions*: CELL_ addition of cell to AS which has
UE which already has an NRT RAB active PS NRT MAC-d flow FACH, URA_PCH or different preferred layer def.
blind Handover IFHO with CM measurements CELL_PCH CELL_DCH* IFHO with CM measurements

IF-HO to higher prioritised frequency layer in same or different band


Each type can be enabled on cell level independently on others, by corresponding
source cell WCEL parameter (enabling in target cell not needed):
MBLBRABSetupEnabled MBLBInactivityEnabled MBLBStateTransEnabled MBLBMobilityEnabled
for all: WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)

* doesnt include transition from RRC Idle mode


AS: Active Set
104 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
MBLB: Blind IFHO & Layering in State Change modes
Redirection/Blind IFHO to
DCH/HSPA cell (band Z) DCH/HSPA cell (band Z) higher priority layer cell, at:
Connection setup OR
DCH/HSPA cell (band Y, RF2) DCH/HSPA cell (band Y, RF1) CTS FACH/PCH/URA DCH

DCH/HSPA cell (band X)


MBLBRABSetupEnabled MBLBStateTransEnabled
Enabling Blind IFHO at RAB Layering in State Change
Setup WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled))
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled))

Blind IFHO & Layering in State Change extends existing redirection scenarios.
Both triggers utilize blind IFHO mechanism (w/o CM activation).
Target can be IF-neighbor in same or different BTS / frequency / frequency band.
IF-neighbour must have higher priority ( preference score) than source cell.
MBLB adds IF-RACH measurements to have target cell info before blind HO decision*.
Intra-freq. RACH measurement quantity (SIB11/11bis/12) to be modified from EcNo to RSCP.
RSCP is used as pathloss equivalence indicating UE position within a cell RACHIntraFreqMesQuant
RSCP (Target Cell) must be > BlindHORSCPThrTarget WCEL; EcNo (0), RSCP (1)

BlindHORSCPThrTarget
HOPIWCEL; -115..-25; 1; -95
dBm

CTS: Channel Type Switching


* requires UE Rel. 6 or newer

105 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


MBLB: HSDPA Inactivity or Mobility triggered modes
CM IF-HO to higher priority
DCH/HSPA cell (band Z) DCH/HSPA cell (band Z) layer cell, on:
HS- HSDPA
: traffic inactivity
DCH/HSPA cell (band Y, RF2) DSCH
DCH/HSPA cell (band Y, RF1) (instead CTS to FACH)
HS-
DSCH
DCH/HSPA cell (band X)
MBLBInactivityEnabled MBLBMobilityEnabled
Inactivity triggered Mobility triggered
WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)) WCEL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled))

Extending event triggered scenarios (on HSDPA traffic Inactivity) & adding new HSDPA mobility
triggers.
Target cell can be any Intra-RNC, IF-neighbour cell (same/different BTS, same/different freq. band)
which is not in overload state1). It must have higher priority ( preference score) than source cell.
HSDPA Inactivity triggered when for UEs last active PS NRT MAC-d flow & corresponding UL PS
NRT DCH/E-DCH MAC-d flow can be released
Mobility triggered HO:
Adding new cell to AS (Event 1A/1C), with different preferred layer def. than the currently used.
Removing cell from AS (Event 1B/1C) which has preferred layer def. currently used by UE
SRNC relocation completed
UE detected to have high mobility (using criteria for URA_PCH)

1)
Overload state is checked prior HO. CTS: Channel Type Switching

106 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
HSDPA inactivity or Mobility triggered modes

MBLBRABSetupEnabled MBLBStateTransEnabled MBLBInactivityEnabled MBLBMobilityEnabled

RAB
Setup State transition Inactivity Mobility Fast Mobility
to Cell_DCH detected detected detected

1) Target cell is source cells ADJI with


BlindHOTargetCell set to Enabled
2) Cells in inter-frequency measurement report
Preference Score

PrefLayerWeight own parameters for FM UE

BandWeight

RSCPWeight

LoadWeight LoadWeight

Quality Criteria checking

Blind HO Layering
IFHO with CM

BlindHOTargetCell
ADJI; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled)
107 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Frequency layer priority - Preference Score (1/5)
Each carrier (& frequency band) used in RNS can be differently prioritised. Carrier/frequency layer
priority (preference score) is effected by:
Pref. Freq. weight: Selection of carrier preferred for configurations UE capability & used RAB
Band weight: RNC level selection of one preferred frequency band
RSCP weight: High &/or low band preference depending on UE distance from source cell
Load weight: HSDPA cell or carrier / freq. layer load preference (load balance / overload)
Each factor represented by weight is OAM configurable. Candidates for MBLB are IF neighbours on
freq. layer higher prioritised then source cell layer, in bands supported by UE
Not considered for non-HSPA UEs
Not considered for fast or other with CS RAB in DCH cell
moving UEs

Freq layer priority = Preferred Freq + Freq Band + RSCP + Load


(Preference Score) weight weight weight weight
= = = =

0 0 0 0
or or or or
LaySelWeightPrefLayer LaySelWeightBand LaySelWeightRSCP >=LaySelWeightLoad

108 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Frequency layer priority - Preference Score (2/5): Preferred Freq. weight
Each combination UE capability Used/Requested Service may be redirected by Operator to preferred frequency.
E.g.: MIMO capable UE with NRT RAB should be redirected to frequency with MIMO configured cells.
Preferences are defined in new object PFL (Preferred Frequency Layer);
up to 8 carriers per UE capability-Used Service pair (PrefLayerXXX[1-8] = preferred RF freq.
UE Capability
Priority Order Service/RAB parameters included to PFL object
CS Voice Over HSPA PrefLayerCSHSNRT PrefLayerCSHSStr PrefLayerCSHSAMR PrefLayerCSHSAMR&NRT
DC HSDPA + MIMO PrefLayerDCMINRT PrefLayerDCMIStr PrefLayerDCMIAMR PrefLayerDCMIAMR&NRT
PrefLayerDCHSDNR PrefLayerDCHSDSt PrefLayerDCHSDAM PrefLayerDCHSDAMR&NR
DC HSDPA * T r R T
MIMO** PrefLayerMIMONRT PrefLayerMIMOStr PrefLayerMIMOAMR PrefLayerMIMOAMR&NRT
HSDPA 64QAM PrefLayer64QAMNRT PrefLayer64QAMStr PrefLayer64QAMAMR PrefLayer64QAMAMR&NRT
F-DPCH PrefLayerFDPCHNRT PrefLayerFDPCHStr PrefLayerFDPCHAMR PrefLayerFDPCHAMR&NRT
HSPA PrefLayerHSPANRT PrefLayerHSPAStr PrefLayerHSPAAMR PrefLayerHSPAAMR&NRT
HSDPA PrefLayerHSDPANRT PrefLayerHSDPAStr PrefLayerHSDPAAMR PrefLayerHSDPAAMR&NRT
R99 PrefLayerR99NRT PrefLayerR99Str PrefLayerR99AMR PrefLayerR99AMR&NRT
e.g.
LaySelWeightPrefLayer Preferred Layer
PrefLayerR99NRT
preferred RF freq. for UE
PFL; 0..10000; 1; 0 (not used) 1000 weight
capab. RAB combination =
PFL; 0..16383; 1; -0
PrefLayerXXX[1-8] 0 = not defined 0
= preferred RF freq. >0 (RF freq number) LaySelWeightPrefLayer

109 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Frequency layer priority - Preference Score (3/5): Freq. Band weight
Operator can promote one frequency band among used by neighbours of source cell. The Freq Band
weight of candidate cell carrier is determined from its absolute RF number. Candidate cells in
promoted band are assigned with non-zero weight: LaySelWeightBand

PreferBandForLayering ifif any


any band preferred
band preferred PreferBandForLayering
PreferBandForLayering
Preferred UMTS band

Freq.BandWeight
Freq.BandWeight (of (of pref.
pref. band
band freq.)
freq.) == LaySelWeightBand
LaySelWeightBand
RNMOBI; 0..51; 1; 0 (no band pref.)

Band Frequency band (DL range) Freq Band LaySelWeightBand


ID PFL; 0..10000; 1; 0 (not used)
weight
1 RF band I (21102170MHz) / IMT
2 RF band II (19301990MHz) / PCS
3 Band III (18051880MHz) / DCS
4 Band IV (21102155MHz) / AWS
5 Band V (869894MHz) / CLR
6 Band VI (875885MHz)
7 Band VII (26202690MHz) / IMT-E
8 Band VIII (925960MHz) / GSM
..
11 Band XI (1475.91495.9MHz)

110 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Frequency layer priority - Preference Score (4/5): RSCP weight
Operator can prioritise IFHO to lower/higher band in case RSCP is below/above defined thresholds.
RSCP of source cell* is used as indication of UE distance from source cell. Close UE can be moved
to higher band (smaller cell range), while distant UE to lower band to improve radio link situation
BlindHORSCPThrAbove
PFL; -1215..-25; 1; 0 dBm (not done)

RSCP of if RSCP (Source Cell) BlindHORSCPThrAbove


source cell* RSCPWeight (higher band freq.s) = LaySelWEightRSCP
High Band (F2)

if RSCP (Source Cell) BlindHORSCPThrBelow


1 2
RSCPWeight (lower band freq.s) = LaySelWEightRSCP

Low Band ( F1)


RSCP BlindHORSCPThrBelow
PFL; -1215..-25; 1; -126 dBm (not done)
These parameters can be used to optimize weight
frequency usage in case of co-located LaySelWeightRSCP
multi-band cells: PFL; 0..10000; 1; 0 (not used)
UEs close to BTS allocated to a high band
Low band capacity used for distant UEs RSCPWeight applied only to following events:
Blind HO in RAB Setup phase
State transition to Cell_DCH state
* Source cell: best RSCP cell in RACH Intra-freq
report
111 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Frequency layer priority - Preference Score (5/5): Load weight
The Load weight is used to avoid IFHO to more loaded cells or direct traffic to balance the
load. The weight is decided based on mean HSDPA power per HSDPA NRT User.

LaySelLowLoadPref HSDPA pwr per Unused HSPA


PFL; 0 (Disabled), 1 (Enabled) NRT user [W] DL pwr load lev

HSPAloa 16 Yes 1
Yes dLevel No 16 >Pwr 10 Yes 2
LowLoadPreference = 1 1000
low (= 1 10 >Pwr 4.2 Yes 3
Source or target cell 7)?
result or freq. layer CellWeightForHSDPALayering 4.2 >Pwr 2.2 Yes 4
average, depending on WCEL; 0.01..1; 0.01; 1 2.2 >Pwr 1.3 Yes 5
MBLB mode

P * CellWeight ForHSDPALa yering 1.3 >Pwr 0.8 Yes 6

HSDPApower PerUser NRTHSDPA 0.8 >Pwr 0.5 Yes 7


NumberOfNRTHSDPAuser s 0.5 >Pwr 0.23 Yes 8

HSPA HSPA overload No 21
load state
LaySelWeightLoad load unknown or No 22
non HSDPA cell
PFL; 0..10000; 1; 0 (not used)

0 if LaySelWeightLoad = 0
Load
=
weight [ LaySelWeightLoad + (22 HSPALoadLevel)] LoadLoadPreference

112 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Fast Mobility UE
UE detected to be fast moving UE with same mechanism than for URA-PCH (too
many mobility events per time)
In CELL_DCH state, UE location is known in cell level and handover process can
calculate the velocity of the UE by AS changes needed for the UE.
UE is fast moving: if number of complete AS changes FastUEThreshold during
time period FastUEPeriod
FastUEPeriod
WCELRNMOBI; 01..60; 1; 10 s

FastUEThreshold
WCELRNMOBI; 2..60; 1; 3

UE fast moving preference score is calculated taking into account


PreflayerFastMovUECS #1
only the preferred layer definition for fast moving UE: PFL; 0..16383; 1; -0
PreflayerFastMovUEPS is used for PS, and
PreflayerFastMovUECS is used for CS PreflayerFastMovUEPS#2
fast moving UE can have only 2 preferred frequencies in priority order PFL; 0..16383; 1; -0

#1
defines the preferred layers for fast moving UE with AMR RAB or other CS
AS: Active Set RAB, 0...1 streaming RAB + 0...3 NRT RAB(s) allocated
#2
defines the preferred layers for fast moving UE with 0...3 PS NRT RAB(s) +
0...1 PS streaming RAB allocated. (No AMR RAB or other CS RABs exists)

113 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
Preferred Frequency Layer PFL
MBLB introduces new PFL object within the RNC data build.
Preferred Frequency Layer (PFL) object is pointed to by each WCEL.
RNC Multiple PFL objects (50) can be defined; so different WCEL can have
different PFL parameter sets.
However, if there is too many PFLIdentifier assigned to same geographical
WBTS
area, it may cause ping pong due the looping in preference definitions
PFL Parameters
PFLIdentifier BlindHORSCPThrAbove
WCEL PFL set i BlindHORSCPThrBelow
RSCP above/ LaySelLowLoadPref
PFLIdentifier below thresholds
WCEL PFL set j LaySelWeightLoad
LaySelWeightBand
PFLIdentifier LaySelWeightPrefLayer
WCEL Weight for preferred layer, LaySelWeightRSCP
Band, RSCP & Load
PFLFastMovUECS
Preferred Frequency layer List PFLFastMovUEPS
for Fast Moving UEs (CS & PS)
PFLListxxxAMR
PFLListxxxAMRNRT
Preferred Frequency layer List
for different type of UE PFLListxxxNRT
PFLListxxxStr X9
capabilities (MIMO, R99 etc.)

114 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1 /


Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
MBLB / PFL Example RSCP Weight
1. UE is moved to higher band when path loss of serving cell is low
RSCP(S_cell) > BlindHOThrAbove (e.g. -72 dBm). Higher frequency band, which get non-zero
RSCP weight value (LaySelWeightRSCP 0), are preferred.
2. UE is moved to lower band when pathloss of serving cell is high
RSCP(S_cell) < BlindHOThrBelow (e.g. -92 dBm). Lower frequency band, which get non-zero
RSCP weight value, are preferred.
Source cell (f2)
WCEL: PFLIdentifier = 5
BlindHOThrAbove= -72
RSCP of
source cell* BlindHOThrBelow= -92
LaySelWeightRSCP=100
High Band (F2) LaySelWeightPrefLayer=0
Cell_f1 freq priority =100
LaySelWeightBand=0 Cell_f2 freq priority = 0
RSCP high
1 2
band
preferred BlindHORSCPThrAbove

CPICH RSCP
Low Band ( F1) 2
BlindHORSCPThrBelow
1 RSCP low
band preferred
cell(f1)
Cell_f1 freq priority =0
RSCPWeight is applied only to the following events: Cell_f2 freq priority =100
Blind HO in RAB Setup phase
cell(f2)
State transition to Cell_DCH state

115 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC
CS Voice over HSPA
Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy Profiling
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL) (RAN1637)
High Speed Cell_FACH

116 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


High Speed Cell_FACH (DL): RAN1637
Included in RU30 application software package license required
HW prerequisites: Flexi rel.2 HSFACHVolThrDL
Can be used if: Flexible RLC Downlink is active WCEL; Infinity, (8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512, 1024, 2048, 3072, 4096,
Brief Description: 8192, 16384, 24576, 49152)
bytes
This feature enables Fast Cell_PCH to Cell_FACH switching (transition <200ms)
Feature reduces signaling load on Iub and Iur interfaces
Reduces code tree occupation
Saves BTS baseband resources
Increases number of supported smartphones
Increases possible throughputs on common channels to 1.80Mbps in DL
DL channel mapping:
BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH PCCH
Logical channels

Transport channels
BCH FACH FACH FACH HS-DSCH FACH PCH

3GPP Rel7
Physical channels
P-CCPCH S-CCPCH HS-PDSCH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH
117 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL): With and Without the Feature
RAN1637 Data transmission RAN1637
Not activated Activated

HSDPA
HSDPAonly
only on
on FA HSDPA
HSDPAalso
also on
on

RA
PA HS CH/
PA dedicated
dedicated channels
channels DP R A common
common channels
channels

CH
U U C
S S 9 A/
/H l99 /H l9 RA H

/F
A PA /Re CH

AC
P Re
D 9/ D 9

H
S S
H l9
e H el9
R R

Common channels
Common channels
Dedicated channels Dedicated channels

Significant
Significant setup
setup time
time reduction
reduction
Cell_PCH to Cell_DCH state change Cell_PCH to Cell_FACH state change
Cell Update required Cell Update not needed
600 ms <200 ms
Data appears in buffer Data appears in buffer

t [ms]
Channel type Transmission/recep t [ms] Transmission/recep
Cell switch tion in Cell_DCH Channel tion in Cell_FACH
update type
switch
118 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features:
Continuous Packet Connectivity CPC
CS Voice over HSPA
Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy Profiling
Multi-Band Load Balancing MBLB
High Speed Cell_FACH (DL)
High Speed Cell_FACH (RAN1913)

119 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


High Speed Cell_FACH: RAN1913 HSFACHVolThrDL
WCEL; (0, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
Included in RU40 application software package license required 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 3072,
4096, 8192, 16384) bytes
HW prerequisites: Flexi rel.2
Can be used if both Flexible RLC Downlink and Flexible RLC in Uplink features are active
Brief Description:
This feature enables Fast Cell_PCH to Cell_FACH switching (transition <100ms)
Feature enhances High Speed Cell_FACH in DL
Increases possible throughputs on common channels to 1.45Mbps in UL
UL channel mapping:

CCCH DCCH DTCH


Logical channels

Transport channels RACH E-DCH


3GPP Rel8

Physical channels
PRACH E-DPDCH

120 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


High Speed Cell_FACH: With and Without the Feature
RAN1913 Data transmission RAN1913
Not activated Activated

HSPA
HSPAonly
only on
on HSPA
FA
HS CH/ HSPAalso
also on
on
PA

RA
PA dedicated
dedicated channels
channels DP RA common channels
U common channels

CH
SU 9 S 9 A/ CH
/H l9 /H l9 A HSU

/F
PA /Re PA /Re

AC
P
D 9
SD 9 S

H
H l9 H el9
e R
R

Common channels
Common channels

Dedicated channels Dedicated channels

Significant
Significant setup
setup time
time reduction
reduction
Cell_PCH to Cell_DCH state change Cell_PCH to Cell_FACH state change
Cell Update required Cell Update not needed
600 ms <100 ms
Data appears in buffer Data appears in buffer

t [ms]
Channel type Transmission/recep t [ms] Transmission/recep
Cell switch tion in Cell_DCH Channel tion in Cell_FACH
update type
switch
121 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1
HSPA+ RRM: Contents

HSDPA Improvements
HSUPA Improvements
Other features
Appendix:
Dynamic HSDPA BLER (RAN 2171)

122 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


RAN 2171: Dynamic HSDPA BLER

RU20 uses HSDPA BLER Targets of 10 % & 25 %:


10 % is applied in static channel conditions
25 % is applied in fading channel conditions
these BLER targets are not configurable & independent CQI (high or low)
RU30 introduces Dynamic HSDPA BLER
allows the use of HSDPA BLER Targets of 2 %, 6 %, 10 % & 25 %
the Ru30 BLER Target is a function of the:
the channel conditions (static vs fading)
the CQI
Thresholds defining high, medium & low CQI ranges are configurable
Upper & lower BLER target limits for each CQI range are configurable
Dynamic HSDPA BLER is a basic software feature; it requires no license
The feature is installed as part of the BTS software and is always enabled
Fallback to RU20 behavior: configuring BLER Target parameter set appropriately
Parameters associated with this feature are Node B commissioning parameters rather than
RNC databuild parameters
Motivation/Benefits: cell & end-user HSDPA throughputs improved by up to 8 %

123 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


HSDPA BLER as function of CQI
The BLER Target is a function of the variance of the The look-up table below is
defined within the Node B
reported CQI
A low variance indicates that the UE is experiencing static Variance of BLER Channel
channel conditions: Low BLER target is appropriate Reported CQI Target Type
A high variance indicates that the UE is experiencing fading 0 to 1 2% Static
channel conditions: High BLER target is appropriate 1 to 1.5 6% Fading
Values within the table can be overwritten by defining upper & 1.5 to 2.5 10 %
lower BLER target limits within the RNC databuild >2.5 25 %

The RNC databuild also allows the BLER Target to be


defined as a function of the CQI, e.g. smaller BLER Targets
can be defined for higher CQI values

Variance of Reported CQI Low CQI Range Medium CQI Range High QI Range
0 to 1 BLERLOW,1 BLERMED,1 BLERHIGH,1
1 to 1.5 BLERLOW,2 BLERMED,2 BLERHIGH,2
1.5 to 2.5 BLERLOW,3 BLERMED,3 BLERHIGH,3
>2.5 BLERLOW,4 BLERMED,4 BLERHIGH,4

124 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Dynamic HSDPA BLER: Upper & lower BLER Target limits
The table below presents the RNC databuild parameters used to define:
the set of 3 CQI ranges
the upper & lower BLER Target limits for each CQI range
Condition for each CQI range Upper & Lower BLER
Target Limits*
OK
Low CQI Reported CQI < medCQIRangeStart targetBLERLowCQIStaCh
medCQIRangeStart Range targetBLERLowCQIFadCh
BTSSCW; 1..30; 1; 12
Medium CQI medCQIRangeStart Reported CQI < targetBLERMedCQIStaCh
highCQIRangeStart Range highCQIRangeStart targetBLERMedCQIFadCh
BTSSCW; 1..30; 1; 25
High CQI highCQIRangeStart Reported CQI targetBLERHighCQIStaCh
OK Range targetBLERHighCQIFadCh
OK
OK targetBLERLowCQIStaCh targetBLERLowCQIFadCh Static Channel or
BTSSCW; 2; 6; 10; 25; 6% BTSSCW; 2; 6; 10; 25; 25% Fading Channel
conditions

OK targetBLERMedCQIStaCh targetBLERMedCQIFadCh OK
BTSSCW; 2; 6; 10; 25; 2% BTSSCW; 2; 6; 10; 25; 25%

OK targetBLERHighCQIStaCh targetBLERHighCQIFadCh OK
* All parameters are Node B BTSSCW; 2; 6; 10; 25; 2% BTSSCW; 2; 6; 10; 25; 25%
commissioning parameters

125 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1


Dynamic HSDPA BLER: Default parameter set
The default parameter set generates the look-up table shown below

Variance of Low Medium High


Reported CQI CQI Range CQI Range CQI Range
0 to 1 6% 2% 2%
1 to 1.5 6% 6% 6%
1.5 to 2.5 10 % 10 % 10 %
>2.5 25 % 25 % 25 %

Configuration for fallback to RU20 behaviour is shown below

Variance of Low Medium High


Reported CQI CQI Range CQI Range CQI Range
0 to 1 10 % 10 % 10 %
1 to 1.5 10 % 10 % 10 %
1.5 to 2.5 10 % 10 % 10 %
>2.5 25 % 25 % 25 %

126 Nokia Siemens Networks RN3167BEN30GLA1