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Fred N Kerlinger (1970)

Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical
investigation of hypothetical propositions about presumed
relations among natural phenomena.
Peter D. Leedy (1989)
Research is a procedure by which we attempt to find
systematically, and with the support of demonstrable facts,
the answer to a question or the resolution of a problem.
John W. Best (1992)
Research is a systematic and objective analysis and
recording of observations that may lead to the development
of a theory.
Mike Bassey (1998)
Research is a systematic, empirical and critical enquiry
which aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge
and wisdom.
M. Saunders, P. Lewis and A. Thornhill (2007)
Research is a process of finding out things in a systematic
way thereby increasing knowledge.
Uma Sekaran (2009)
Research is an organized, systematic, data-based,
critical and scientific enquiry or investigation into a
specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding
answers or solutions to it.
Approaches To Research
This is still a dominant research method. But such studies are not possible all the

Recent addition to the toolkit of business researchers. Focuses on the
qualitative paradigms.

Triangulation (Convergent Methodology)

This means multiple reference points to locate the exact position.
The basic idea is : QT and QL research methods should be viewed as
complementary methods. They should not be viewed as rival camps.
Scientific Method
What is Science?
Science is a system of knowledge. It is an organized
body of knowledge.
Science is a quest for knowledge generation. It is a
means of creating knowledge.
Science helps in advancing knowledge.

Why do we need knowledge?

To develop our understanding of the situation.
To improve the quality of life.
To understand the explanatory relationships.
Scientific Method
What is Method?
Methods are tools of investigation.
Scientific method is a way of doing things.
Scientific method is a rational method. It is accurate,
logical, extensive, unbiased and scholarly work.

Scientific Research
A scientific research can be defined as a systematic and
orderly procedure for attaining some objectives.
It is a step-by-step, logical, organized, and rigorous
method of investigation.
It is a pursuit of creating verifiable and dependable
Steps of Scientific Research
Sensing or realizing a problem
Problem Identification
Theoretical Framework
Hypothesis Formulation
Research Design
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Refinement of Theory or Practice
Characteristics of Scientific Research
Purposiveness. Focus on specific purpose. Research without definite purpose or aim
leads the study nowhere.

Testability. Research involves testing of hypothesis. Research studies which do not test
hypotheses, do not meet the criteria of scientific research.

Replicability. The research results, which are replicable, have more acceptability and
confidence of being scientific.

Objectivity. Research involves more objective analysis and interpretation of data. The
research process should not be influenced by personal values and biases.

Rigour. Research involves a rigorous process and a carefully thought-out methodology.

Lack of rigour may lead to faulty conclusions.

Parsimony. Simple constructs are better. Simple means few elements and less complex.

Generalizability. Research must aim at making generalization. Generalization means

wider applicability of the research findings.
What is Management
A systematic enquiry whose objective is to provide
information to solve management problems.

The systematic and objective process of gathering,

recording and analyzing data for aid in making
business decisions.
Why Managers Need Better
The Purpose of Management Research
To let the managers understand the situation.
To solve problems.
To provide basic information to make decisions.
To reduce the risk and uncertainty of strategic plans and
their implementation.

The better information or knowledge the managers

have, the lower will be the risk associated with decision
Why Managers Need Research Skills?
The paradigm of business has changed.
Our society is undergoing fundamental changes. This
has brought complexity in managing an organization.
Information technology has and will continue to
accelerate this change.
The success of an enterprise depends on information on
new ideas and strategies for providing goods and
Information, if properly cultivated and used, is the
lifeblood of every successful organization.
Because of this increasing emphasis on information,
research skills are needed by managers.
What is Research Ethics?

Ethics are norms or standards of behavior that guide

moral choice about our behavior and our relationships
with others.

The goal is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers

adverse consequences from research activities.
Researchers Ethical
Responsibility to himself.
He should conduct research honestly, safely and sensibly.

Responsibility to respondents.
The researcher should make sure that they understand the
purpose of the study and also explain how the data will be

Responsibility to organizations involved in research.

They should be fully informed of the nature of research
the purpose, data collection, use of data, publication of

Responsibility to the employer or educational institution.

Research should be conducted according to accepted
Common Ethical Issues
Put pressure on the respondents to grant access to
confidential information.
Violate an individuals right to privacy; force the
respondents to provide personal data.
Fabricate the data; replace actual data with false data.
Alter the data to make them look better or fit with theory.
Select only the best data for reporting.
Claim credit for the work done by others.
Report data without permission from the organization.
Share the research result with colleagues and others prior
to its finalization and publication.
Make unauthorized copies of data and reports.
Publish the same paper in two different journals.
Publish a collaborative work in ones own name.
Waste materials and animals in research.