Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

Lecture 2

The Autonomic Nervous


System
James B. Parker Ph.D.
Physiology 1
Lecture Outline 2
The Autonomic Nervous
System
OBJECTIVES:
1. The student should be able to define the
organization and function of the autonomic
nervous system (ANS).
2. The student should be able to define the
effects of the ANS.
3. The student should be able to list the
receptors and neurotransmitters of the ANS.
4. The student should be able to list the
sympathetic stress response.
ANS Organization
The ANS affects visceral function and
chiropractic affects the ANS, therefore,
chiropractic affects visceral function
How then is the ANS organized?
A. Hypothalamus
B. Brain Stem
C. Spinal Cord
D. Visceral Reflexes
ANS Organization
ANS Organization
E. Sympathetic Nervous System
1. Paravertebral sympathetic chains of
ganglia
2. Prevertebral ganglia
a. Celiac

b. Hypogastric

3. T-1 to L-2
ANS Organization
F. Parasympathetic Nervous System
- Craniosacral Division
G. Tissues Regulated - Involuntary Organs

1. Visceral (Hollow) Organs


2. Exocrine Glands
3. Endocrine glands
4. Blood Vessels
5. Heart
ANS Organization
H. Cell Types
1. Smooth Muscle
2. Cardiac Muscle
3. Gland Cells
I. Functions

1. Homeostatic conditions in the body


2. Coordinating body response to stress
3. Assist endocrine system reproduction
Sympathetic Nervous
System
A. Thoracolumbar Division
B. Preganglionic Neuron - generally
short axon in spinal column
1. Cell body in intermediolateral
horn
2. Fibers pass through anterior
horn
Sympathetic Nervous
System
3. Synapse
a. In immediate ganglia (near

spinal cord)
b. Pass upward or downward

to another ganglia
c. On organ
Sympathetic Nervous
System
4. 3 major central ganglia
a. Celiac ganglia (solar

plexus)
b. Superior mesenteric

ganglia
c. Inferior mesenteric

ganglia
Sympathetic Nervous
System
C. Postganglionic Neuron
1. Originate in the
sympathetic chain ganglia or
in one of the prevertebral
ganglia
Sympathetic Nervous
System
2. Destinations
a. Skeletal Nerves (about 8% are

sympathetic)
1. Blood vessels (some are
cholinergic)
2. Sweat glands (cholinergic)
3. Piloerector muscles of the
hairs (cholinergic)
Sympathetic Nervous
System
b. Segmental distribution of sympathetic
nerves T1 and T2 head and neck, T3-T6
thorax, T7-T11 abdomen, T12-L2 legs
c. c. Adrenal medullae
1. Medullar secretes epinephrine and
norepinephrine into the blood stream
2. Fight or flight response
a. Capable of firing all at once in a

coordinated fashion
b. Generalized sympathetic response
Sympathetic Nervous
System
D. Functions
1. Emergency responses
2. Utilization of resources
(Redistribution)
Parasympathetic Nervous
System
A. Cranial-sacral Division
1. Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X
2. 2nd & 3rd sacral spinal
nerves (Sometimes 1st & 4th)
B. 75% are in the vagus nerve (X)
C. Preganglionic fibers generally
synapse at site of organ
Parasympathetic Nervous
System
D. Cholinergic-acetylcholine like
actions
1. Restoration and buildup of body
reserves
2. Elimination of waste
3. Digestion and absorption of food
4. Rest and relaxation
Neurotransmitters
A. Acetylcholine (Parasympathetic
nervous transmitter)
1. Secreted by cholinergic fibers
2. All preganglionic neurons
3. All (almost) parasympathetic
postganglionic neurons (some
release GABA a neural inhibitor)
Neurotransmitters
B. Norepinephrine (Sympathetic
transmitter)
1. Secreted by adrenergic fibers
2. All postganglionic neurons except,
preganglionic fibers are cholinergic (Ach)
a. Sweat glands (Ach)

b. Piloerector muscle (Ach)

c. Some blood vessels(Ach)


Receptors
A. Acetylcholine receptors (Ach is
the most prevalent neurotransmitter
in the peripheral nervous system)
1. Muscarinic Receptors
a. Activated by the fungus

muscarine
b. Found in the effector cells
Receptors
2. Nicotinic Receptors
a. Found in the synapse

between the preganglionic and


postganglionic neurons of both
the sympathetic and
parasympathetic systems and
Skeletal muscle fibers
Receptors
B. Adrenergic Receptors
1. Alpha receptors
a. Alpha1

b. Alpha2

c. Excited by Norepinephrine

& Epinephrine
Receptors
2. Beta Receptors
a. Beta1

b. Beta2

c. Excited primarily by

epinephrine
Effects of Sympathetic &
Parasympathetic
Stimulation
SYM PSYM
Eyes Pupil dilation Pupil Constriction
Glands Increased Increased nasal,
Sweating salivary, and GI secretions
GI decreased Increased GI activity
activity
Heart Increased decreased activity
activity
Stress Response -
Sympathetic Nervous
System
A. Fight or flight response
B. Mass sympathetic discharge
C. Stimulation of adrenal medulla -
(epinephrine release)
1. Catacholamine
2. All effects have adrenergic receptors
3. From adrenal medulla chromaffin cells
4. Enhances mobilization of glucose and fatty
acids, blood clotting and distribution, immune and
tissue responses to injury
Stress Response -
Sympathetic Nervous
System
D. Response
1. Increased arterial pressure
2. Increased blood flow
3. Shunting of blood to active sites
4. Increased cell metabolism
5. Increased blood glucose concentration
6. Increased glycolysis in liver
7. Increased muscle strength
8. Increased mental activity
9. Increased rate of blood coagulation