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ACTION

RESEARCH
LECTURE 1a: Types of Educational Research
with Focus
on Action Research
LECTURE 1B: Format of Action Research
( General and
DepEd)
I. DEFINITIONS OF ACTION RESEARCH

Action research is a form of investigation designed


for use by teachers to attempt to solve problems
and improve professional practices in their own
classrooms. It involves systematic observations
and data collection which can be then used by the
practitioner-researcher in reflection, decision-
making and the development of more effective
classroom strategies. (Parsons and Brown, 2002)
Action research is a natural part of teaching.
Teachers are continually observing students,
collecting data and changing practices to improve
student learning and the classroom and school
environment. Action research provides a framework
that guides the energies of teachers toward a better
understanding of why, when, and how students
become better learners. (Miller, 2007)
GOAL/PURPOSE OF ACTION RESEARCH
(Best and Khan, 1998)

The goal is the involvement of both research


specialist and classroom teacher in the study
and application of research to educational
problems in a particular classroom setting.

Its purpose is to improve the practices: to


combine the research processes, habits of
taking, ability to work harmoniously with
It also focuses on immediate application, not
on development of theory or on generalization
of applications. It is research although many
claim it is nothing more than application of
common sense or good management but it is
research because it applies scientific thinking
and method.

While to the real life problems and represents


great improvement over teachers subjective
judgments and decisions based on folklore and
limited personal experiences.
When looking at educational dimension of action
research, Gay and Airasian prove benefits resulted from
the application of action research to education as
follows: (Hien, 2009)

1. Teachers investigate their own practice in new ways,


looking deeper in what they and their students actually
do and fail to do.

2. Teachers develop a deeper understanding of


students, the teacher learning process and their role in
the education of both teachers and students.

3. Teachers are viewed as equal partners in deciding


what works best and what needs improvement in their
classroom or classrooms.
4. In most cases, solutions for identified problems are arrived
cooperatively among teachers.

5. Teachers are often more committed to action research


because they identify the areas they view as problematical
and in need of change.

6. Action research is an ongoing process and its strategies can


be widely applied.

7. Professional development and school improvement are core


aspects for any teacher who engages in action research.

8. Teacher reflection can be conducted individually or in a


school-based team composed of students, teachers and
TYPE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH WITH FOCUS ON
ACTION RESEARCH

Major Types of Research (According to Purpose/Goal)



1. Basic Research.
It is formal type drawn from the physical sciences and
represented by rigorous, and structured type of analysis.
The goal of basic research the development of theories by
the discovery of broad generalizations or principles.
It employs careful sampling techniques/procedure to
extend the findings beyond the group or situation studied.
There is little concern for the application of finding actual
problems in areas considered to be the concern of the
people other than the investigator and the approach is
2. Applied Research
It has most of the characteristics of fundamental or pure
research, including the use of sampling techniques and
subsequent inferences about the target population.

The purpose of this research is the improvement of


improving a product or a process-testing theoretical
concept in actual problem situations.
Most educational research is applied research for it
attempts to develop generalizations about teaching-
learning process, instructional materials, the behavior of
children and ways to modify it, and so on.

Fundamental research in the behavioral sciences may be


concern with the development and testing of theories
behavior. Educational research is concerned with the
development and testing of theories of how students and
teachers behave in educational settings.
3. Action Research
The goal is the involvement of both research
specialist and classroom teacher in the study and
application of research to educational problems in a
particular classroom setting.

Its purpose is to improve the practices: to combine


the research processes, habits of taking, ability to
work harmoniously with others and professional spirit.
It also focuses on immediate application, not on
development of theory or on generalization of
applications.

It is research although many claim it is nothing more


than application of common sense or good
management but it is research because it applies
scientific thinking and method.

While to the real life problems and represents great


improvement over teachers subjective judgments
and decisions based on folklore and limited personal
experiences
Types of Educational Research
1.Historical Research
The process involves investigating, recording,
analyzing, and interpreting the events of the past for
the purpose of discovering generalizations that are
helpful in understanding the past and the present and
to a limited extent, in anticipating the future.
2. Descriptive Research
Quantitative Research. It uses quantitative
methods to describe what is. It involves describing,
recording, analyzing and interpreting condition that
exist. It involves some type of comparison or contrast
and attempt to discover relationships between existing
non manipulated variables. Some form of statistical

Quantitative Descriptive Research. It uses non
quantitative methods to describe what is, uses
systematic procedures to discover non quantifiable
relationships between variables.

3.Experimental Research. It describes what will be


when certain variables are carefully controlled or
manipulated. The focus in on variables relationships.
Deliberate manipulation is always a part of the
experimental research.
FORMAT ON ACTION RESEARCH
INTRODUCTION
This is short description of the situation where the
problem emanated/originated. The research tells how the
problem is discovered; the circumstance/s that revolve around
the problem. He gives a background of the problem, its
importance, the necessity for a research to solve it. A
justification and significance of the research undertaking is
necessary and this includes the people or groups of people,
organization/institutions who will likely benefit from the results
of the research and how they will benefit from it.

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS


Problem Identification. This provides information about the
results of the achievement test, difficulty to comprehend,
cannot answer questions, and other academic problems that

Analysis of the Problem. This is the researchers
observation and experience with the students
prompted to conclude instructional intervention due to
the reasons of lack of mastery and comprehension,
lack of Interest and concentration, lack of interesting
visual aids, low comprehension ability, low parental
guidance and others.

Alternative Courses of Action. The researcher


decides to conduct instructional strategy as an
intervention to solve the problems in the class that will
enhance and improve the study habits. concentration
and attention, understanding the concepts of the
These are selected instructional strategies presented
by Kelly and Kelly (2013) that can be employed in the
probable causes of action in the conduct of Action
researches : (Slide No. 40)
Active Learning Adaptive Learning
Environments Model
Alternative to Recitation Buddy System
Computer-Assisted Instruction Character Analysis
Cloze Procedure Collaborative Learning
Collective Notebook Comic Books
Completed Work Chart Cooperative Learning
Model
Group Discussion Discussion Web
Drawing Dream Diary
Error Analysis Cooperative Dyads
Experiential Learning General-to-Specific
Sequencing
Generative Learning Model Graphic Organizer
Group Investigation Independent Practice
Independent Reading Programs Induction Matrix
Inductive Inquiry Logical Cycle of Inductive
Inquiry Inductive Thinking Open Text
Recitation
Jumbled Summary Nutshelling
Inside-Outside Circle Instant Messenger
Note-Taking Open Discussion
Opinion Sampling Paired Comparisons
Scripted Semantic Associations
Commonly Used Instructional Strategies in
Action Research :
Use of Word Puzzles Modular Instruction
Activity Oriented Approach Comic Strips
Picture Books Practical Work
Activity Cards Games and Puzzles
Vocabulary Notebook Noting Details
Reward System Semantic Webbing
Manipulative Devices Flashcards
Remedial Teaching Horn Method
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This part gives a clear definition of the actual problem.
The general/ major problem is usually stated first in
declarative sentence followed by the specific problems stated
in question form.

In the one group pretest and post test design, the usual
questions of the improvement and effectiveness of the
instructional strategy are the following:

The level of performance of the students in before/after the


use of specific instructional strategy.

The significant differences between the level of performance


before/after the use of specific instructional activity.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This part includes the parameters of the study which
are the following: coverage; geographic limits; period of
time involved; and person involved (respondent and
subjects; population and sample), etc.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


The researcher is evaluating the certain instructional
strategy to enhance, and improve the teaching strategy in
the class.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Many terms are used in the research. To make these
clear and so they may not interpreted otherwise,
these must be defined according to how they are
used in the research. Usually, variables in the
HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is an intelligent guess as a solution/s to a
problem. Hypothesis are necessary for these build a bridge
between the problem and the location of empirical evidence that
may solve the problem (Van Dalen, 1973) They can be expressed
in negative or positive statements; the affirmative way also
called research hypothesis or negative way also called the
null hypothesis.

EXPERIMENTATION AND ACTION


This part includes the following;
Research design ( if it is descriptive, experimental, or historical)
Population, sample and techniques ( how many
subject/respondent and sample, how the sample taken)
Data-gathering instruments ( instrument/tools to gather the
data needed)
Data gathering procedure ( to be explain in detail)
Statistical treatment of data
Sources of Data. The data for this action research
will be generated from among the students identified
by the researcher during specific school year.

Research Instrument. The researcher conducts and


validates the instructional strategy/ methodology
which will serve as the data gathering instrument. This
instrument will be used for the pretest and posttest.

Data Gathering. Prior to the conduct of this action


research proposal, it will be presented to the school
principal for approval. The instructional process on
how to conduct the action research will be prepared by
the teacher.
Statistical Treatment. The data to be gathered will be tested
statistically through arithmetic mean which usually describe
the level or status of a given instructional strategy / method
with the corresponding norm of interpretation. The t-test for
dependent samples will be used to determine the significant
difference between the pretest and posttest scores.
This is the example of the following scale of interpretation
which will be used to describe the level of academic
performance of the students :
Intervals Description
95-100 Outstanding
87-92 Very Satisfactory
81-86` Satisfactory
75-80 Fair
Below 75 Poor
The mean, standard deviation and level of academic
performance are presented in the analysis and
interpretation of the action research.

This will tested as significant difference of the before


and after the use of the instructional
strategy/technique.

The mean difference during the pretest and posttest


of the study will be presented including the computed
t-test value ( at .05 level of significance) to arrive at a
particular decision whether the null hypothesis is
accepted or rejected
ACTION
RESEARCH
by
Christopher F. Bueno, PhD
UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN PHILIPPINES
Vigan City
LECTURE 3 : The Problem and Hypothesis
WRITING THE PROBLEM and HYPOTHESIS

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS

Problem Identification. This provides information about the


results of the achievement test, difficulty to comprehend, cannot
answer questions, and other academic problems that need
instructional intervention in the class

Analysis of the Problem. This is the researchers observation and


experience with the students prompted to conclude instructional
intervention due to the reasons of lack of mastery and
comprehension, lack of Interest and concentration, lack of
interesting visual aids, low comprehension ability, low parental
guidance and others.

Alternative Courses of Action. The researcher decides to


conduct instructional strategy as an intervention to solve the
problems in the class that will enhance and improve the study
habits. concentration and attention, understanding the concepts of

These were the examples of action researches
conducted in School Year 2002-2003 by the Master
Teachers of the Elementary and High School in Ilocos
Sur.
The problem identification provides information about
the students academic performance particularly in the
low scores of the subject.
In the action research, it also discusses the problem
analysis, alternative courses of action and probable
action as to the specific instructional strategy in the
basic education subjects.
These are the examples of action researches in
Science, Mathematics and English relevant to the
problem identification, problem analysis, alternative
1) Mathematics. After a thorough study of
the results of the achievement test, the
researcher found out that most of the
students took the test got the low score in
problem solving. ( Javinollo , 2003)
Lack of mastery in problem solving
Lack of comprehension and inability to
transform the word problem into
mathematics operation
Inability to perform the operation and
limited use of instructional material especially
To remedy these difficulties, the following
alternative course of action: giving more
exercises to solve the problem, mastery of
the four fundamental operations, mastery
of the steps solving problem; and using the
activity card. From these alternative cause of
actions, the researcher decided to use activity
cards as an intervention.
2) Mathematics. The third year students
specifically of the lower sections demonstrated
the lowest achievement rate in Mathematics
during the third year grading period as compared
to the results of the test during the first year
grading periods. With this observation, the
Irregular attendance and cutting classes
Classes interruption due to activities like
athletic meets, town fiesta, Science-Math
Fair Quiz.
Lack of students interest in Mathematics
due teacher weak strategy.
Lack of parents involvement in education.
Follow-up lesson at home is neglected.
Given these probable causes, the researcher
believes that any of the following alternative courses
of action can be done.
Mathematics achievement can be improved by
suiting the class with a appropriate strategy like the
use of flash cards, concrete materials and
other tangible objects which students can
manipulate.
Giving incentives can motivate students interest
to get high scores.
Assignment sheets for every lesson should be
prepared by the teacher daily, to be checked, scored
and to be returned to the students before presenting
the new lesson. Parents signature should be affixed
With the desire of the researcher to
improve the performance of third year students
in Mathematics, the selected alternative course
of action was to use the assignment sheet for
every lesson. (Loresto,2003)
3. Science. The students can recall and
identify specific facts on people, materials and
energy. Energy. However, they are found to
have difficulty in comprehending basic science
concepts. (Mati,2003)
With this observation and researcher
considered the following as probable causes:
lack of interest
poor intellectual ability
poor study habits and learning styles
lack of exposure to science concepts and
information
low comprehension
training at home


Given these probable causes, the researcher
believes that any of the following alternative
courses of action can be done:
Science interest should be improved by using a
more interesting teaching strategy like cooperative
learning, discovery approach or
constructivism.
Study habits and learning styles can be enhanced
through independent learning or self-study
techniques.
Comprehension can be better when the learners
are given the chance to construct their experience.
Self-Learning can be possible with the use of
With the desire of the researcher to improve science
comprehension ability of the students, the selected
intervention is modular instruction with the belief that
self-learning can be more challenging. However, the
independence in learning can develop leaners to become
more responsible and more motivating.

4. Science. The students can identify specific facts on


people and materials. However, they are found to have
difficulty in comprehending basic science concepts.
( Tabila,2003)

With this observation, the researcher considered the


following probable causes :
Poor study habits
Lack of knowledge on basic science concepts.
Given the probable Causes, the researcher believes
that any of the following alternative courses of action
can be done :

Science habits and learning styles can be enhance


through independent and self-study techniques.
Science interest can be improved by using a more
interesting teaching strategy like the POE method
( Prediction, Observation and Explanation)
Comprehension in Science can be better when the
learner are given the chance to construct their own
experiences.
Attention and concentration of learners in Science
The researcher is desirous to improve the
understanding of Science among the students
and POE ( Prediction, Observation and
Explanation is the selected alternative with the
belief that self-learning can be more challenging.

5. Filipino. It is observed that there is a low


achievement in Filipino among our students. This
points out a need to develop instructional
strategies that can improve students cognitive,
affective as well as behavioral learning
outcomes. (Julio,2003)
During the launching of the Basic Education
Curriculum (BEC), cooperative learning one of the
approaches being emphasized and developed.
The cooperative learning is one of the
instructional method which has been proven
effective in improving students achievement and
attitude in all subject at all levels. Hence, it can
also be effective in teaching Filipino.

With the desire of the researcher to improve
the students performance in Filipino, the
selected alternative is to use the cooperative
6. English. The students can identify pictures, read words,
and sentences. However, they are found to have difficulty in
reading comprehension, particularly getting the main idea of
a selection read.

With this observation, the researcher considered the


following a probably causes:
lack of Interest
lack of concentration
lack of reading interest
limited vocabulary
poor study habits and learning styles
low comprehension ability
low parental guidance
lack of interesting visual materials

Given this probably causes, the researcher believes


that any of the following causes of action can be done:
Motivation can sustain interest.
Home visitation and dialogue with parents.
Improving study habits and learning styles through
independent learning styles through independent
learning and self-study
Remedial teaching
Use of instructional devices specifically use of comic
strips

With the desire of the researcher to improve the


ability in getting the main idea of a selection read of
the students, the selected alternative is to use comic
strips with the belief that this can be more
challenging, and thus interest to the reading.
EXPERIMENTATION AND ACTION TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE
ACTION RESEARCH

A hypothesis is an intelligent guess as a solution/s to a problem.


Hypothesis are necessary for these build a bridge between the problem
and the location of empirical evidence that may solve the problem (Van
Dalen, 1973) They can be expressed in negative or positive statements;
the affirmative way also called research hypothesis or negative way
also called the null hypothesis.

The action research uses the one group pretest - posttest design. If there
is only one intact class that will be used in the study.
The designO1is illustrated
X on the model below:
02

WHERE
O1 = pretest results
O2 = posttest results
X= experimental variable being tested.
Action Research Title Instruction Hypothesis Problem Analysis of Statement of
al Identificatio the the Problem
Strategies n Problem
1. Use Of Activity Cards Use Of Significant Low score in Lack of
Level of
In Improving The Activity Difference problem mastery and
Performance
Ability Of Grade V Cards in between the solving comprehensi
before and after
Pupils In Solving 1- Solving 1- level of on
Step Problem Of San Step Proficiency Inability to
Jose Elementary Problem perform the
School During The operation
School Year 2002- Grade 5
2003 ( Aurelia
Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
J. Javonillo)
ENGLISH
The mean value of pretest was 21, this means that the performance of the pupils in
solving 1 step problem is poor
The mean value of the posttest was 69, it implies that there was an improvement with a
standard deviation of 8.28.
The difference between the two mean yielded aa t-value of 32.65 which is significant
higher than the mean of the pretest.
There was significant improvement in the pupils ability in solving 1 step problem when
activity is very effective because it requires mental alertness of the pupils.
Action Research Instructio Hypothesis Problem Analysis Statement of
Title nal Identificatio of the the Problem
Strategies n Problem
Improving Use of Significant The third year Irregular What is the level
Mathematics Assignment difference in students classes of achievement
Achievement Sheets the specifically of with and without
Through The Use Of mathematics the lower Lack of the use of
Assignment Sheets achievement of sections students assignment
(Jovita C. Loresto) third year demonstrated interest sheets?
MATHEMATICS students with the lowest
and without achievement Follow up Is there a
the use of rate in lesson at significant
assignment Mathematics home is difference of the
sheets during the neglected mathematics
third grading achievement of
period as Classes the third year
compared to interruption students with
Findings/Conclusion and Recommendations the results of and without the
The level of the two groups were poor, III Ilang-ilang, the
theexperimental
tests group has a higher
use ofmean of 45
% and III-Rosal, the control group has 28%. The standard deviation
during of 17 for III-Rosal and
the first 11 for III
assignment
Ilang-ilang showed that the control group, was composed two of a more heterogeneous class.
grading sheets?
The computed t-value of 5.31 is higher than the critical value of 2.023 shows a significant difference
periods
between the performance of the control group and the experimental group. Thus the use of
assignment sheets is effective in teaching mathematics.
SELECTED INTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN THE
CONDUCTED
OF ACTION RESEARCH

These are selected instructional strategies presented


by Kelly and Kelly (2013) that can be employed in the
probable causes of action in the conduct of Action
Researches:

1. Active Learning
Any approach that engages learners by matching
instruction to the learner's interests, understanding, and
developmental level. Often includes hands-on and
authentic activities.

2. Adaptive Learning Environments Model (ALEM)


Combination of individual and whole class approach which
3. Alternative to Recitation
Similar to recitation, but the questions are generated
by the students. Usually included : preparation
(students read and generate questions), review, quiz,
and evaluation.

4. Buddy System
Pairing students during the first week of class to create
pairs who are responsible to help each other get
missing assignments due to absence, or watch out for
each other during field trips.

5. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)


Students learn at own pace with interactive computer
6.Character Analysis
Character analysis in education has two meanings.
The most commonly used is to describe activities
designed to help students understand characters in
their fictional reading. The second meaning is analysis
of the student's own character with regard to ethics and
values.

7.Cloze Procedure
An activity created by the teacher to give students
practice with language usage. The teacher selects a
passage of text, marks out some of the words, then
rewrites the text with blank lines where the marked out
words were. The result is a "fill in the blank" that should
be enjoyable for the student while at the same time
8. Collaborative Learning
Any kind of work that involves two or more
students.

9. Collective Notebook
A notebook maintained by a group in which each
member of the group is expected to add an idea or
observation during a specified time period (typically
each day or each week). The contents of the notebook
are regularly shared or published and discussed

10. Comic Books


Useful for engaging visual learners and encouraging
a wide variety of students to become involved in
discussions of literature and the wide range of social,
11. Completed Work Chart
Make and publicly post a chart that lists all assignments
along the top and students' names vertically along the left.
When a student finishes an assignment, the teacher marks out
the box for that assignment on the chart so students can
quickly see if they are missing any work. In this approach,
grades are never publicly posted, and if work is so late it will
no longer be accepted, the box is also marked out. The chart is
used only as a reporting mechanism to let students know
about work they need to do that will still be accepted for
credit.

12. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition


(CIRC)
A cooperative approach to reading in which students work
in pairs for practice and to prepare for assessments. Teacher-
13. Cooperative Learning Model
In this approach, students share knowledge with other students
through a variety of structures. Cooperative Learning, as a phrase,
originated in the 1960's with the work of David and Roger Johnson. True
cooperative learning includes five essential elements: positive
interdependence, face-to-face interactions, individual accountability,
some structured activity, and team-building (group processing) skills.
Similar to the "Social Learning Model.

14. Discussion Groups


In the classroom, a discussion group is formed when a discussion is
carried out by only a part of the class. Outside the classroom, discussion
groups are composed of individuals with similar interests. These groups
meet regularly to discuss a variety of literary or social issues.

15.Discussion Web
A form of discussion that starts out with individual students
formulating a response, then each student pairs with one other, then the
pairs pair to form groups of four. Finally, when the groups have refined
their answers, they share their thoughts with the whole class.

16. Dissections Experimental Inquiry


As a Meaningful Use Task it includes observation,
analysis, prediction, testing, and re-evaluation. As a variation
of inquiry, experimental inquiry involves generating and
testing hypotheses to explain phenomena.

17. Discovery Teaching


A constructivist approach. Students begin learning with
an activity designed to lead them to particular concepts or
conclusions. Students acquire basic and advanced knowledge
in random order.

18. Dramatizing
Students act out roles from stories or historical events.
19. Drawing
Students can illustrate text they have read, draw
diagrams of problems they have heard, or simply draw to
stimulate creativity.

20. Dream Diary


Useful creativity technique in art and writing classes.
Students keep a diary of their dreams, then can use the
images and ideas in their compositions.

21. Error Analysis


Error analysis takes two basic forms in the classroom. In
the most common form, teachers analyze the errors students
make (in mathematical computation, grammar, language,
literature interpretation, and so on) and use that analysis to
guide further instruction. In science classroom, some teachers
22.General-to-Specific Sequencing
An instructional approach in which objectives
are presented to learners beginning with general
principles and proceeding to specific concepts.
Compare to: Chronological, Known-to-Unknown,
Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to
Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-
Known, Whole-to-Part

23. Generative Learning Model


A four phase method (preliminary, focus,
challenge, and application) that encourages
students to "do something" with information. This
constructivist approach allows students to
construct (or generate) meaning through their
active use of information.
24.Generative Learning Model
A four phase method (preliminary, focus, challenge, and
application) that encourages students to "do something" with
information. This constructivist approach allows students to
construct (or generate) meaning through their active use of
information.

25. Graphic Organizer


Graphic organizers are visual frameworks to help the
learner make connections between concepts. Some forms of
graphic organizers are used before learning and help remind
the learner of what they already know about a subject. Other
graphic organizers are designed to be used during learning to
act as cues to what to look for in the structure of the resources
or information. Still other graphic organizers are used during
review activities and help to remind students of the number
and variety of components they should be remembering.
26. Group Investigation
The class is divided into teams. Teams select topics to
investigate, gather information, prepare a report, then
assemble to present their findings to the entire class.

27. Independent Practice


Practice done without intervention by the teacher. This
approach includes many activities done with a computer.

28. Independent Reading Programs


Programs in which students proceed at their own pace
through reading and take assessments when they feel
prepared. Accelerated Reading is one example of an
Independent Reading Program. In some programs, students
may choose their books from a pre-selected pool of books. In
other cases, the reading is ordered and students read the
29. Induction Matrix
A form of graphic organizer using a grid to compare
concepts and categories. The matrix is filled in at the beginning
of a lesson and as students learn more, they correct and update
the matrix to reflect new knowledge.
30. Inductive Inquiry
Teaching that follows the cycle used in scientific inquiry.
Steps usually include: searching the literature, making
observations, generating hypotheses, designing and carrying
out experiments, then analysis of results and restarting the
cycle.
31. Inductive Thinking
Analyzing individual observations to come to general
conclusions. Proceeding from facts to the "big picture."
Inferential Strategy Like DR-TA but occurs only before and after
32. Inside-Outside Circle
Review technique. Inside and outside circles of students
face each other. Within each pair of facing students, students
quiz each other with questions they have written. Outside
circle moves to create new pairs. Repeat.

33. Jumbled Summary


Teacher presents randomly ordered key words and phrases
from a lesson to students. Students put the terms and
phrases in a logical order to show understanding.

34. Nutshelling
A form of summary. It usually involves asking a student to
examine synthesize a brief statement that captures the
essence of all that has been written or stated to that point.
Often used in writing classes to help students find the key
points in their own writing.
43. Note-Taking
The process of recording information presented by a
teacher for the purpose of improving recall or understanding
by the student. Notes typically include a combination of
direct quotes of what a teacher says, diagrams, and
additions by the student to add emphasis or to indicate
areas where outside study may be required.

44. Open Discussion


Open discussion is the least structured form of
discussion. The teacher sets the boundaries by describing
the general topic for the discussion, but the direction of the
discussion follows student interests within that topic.

45. Open Text Recitation


A form of recitation in which students can use their
books, notes, or other texts to support their answers.

46. Opinion Sampling


Opinion sampling can be used either as an assignment
for students. Teachers may also collect student opinions for
the purpose of altering classroom structure.

47. Paired Comparisons


A structured method for comparing many objects or ideas
that involves creating a matrix, comparing each pair
individually, then using the paired comparisons to generate a
ranked list.

48. Scripted Cooperative Dyads


Pairs both read complex material, then alternate in roles
of recaller (who summarizes and explains what was read) and
49. Semantic Associations
Making connections between words based on meaning
and context.

50. Semantic Feature Analysis


Chart or grid where students explore their existing
knowledge about relations between concepts.

51. Spiral Sequencing


An instructional approach in which objectives are
presented to learners beginning with simple concepts and
then periodically revisiting the concepts and expanding on
the concepts as is appropriate for the learner's cognitive
level. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-
to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-
to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known,
Whole-to-Part
REFERENCES:
Calhoun, Emily F. How to Use Action Research in the Self-Renewing
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Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994.
Gay L.R., P. Airasian, Education research , 2nd ed, Prentice Hall, New
Jersey, 2003.
Hien, T. T. T. (2009). Why is action research suitable for education. VNU
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Mati, Milagros A. (2003) Improving Science Comprehension with the Use
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Instruction among the Grade VI Pupils of Paypayad Elementary
School. Department of
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Miller, Christine A. Action Research: Making Sense of Data. On-line
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Parsons, Rick D., and Kimberlee S. Brown. Teacher as Reflective
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Examples of Completed Action Researches conducted in
School Year 2002-2003 implemented in the Action Research
Capability Building of Master Teachers in Elementary and High
School in the Department of Education, Division of Ilocos Sur

Javonillo, Aurelia J (2003) Effectiveness of the Use of Activity


Cards in Improving the Ability of Grade V Pupils in Solving 1-
Step Problems of San Jose Elementary School During the School
Year 2002-2003

Loresto, Jovita C. ( 2003) Improving Mathematics Achievement


Through the Use of Assignment Sheets. Dili National High
School, Dili, Sta. Curz, Ilocos Sur ( March 2003)

Tabila, Efleda L. ( 2003) Improving the Understanding of Basic


Science Concepts through the Use of POE Method ( Prediction,
Observation and Explanation among the Grade VI Pupils of San
Esteban South Central School, SY 2002-2003