Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72

Mental Health Education and Training Initiative

2005 Learning Session II

National Assembly on School-Based Health Care

What is your skill?
Asking for Help

Deep Breathing

Muscle Relaxation

Positive Self-talk
Cognitive restructuring

Resisting Peer Pressure

Scheduling Pleasurable Activities

Problem Solving
Overview of Day: Learning Session II Agenda
What are Core Skills?

Core Skills Review and Role Play

Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Substance Abuse

Mental Health Documentation and Treatment Planning for

MH Providers


Group Interventions:
Review and Select Manualized Interventions

Work plan Development

National Assembly
on School-Based
Health Care
Washington, DC
202-638-8872 or 1-888-286-8727 - toll free
Center for School Mental Health
Analysis & Action

Director: Mark Weist, Ph.D.

Director of Research and Analyses: email: csmha@psych.umaryland.edu
Sharon Stephan, Ph.D. web: http://csmha.umaryland.edu
phone: 410-706-0980 (888-706-0980)
Mental Health Education and
Training (MHET) Initiative
Funded by the HRSA Maternal and Child Health Bureau and the
Bureau of Primary Health Care

Developed by the National Assembly on School-Based Health

Care in collaboration with the Center for School Mental Health
Assistance (CSMHA) at the University of Maryland

In partnership with Columbia University TeenScreen Program

7 SBHCs from Colorado, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina

13 SBHCs from Michigan and West Virginia
MHET Mission
Increase knowledge and implementation
of mental health
coding, and
empirically-supported short-term
among SBHC primary care and mental
health providers.
Learning Session Two
Pre-assessment Core Skills
MHET Objectives: Learning Session II

OBJECTIVE 7: To increase SBHC

primary care and mental health
professionals knowledge about skills
related to youth mental health, and to
anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and
disruptive behavior disorders, more
specifically, and to increase interventions
aimed to train youth in these skills.
A Four-Pronged Approach to Evidence-
Based Practice in School Mental Health
Decrease stress/risk factors

Increase protective factors

Train in core skills

Implement manualized interventions

Training in
Core Skills
What are core skills?
Based in cognitive behavioral theory

Buffer against the development of mental

health problems

Assistin coping with mental health

What is Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)?
Relatively short-term, focused

How you are thinking (your cognitions)
How you are behaving and communicating

Emphasis on present rather than past

Learn coping skills

Skills training for Anxiety
Deep Breathing
Progressive Muscle
General Stress Busters
Cognitive Restructuring
Deep Breathing
Breathe from the
stomach rather than from
the lungs

Can be used in class

without anyone noticing

Can be used during

stressful moments such
as taking an exam or
while trying to relax at
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Alternating between
states of muscle tension
and relaxation helps
differentiate between the
two states and helps
habituate a process of
relaxing muscles that are

Many good tapes/c.d.s

available on relaxation

Especially suited for

middle and high school
Mental Imagery/Visualization
Can enhance other
relaxation techniques or
be used on its own

Provides relief from

troubling thoughts,
emotions, or feelings

Evokes a pleasing,
calming mental image
(e.g., the beach, park,
forest, playing with a
favorite pet)
Systematic Desensitization
Anxiety reducing strategy involving
exposure of the phobic child to the
feared object or situation.

The child learns to tolerate the feared

object by means of a series of steps
beginning with the least anxiety
producing aspect of the process and
ending with the most difficult step.

Construction of the Anxiety Hierarchy

General Stress Busters
Go for a walk
Take a nap
Play with a pet
Take a bath
Listen to music
Talk to a friend
Write in a journal
Write a letter that you never send
Do something creative an art
project, poem, write a rap
Watch television
Talk on the phone
Cognitive Restructuring
Change cognitive
distortions (irrational
negative thoughts and
beliefs someone has
about different
situations) and to
increase positive self talk

Recognize and get rid of
negative self talk
Counter the negative
thoughts with realistic
positive self talk
Believe the positive self
Case Example and Role Play:
MH Provider Role Play
Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization
Marcus has come for a follow-up appointment at the SBHC.
He reported several anxiety symptoms during his
comprehensive risk assessment, and screened positively for
panic attacks during the Diagnostic Predictive Scales. Marcus
indicates that the panic attacks are triggered by a fear of being
called on in class. He experiences symptoms of panic (heart
palpitations, nervousness, sweating, etc) on the way to school,
while sitting in class, and even just thinking about being in

Begin the process of Systematic Desensitization with Marcus.

Teach Relaxation techniques (Deep Breathing, Muscle
Relaxation, Imagery)
Create a Fear Hierarchy
Practice imaginal exposure to feared situations using the
fear hierarchy.
Primary Care Provider Role Play
Anxiety: Relaxation Techniques
Marcus has come for an initial appointment at the SBHC.
He appears short of breath, and reports that he is having
heart palpitations. He is sweating, and reports nervousness.
Upon interview, Marcus indicates that his symptoms were
triggered by a fear of being called on in class. He has had
similar symptoms before, and believes they are panic
attacks. He is unsure of how to relax when he has these
symptoms, but is concerned that he is going crazy, and
worries that his friends will tease him if they find out.

Review relaxation techniques with Marcus, including

Deep Breathing, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and
Mental Imagery/Visualization.
First, explain to Marcus how relaxation is important in reducing
symptoms of Anxiety.
Next, introduce each relaxation technique, and PRACTICE with
Encourage Marcus to practice each technique several times, and
schedule a follow-up appointment to review progress.
Skills training for Depression
Thought Stopping
Activity Scheduling
Social Skills Training
Problem Solving
Relaxation Training
Cognitive Restructuring
Change cognitive distortions
(irrational negative thoughts and
beliefs someone has about
different situations) and to
increase positive self talk

Recognize and get rid of negative
self talk
Counter the negative thoughts with
realistic positive self talk
Believe the positive self talk!
Thought Stopping
Replaces racing thoughts or
disturbing thoughts with neutral

Neutral thought e.g., something

positive and affirming; relaxing

Thoughts can be stopped by

practicing an abrupt interruption of
thought e.g., shouting stop!;
snapping rubberband on wrist

Return to thinking only about the

neutral situation.
Activity Scheduling
Scheduling enjoyable and goal-
directed activities into the childs

Assists withdrawn students reengage

in pleasurable activities

Provides the child with the

opportunity to feel more effective as
he or she completes tasks such as
school projects

Child needs to be educated about the

relationship between involvement in
an activity and improvement in
Problem Solving
Assist students in generating
solutions to problems
Only focus on one problem at a

Define the problem.
Brainstorm all possible solutions.
Focus your energy and attention to
be able to complete your task
Identify outcomes related to the
various solutions, including who
will be affected by the outcomes.
Make a decision and carry out.
Have a contingency plan in case
the solution does not work out as
Evaluate the outcome.
Relaxation Training
Deep Breathing

Progressive Muscle

General Stress
Case Example and Role Play:
MH Provider Role Play
Depression: Cognitive Restructuring
Tonya has come for an initial appointment to the SBHC. During the
risk assessment, Tonya reports a number of depressive symptoms,
but no suicidal ideation. Tonya seems to display a lot of negative
thinking and cognitive distortions. For example, she believes that
nobody likes her and that s/he will never be successful in
school. Her math teacher often compliments her work, but Tonya
dismisses the teachers comments as him just trying to be nice.
Tonya has good grades in all classes except for one, yet she only
acknowledges her below average Chemistry grade.

Practice the process of Cognitive Restructuring with Tonya.

Describe the relationship between ways of thinking and depressive
Help Tonya to identify her cognitive distortions
Identify ways of countering cognitive distortions
Have Tonya practice countering these distortions
Primary Care Provider Role Play
Depression: Activity Scheduling, Thought Stopping

Tonya has come for an initial appointment to the SBHC.

During the risk assessment, Tonya reports a number of
depressive symptoms, but no suicidal ideation. Tonya
reports not engaging in any activities that she used to. For
example, she used to spend time with friends after school,
and used to enjoy reading. She hasnt done either recently,
and just seems bored most of the time. She also reports
having difficulty concentrating in class because she is
constantly thinking about her problems.

Practice the processes of Activity Scheduling and Thought

Stopping with Tonya.
Discuss with Tonya activities she used to enjoy.
Identify specific enjoyable activities for Tonya to do this week.
Identify times and places for each activity, and discuss potential
Explain the process of Thought Stopping to Tonya, and discuss
how Tonya could use this strategy when she has intrusive thoughts.
Introduction to the Manuals
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for
Trauma in Schools (CBITS)
FRIENDS (Paula Bartlett)
Group-administered cognitive-behavioral
treatment for depression and anxiety
symptoms for children ages 7-11
(FRIENDS for Children) or adolescents
age 12-16 (FRIENDS for Youth).

10sessions between 45-60 minutes in

length, administered on a weekly basis,
with two follow-up booster sessions and
four optional parent sessions.

Groupsshould be comprised of 12 or
fewer youth.
FRIENDS addresses the three major components of
chronic anxiety symptoms:
mind (i.e., cognition),
body (i.e. physiological responses),
and behavior (i.e., learning new coping skills).

Two manuals are necessary to implement the

approach: the group leaders manual, a childrens

Manuals are $65.00 each

Skillstreaming (Arnold Goldstein)
Designed to enhance youths social skills, can be used as a
universal classroom or a selected smallgroup intervention.

Separate curricula exist for K-6 (Skillstreaming for Elementary

School Children) and 7-12 grades (Skillstreaming for

Instructors can run through the entire protocol or select

different component skills to meet the needs of specific youth.

Cue cards are used to prompt students to use Skillstreaming


To implement Skillstreaming, a therapists manual ($19.95),

student workbook ($12.95), student materials ($16.95), and
student skill cards ($25.00) are needed.
Defiant Children and Defiant Teens
(Barkley, Robin, Edwards)
18-step program designed both to teach parents the skills
they need to manage difficult child/adolescent behavior
and to improve family relationships overall.

Delineate clear procedures for assessing defiance in

children/teens and working with parents, alone or in
groups, to reverse problem behavior

Clinicians are shown how to help all family members

learn to negotiate, communicate, and problem-solve more
effectively, while facilitating adolescents' individuation
and autonomy (for Defiant Teens)

Clinician Manuals $36.00 each; Contain reproducible

handouts for parents and adolescents
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for
Trauma in Schools (CBITS; Lisa Jaycox)
10-session school-based, cognitive behavioral intervention
for trauma exposed adolescents

Optional 1-3 individual sessions

It incorporates cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skills

in a group format to address symptoms of PTSD,
depression, and anxiety related to trauma exposure

Informational components for teachers and parents

Clinician manuals $34.95; Contains reproducible handouts

Disruptive Behavior Disorder
Family Involvement
Classroom Management
The research on interventions for
disruptive behavior disorders
Other than stimulant medication for ADHD, no
individual or group interventions have been
proven effective
Some evidence that group interventions make
problems worse (peer contagion)
All empirically-supported interventions for
disruptive disorders involve the youths key
socialization agents: parents and teachers
Engaging parents in process is crucial
MH interventions with little or NO
evidence of effectiveness for DBD:
Special elimination diets
Vitamins or other health food remedies
Psychotherapy or psychoanalysis
Play therapy
Chiropractic treatment
Sensory integration training
Social skills training
Self-control training
Engaging Parents
in Family Interventions
Make services user-friendly to parents
Validate parent frustration and the fact that child is
Never blame parents for childs problems
Appeal to parents desire for things to be better
Address misperceptions about learning parenting
Help parents with other things they need be
helpful person in multiple ways
What are Behavior Management
and Parent Training?
Why children misbehave correcting
Identifying and removing barriers to effective
child management
Paying attention to and reinforcing childs good
behavior (improving emotional relationship)
Issuing effective commands (compliance
Use of time-out
Reinforcement and response cost system (tokens
or points) for appropriate/inappropriate behaviors
Extension to school and public settings -
behavior report card
Rewards and Response Cost
Desired and inappropriate behaviors clearly specified
Tokens for younger children; points for older
Implement rewards first, then introduce loss of points
Points exchanged for small (daily), medium
(weekly), and larger (monthly) rewards; should be
primarily non-tangibles
Pair with social reinforcers
Fade system as behavior improves (4-6 months)
Improving family management of
older youth (13+)
Parental engagement is still crucial, and engaging
parents of adolescent sometimes involves different
Interventions must take into account childs
developmental needs
Improve emotional climate of family increase
cohesion, reduce conflict
Youth needs to be involved in family decision making
and rule-setting parents need to learn how to go
one-down to go one up
Parent regression technique
To address parental detachment from a teenager
resulting from problematic behavior (and resistance
to changing parenting behavior)
What was it like when ____ was first born? What did
you hope/wish for ____?
What went wrong? (non-blaming) What can be done
Emphasize that its not too late and address parents
fear of failing again
Improving family management
of older youth contd
Age-appropriate rewards and punishments are still
necessary, but point system no longer effective
Improve parent monitoring and consistency in
delivering consequences
Break deviant peer group ties
Strongly promote appropriate peer group ties
Parents pulling together to set common rules, curfews,
Classroom-based interventions
Many engagement issues are the same what
can YOU do for the teacher?
Identify important classroom behaviors to
target from the teachers perspective
Modify intervention protocols to teachers
Emphasize prevention
Start small build on small gains
Social Skills
Students who display disruptive
behaviors often have a difficult time
with social interactions (e.g., reacting

AND often become a source of ridicule

by other students

Social skills can be enhanced by:

role modeling
role playing
providing positive feedback and
support for appropriate behaviors

Assist students in identifying

perceptions and interpretations that
others have of them as well as others
Several empirically-supported protocols exist:
Defiant Children (Russell Barkley)
Helping the Noncompliant Child (Rex Forehand)
Videotape Parent Modeling (Carolyn Webster-Stratton)

TheUniversity of Buffalo Center for Children and

Free resources on disruptive behavior disorders:
Parent handouts
Teacher handouts
Assessment tools
Substance Abuse

Family-based and Classroom-based intervention

Refusal Skills
Family-based and classroom-
based interventions
Research has documented that family
involvement and classroom-based prevention
programs are the most effective means of
addressing substance abuse among youth

School-based health professionals can effectively

act as an intermediary between the student and
other important players: parents!, extended
family, school, community
Refusal Skills
Encourage students to develop different ways to
refuse substance use
Switching topic (hey, did you hear about the game
last night?)
Using an excuse (I cant, Im meeting a friend in 10
Put the blame on others/parents (my mom would
kill me if she found out)
Walk away
State the facts (No thanks, Ive read about what
drugs can do to your body)
Childrenwith low self-esteem and self-
awareness are more likely to engage in substance

teaching skills to enhance self-
esteem and awareness are critical
Educating students about the harmful
effects of substance use may equip them
with knowledge necessary to help them
avoid abusing alcohol or drugs
Substance Abuse Screening: Tips
for interviewing adolescents
Private setting without parents present
Display related pamphlets, with multiple copies to give
Discuss confidentiality
Introduce the topic of alcohol/drugs in a nonjudgmental
way: I know that some kids your age use alcohol, or
smoke, or use other drugs
Introduce the topic in the context of concern for the
students health: Id like to know a little bit of what
you do in this regard and how you feel about it, because
its important to your health.
Administer a screening instrument (examples in
Motivational Interviewing (MI)

& Rollnick, 1991)

A useful strategy for those who have ambivalence about changing
behavior (including alcohol/drug use)

MI can be used at all stages of change:

Precontemplation raise awareness
Contemplation help decision making
and Maintenance - enhance and remind of resolution to change
Relapse - enables reassessment

Provides clarification. Students with confusion around issues often

find the process of motivational interviewing helps to sort thing out
for them.

Assessment As students identify their benefits, costs, life goals,

decision and subsequent goals, they have uncovered a lot of
information for themselves and their counselor.
Motivational Interviewing: Strategies
Express empathy: Reflecting back to the student his/her feelings
and thoughts not only helps build rapport, but in this process, helps
mirror the students experience in a way which allows him/her to
fully experience their dilemma.

Develop discrepancy: The discrepancy is not so much between the

positives and not positives of the behavior but between the present
behavior and significant goals which will motivate change.

Avoid argumentation: Arguments are counter-productive and

results in defensiveness.

Roll with resistance: Otherwise known as verbal judo. The use of

reframe or simply changing tack may help maintain momentum
towards change.

Support self-efficacy: Motivation is partly made up of two main

factors - importance and confidence. While it may be important to
change, it won't happen if the student feels unable to do it. Every
opportunity is taken to support the student's abilities to aid
motivation to change.
Motivational Interviewing
Step 1: Set the Agenda
Itcan be useful to 'make a space' in
which to conduct Motivational
Interviewing. Having clarified the
agenda around which there is
ambivalence, ask for 20 minutes or so to
try a series of special questions called
"Motivational Interviewing" to help
sort things out.
Motivational Interviewing
Step 2: Ask about positive aspects of substance use

This is often an engaging surprise for the student.

However, it will only work if you are genuinely
interested. Use questions like:
What are some of the good things about?
People usually use drug because they help in some way - how
have they helped you?
What do you like about the effects?
What would you miss if you weren't..?
What else, what else..?

Give praise and support self efficacy e.g., Youve done a

nice job of explaining why drinking works for you Your
drug use seems to be a way you have found to cope with
some of your problems

SUMMARIZE positives
Motivational Interviewing
Step 3: Ask about less good things
Use questions like:
Can you tell me about the down side?
What are some aspects you are not so happy about?
What are the things you wouldn't miss?
If you continued as before, how do you see yourself in
a couple of years from now if you don't change?

Give praise and support self efficacy: You've

done well to have survived all of that

SUMMARIZE less good things

Motivational Interviewing
Step 4: Life Goals
These goals will be the pivotal point against which costs
and benefits are weighed. Ask questions like:
What sort of things are important to you?
What sort of person would you like to be?
If things worked out in the best possible way for you, what would
you be doing in one year from now?
What are some of the good things your friends and family say
about you?
How does your drug use (or you as a drug user) fit in with your

Give praise and support self efficacy: I can see you've

got some great vision for yourself

SUMMARIZE life goals

Motivational Interviewing
Step 5: Ask for a decision
Restate their dilemma or ambivalence then
ask for a decision:
You were saying that you were trying to decide
whether to continue or cut down
After this discussion, are you more clear about
what you would like to do?
So, have you made a decision?
Motivational Interviewing
Step 6: Goal Setting
SMART goal setting (Specific,
Meaningful, Assessable, Realistic, Timed)
What will be your next (first) step now?
What will you do in the next one or two days (week)
Have you ever done any of these things before to
achieve this? What will you need to do to repeat
Who will be helping and supporting you?
On a scale of 1 to 10, what are the chances that you
will do your next step? (be hesitant about accepting
anything under a seven - their initial goal or next
step may need to be more achievable)
If no decision or decision to
continue substance use
If no decision, empathize with difficulty of
ambivalence. Ask if there is something else
(information, time, etc.) which would help to
make a decision? Ask if they have a plan to
manage not making a decision. Ask if they are
interested in reducing some of the problems
(restate problems) while they are trying to make
a decision.

If decision to continue use, accept decision. Ask

if they are interested in reducing some of the
problems (restate problems). Use problem
solving and harm reduction strategies as
Final thoughts on substance
Even with good screenings, appropriate
referrals, etc., students may not be
motivated to change work on increasing
their motivation!

Substanceuse is often multigenerational

be sure to address family needs also
Mental Health Documentation
and Treatment Planning
Benefits of Good Mental Health
Assists in monitoring of treatment progress
Mindful of different components of
treatment family involvement,
assessment, intervention (not just content)
Structures intervention around treatment
Mental Health Documentation
Whatdo you currently include in MH Progress
Date, Time, Duration
Type of Contact
Mental Status
Affect, Mood, Relatedness, Thought Process, Speech
Content of Session
Assessment Strategies
Intervention Strategies include CBT skills
Progress on Objective Treatment Goals
Family Involvement
Plans for Future Intervention
Benefits of Good Mental Health
Treatment Planning
Interventions are matched to Needs/Problems
Short- and long-term goals are identified and
clear to provider(s) and student/family
Identifying objective treatment goals allows for
monitoring of treatment progress
Structured treatment plans reduce risk of
engaging in unnecessary/unhelpful interventions
Avoid the unproductive habit of just seeing those who
continue to come for appointments for as long as they
will come!
Mental Health Treatment Planning
How do you treatment plan?
Identify Strengths
Identify Needs/Problems
Match interventions to needs/problems
Identify who will implement intervention
Identify short- and long-term goals with