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BMCM 3743

Chapter 6:

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Why?

To achieve acceptable level of vibration

4675)

*Each company has their own standard

Class I: Individual

part of machine (<15

kW).

machine (15-75 kW).

machine on rigid

foundation.

machine on soft

foundation.

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

How to control the vibration?

Best but difficult. Possible at early design stage (str

2. Modify transmission path.

Isolator: optimum stiffness and damping.

3. Control vibration at receiver.

Add damping, etc.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

From Chapter 3, two cases to control the transmission p

through supports to transmitted through support

the surrounding structure? the surrounding structure?

Fe e jt

Receiver X t e j t

Source (sensitiv

e

(machine m instrume

m

, engine)

nt)

Isolator

Xe jt Isolator

k c k c

(suppor

t)

(suppor

t)

X e e j t

Source

Receiv

er Ft e jt (earthquake, rough

road)

(floor) Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

VIBRATION

ISOLATION

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Transmissibilit

y

1 j 2 / n

T

1 / n j 2 / n

2

X t e j t

1 (2 / n ) 2 m

T

1 /

n

2 2

2 / n

2

c X e j t

k e

Source

(earthquake,

rough road)

1 4 2 r 2

T with r

1 r 2 2

4 2r 2 n

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Example design

problem

to be less then 5 mm deflection.

m

best k and c.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Finding parameters from transmissibility curve:

1. Make straight line along the desired T value.

2. Note the r value for each intersection with curve with cons

Requirement:

X 0.005

T 0.5

Y 0.01

For T = 0.5:

1

r

0.01 1.73

0 .5

0.05 1.74

0.1

0.1 1.76 0.05

0.2 1.84 0.01

0.5 2.35

3.77 r / n

1.0

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

From the transmissibility curve, lets choose:

0.01 r 1.73

r 1.73 k 1228 N/m

n

c 2 km 2.428 kg/s

2. If not available, try another damping loss factor.

3. Compromise in case of resonance.

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

The choice of k and c must be reasonable for application

It has to consider:

1. The strength of the isolator to support the weight (sta

2. The force transmitted from the base to the instrumen

FT ma

FT 2 m X

FT k Y r T 2

FT

From example: 18.38 N

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

The transmitted force from the base:

1. Small at resonance for a large damping factor.

2. Large at high frequency for a large damping factor.

40

=0.01

30 =0.1

=0.3

=0.7

20

FT/kY (dB)

10

-10

-20

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Frequency ratio, r

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

SHOCK ISOLATION

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

The design of an isolator should also anticipate for the s

Y sin p t , 0 t t1

p

y (t )

0,

t t1

p

p

where is the input (excitation) frequency.

t1 is the pulse duration.

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

x max n nt1

Plot: vs.

y max p

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

For shock isolation:

x max

1

y max

0.1 :

nt1 0.25m 2

0.5 k

2

t1

vibration and shock isolation.

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

SUMMARY for Transmissibility

FT 1 (2r ) 2

Fixed base force

F0 (1 r ) (2r )

2 2 2

displacement

Y (1 r ) (2r )

2 2 2

FT 1 ( 2 r ) 2

r 2

Moving base force

kY (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

VIBRATION

ABSORBER

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

ISOLATOR and ABSORBER? What is the different?

1. Absorb (reduce) vibrati

(blocking the path). from main structure.

2. Remain as one DOF system. 2. Change to two DOF sys

3. Work for single frequen

3. Work for broad frequency range.

(resonance).

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Equations of motion

mx cx kx ca ( x x a ) k a ( x xa ) f (t ) (1a)

ma xa ca ( x a x ) k a ( xa x) 0 (2a)

k k a 2

m j ( c c a ) X ( k a j c a ) X a F (1b)

(k a 2 ma jca ) X a (k a jca ) X 0 (2b)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

From 2(b): ( k a j c a ) X

Xa

k a 2 ma jca

Substitute to 1(b), we obtain the motion of the main str

(k a 2 ma jca ) F

X

k k a 2 m j (c ca ) (k a 2 ma jca ) (k a jca ) 2

ca 0 damping

For convenience, assuming absorber has small

(k a ma ) F

2

X

(k k a 2 m jc)(k a 2 ma ) k a2

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

To make vibration of the main structure becomes zero:

X 0 k a ma 0

2

ka

ma

the excitation frequency of the main structure.

2. Only effective for machine operating at fixed frequen

(synchronous machines).

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Back to 1(a):

f (t )

x(t ) 0, ca 0 xa (t )

ka

Force provided by the absorber:

f (t )

f a (t ) k a xa k a f (t )

ka

the force given by the absorber mass is equal in magni

in direction to the disturbance force.

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

DYNAMIC Absorber

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Important to note!

1. The excitation frequency has to be

exactly.

it might suffer resonance (from 2

How to prevent this happen?

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

The ratio of the main structure displacement

after and before attaching the absorber:

X 1 2 / a2

X 0 [1 2 ( / p ) 2 ][1 ( / a ) 2 ] 2

where:

without the absorber frequency excita

the main structure.

k a ma a2

2 2

k m p

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

The ratio graph

X

X0

0.25

1

0.908 1.118 a

absorber zone

Increase the absorber mass?

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

The effect of mass ratio

ma / m on the system resonance

1

0.4

0.3 0.25

0.2

0.1

n / a

1 / a 1 2 / a

As increases,

2 1 becomes larger.

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Design considerations:

the mass of the main structure), this indicates a ve

2. If 1

is too small (2 and are very close)

the system cannot tolerate much fluctuation

in the excitation frequency.

Rule of thumb:

0.05 0.25

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

The effect of damping

1. Performance reduces.

The absorber will not ca

the vibration completely

2. Significantly reduces amp

at resonances.

Absorber bandwith incr

(suitable for broadband

application).

3. To ensure A and B are the

the absorber should be

a 1

M.J.Brennan, 2007

n 1

i.e. lower than the trouble

resonance frequency.

3

opt

8 1 3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Types of vibration absorber

M.J.Brennan, 2007

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Millenium Bridge - London (2000)

Cost: 18.2m

(RM 127.4m)

Designs:

1. Random excitation

from pedestrian.

2. Only vertical vibra

was considered.

Problems:

Pedestrians causing

excited lateral vibration

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

Millenium Bridge - London (2000)

Solutions:

Cost: 5m

(RM 35m)

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

References:

M. J. Brennan, Advanced Courses, Univ. of Southampton

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra

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