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Mechanical Vibration

BMCM 3743

Chapter 6:

Design for Vibration Suppression

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Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Why?
To achieve acceptable level of vibration

*ISO gives a standard; ISO 2372 (BS


4675)
*Each company has their own standard
Class I: Individual
part of machine (<15
kW).

Class II: medium size


machine (15-75 kW).

Class III: large


machine on rigid
foundation.

Class IV: large


machine on soft
foundation.

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How to control the vibration?

Source Path Receiver

To reduce vibration at the receiver:

1. Control vibration at source.


Best but difficult. Possible at early design stage (str
2. Modify transmission path.
Isolator: optimum stiffness and damping.
3. Control vibration at receiver.
Add damping, etc.
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From Chapter 3, two cases to control the transmission p

What forces are transmitted What forces (displacement) a


through supports to transmitted through support
the surrounding structure? the surrounding structure?

Fe e jt
Receiver X t e j t
Source (sensitiv
e
(machine m instrume
m
, engine)
nt)
Isolator
Xe jt Isolator
k c k c
(suppor
t)
(suppor
t)
X e e j t
Source
Receiv
er Ft e jt (earthquake, rough
road)
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VIBRATION
ISOLATION

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Transmissibilit
y

1 j 2 / n
T
1 / n j 2 / n
2
X t e j t

1 (2 / n ) 2 m
T
1 /
n
2 2
2 / n
2

c X e j t
k e

Source
(earthquake,
rough road)
1 4 2 r 2
T with r
1 r 2 2
4 2r 2 n

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Example design
problem

Design an isolator to hold a 3 kg electronics module


to be less then 5 mm deflection.

The base is known moving at y(t) = 0.01 sin(35t)


m

Task: Choose an isolator with the


best k and c.
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Finding parameters from transmissibility curve:
1. Make straight line along the desired T value.

2. Note the r value for each intersection with curve with cons

Requirement:

X 0.005
T 0.5
Y 0.01

For T = 0.5:
1
r
0.01 1.73
0 .5
0.05 1.74
0.1
0.1 1.76 0.05
0.2 1.84 0.01
0.5 2.35
3.77 r / n
1.0

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From the transmissibility curve, lets choose:

0.01 r 1.73


r 1.73 k 1228 N/m
n

c 2 km 2.428 kg/s

1. Find the isolator (in a product catalogue) with these


2. If not available, try another damping loss factor.
3. Compromise in case of resonance.

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The choice of k and c must be reasonable for application
It has to consider:
1. The strength of the isolator to support the weight (sta
2. The force transmitted from the base to the instrumen

FT ma
FT 2 m X

FT k Y r T 2

FT
From example: 18.38 N
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The transmitted force from the base:
1. Small at resonance for a large damping factor.
2. Large at high frequency for a large damping factor.
40
=0.01
30 =0.1
=0.3
=0.7
20
FT/kY (dB)

10

-10

-20
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Frequency ratio, r
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SHOCK ISOLATION

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The design of an isolator should also anticipate for the s

Assuming an idealised model of a shock input as a half


Y sin p t , 0 t t1
p

y (t )
0,
t t1
p

p
where is the input (excitation) frequency.
t1 is the pulse duration.

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x max n nt1
Plot: vs.
y max p

**Large damping is desirable for shock attenuation.


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For shock isolation:
x max
1
y max

From the plot,for


0.1 :

nt1 0.25m 2
0.5 k
2
t1

An isolator should be designed so that it is good for both


vibration and shock isolation.

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SUMMARY for Transmissibility

Vibration isolation for a SDOF system

FT 1 (2r ) 2
Fixed base force
F0 (1 r ) (2r )
2 2 2

X 1 (2r ) 2 Moving base


displacement
Y (1 r ) (2r )
2 2 2

FT 1 ( 2 r ) 2
r 2
Moving base force
kY (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2
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VIBRATION
ABSORBER

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ISOLATOR and ABSORBER? What is the different?

1. Isolate vibration to main structure


1. Absorb (reduce) vibrati
(blocking the path). from main structure.
2. Remain as one DOF system. 2. Change to two DOF sys
3. Work for single frequen
3. Work for broad frequency range.
(resonance).
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Equations of motion
mx cx kx ca ( x x a ) k a ( x xa ) f (t ) (1a)
ma xa ca ( x a x ) k a ( xa x) 0 (2a)

For harmonic motion:

k k a 2

m j ( c c a ) X ( k a j c a ) X a F (1b)
(k a 2 ma jca ) X a (k a jca ) X 0 (2b)
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From 2(b): ( k a j c a ) X
Xa
k a 2 ma jca
Substitute to 1(b), we obtain the motion of the main str

(k a 2 ma jca ) F
X

k k a 2 m j (c ca ) (k a 2 ma jca ) (k a jca ) 2

ca 0 damping
For convenience, assuming absorber has small

(k a ma ) F
2
X
(k k a 2 m jc)(k a 2 ma ) k a2

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To make vibration of the main structure becomes zero:

X 0 k a ma 0
2

ka

ma

1. The properties of the absorber, ka and ma, should be ch


the excitation frequency of the main structure.
2. Only effective for machine operating at fixed frequen
(synchronous machines).

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Back to 1(a):
f (t )
x(t ) 0, ca 0 xa (t )
ka
Force provided by the absorber:

f (t )
f a (t ) k a xa k a f (t )
ka

By tuning the absorber to the excitation frequency,


the force given by the absorber mass is equal in magni
in direction to the disturbance force.

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DYNAMIC Absorber

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Important to note!

For undamped absorber:


1. The excitation frequency has to be
exactly.

2. Only effective for a narrow frequenc

3. If of the system shifts,


it might suffer resonance (from 2
How to prevent this happen?

Increase the system resonance bandwi


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The ratio of the main structure displacement
after and before attaching the absorber:

X 1 2 / a2

X 0 [1 2 ( / p ) 2 ][1 ( / a ) 2 ] 2

where:

p k / m - original natural frequency of the main str


without the absorber frequency excita

a k a / ma - natural frequency of the absorber before


the main structure.

k a ma a2
2 2

k m p
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The ratio graph
X
X0
0.25
1


0.908 1.118 a
absorber zone
Increase the absorber mass?
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The effect of mass ratio
ma / m on the system resonance

1

0.4

0.3 0.25
0.2
0.1
n / a
1 / a 1 2 / a

As increases,
2 1 becomes larger.

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Design considerations:

1. If is too large (the mass of the absorber almost s


the mass of the main structure), this indicates a ve

2. If 1
is too small (2 and are very close)
the system cannot tolerate much fluctuation
in the excitation frequency.

Rule of thumb:

0.05 0.25

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The effect of damping
1. Performance reduces.
The absorber will not ca
the vibration completely
2. Significantly reduces amp
at resonances.
Absorber bandwith incr
(suitable for broadband
application).
3. To ensure A and B are the
the absorber should be
a 1

M.J.Brennan, 2007
n 1
i.e. lower than the trouble
resonance frequency.

The optimum damping is


3
opt
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Types of vibration absorber

M.J.Brennan, 2007

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Millenium Bridge - London (2000)

Cost: 18.2m
(RM 127.4m)

Designs:

1. Random excitation
from pedestrian.
2. Only vertical vibra
was considered.

Problems:
Pedestrians causing
excited lateral vibration
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Millenium Bridge - London (2000)

Solutions:

Cost: 5m
(RM 35m)

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References:

D. J. Inman, Engineering Vibrations, Pearson


M. J. Brennan, Advanced Courses, Univ. of Southampton

Animations courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering Unive

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