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An Introduction to Microbiology-An

Overview
Dr Sushela Devi
Learning outcomes
Name and state the role of some of the
pioneers in Microbiology
State the importance of bacteria, viruses and
fungi in health and disease
Classify bacteria based on morphology
Outline the principles of microbiological
diagnosis of infectious disease
Pioneers
1677-Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek- Father of
Microbiology and is probably the first microbiologist.
He constructed various microscopes and used these
to observe single celled organisms which he called
animalcules
1850-Ignaz Semmelweis-Hungarian physician
now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic
procedures. Described as the "savior of mothers"
discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever
could be drastically cut by the use of hand
disinfection
Puerperal fever was common in mid-19th-century
hospitals and often fatal, with mortality at 10%35%
Louis Pasteur
1861- Louis Pasteur- Germ theory of disease
Both a chemist and a microbiologist
His discoveries reduced mortality from
puerperal fever
He created the first vaccines for rabies and
anthrax.
His experiments supported the germ theory of
disease. He invented a method to treat milk
and wine in order to prevent it from causing
sickness, a process that came to be called
pasteurization
Joseph Lister, Robert Koch, Christian Gram
He introduced principles of antiseptic surgery
By applying Louis Pasteur's advances he
promoted the idea of sterile surgery while
working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
Lister used carbolic acid to sterilise surgical
instruments and to clean wounds, which led to
a reduction in post-operative infections and
made surgery safer for patients.
1876- Robert Koch provided the first proof of
the disease and came up with Kochs
postulates.
1884- Christian Gram developed the
Gram stain stain.
Paul Ehrlich and Alexander Fleming
His laboratory discovered Salvarsan, the first
effective medicinal treatment for syphilis,
thereby initiating the concept of
chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularized the
concept of a magic bullet.
He also made a decisive contribution to the
development of an antiserum to combat
diphtheria and conceived a methodology for
standardizing therapeutic serums.
Alexander Fleming-discovered penicillin in
1928
Basic bacteriology-what we need to cover
Nomenclature of bacteria-genus/species/strain
Structure of bacteria
Cultivation of bacteria
Genetics of bacteria
Classification of bacteria-morphology, cultural
characteristics
Mechanisms of pathogenesis
Survival of these organisms
Sterilisation and disinfection
Transmission of infectious agents
Pathological consequences
Principles of laboratory diagnosis
Antimicrobial therapy- mechanisms of action
and the development of RESISTANCE
Principles of prevention and control
Vaccines
Classification of bacteria
Broadly into two main groups- Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria.
Within these groups the bacteria have
different shapes, sizes and arrangements
Whether the bacteria are Gram positive or
Gram negative depends on the way they take
up the Gram stain
There are some bacteria that are unable to be
gram stained but we will discuss these later.
Gram positive bacteria stain purple whilst
Gram negative bacteria stain pink
There may be some bacteria that are Gram
variable.
Clinical/Applied Microbiology
Gram positive cocci
Staphylococcus sp
Streptococcus sp.
Diplococcus sp
Gram-negative cocci
Neisseria sp
Moraxella sp.
Veillonella sp.
Kingella and
Eikenella spp
Gram negative bacilli
Primarily organisms
that infect the
intestinal tract
Salmonella sp
Shigella sp
Commensals:
Enterobacteriaceae
Bacteroides
Prevotella
Fusobacterium
Gram negative bacilli
Primarily organisms
that infect the
respiratory tract
Bordetella pertussis-
coccobacilli
Haemophilus
influenzae
Yersinia pestis
Legionella
pneumophila
More Gram negative bacteria
Gram negative spiral
bacteria
Campylobacter sp
Helicobacter pylori
Gram negative curved comma shaped bacteria
Vibrio spp
Mycobacteria-Mycobacterium tuberculosis and
Mycobacterium leprae
Stained with the Ziehl-Neelsen stain
Gram positive bacilli
Actinomyces
Bacillus cereus
Clostridium tetani
Clostridium
perfringens
Clostridium
botulinum
Spirochaetes
Treponema pallidum
Leptospira
Borrelia
Mycoplasmas
Lack a cell wall
They are resistant to beta-
lactam antibiotics
Several species are
pathogenic to humans such
as Mycoplasma pneumoniae-
atypical pneumonia,
M.genitalium-pelvic
inflammatory disease
Some of the mycoplasmas
have been shown to be
involved with malignant
transformation.
On agar medium they have a
typical friend egg appearance
Chlamydiae
Obligate intracellular bacteria
C. trachomatis is found only in
humans. Chlamydia is a major
infectious cause of human
genital and eye disease.
Chlamydia infection is one of
the most common sexually
transmitted infections
worldwide
Between half and three-
quarters of all women who
have a chlamydia infection of
the cervix (cervicitis) have no
symptoms and do not know
that they are infected
Chalmydiae
Serotypes A-C cause serious eye infection-
trachoma
Serotypes D-K cause genital infections and
associated with ovular and respiratory
infections
L1, L2 and L3-lymphogranuloma venereum
Rickettsiae
Gram negative
Cocci or rod shaped
Rickettsia species are
carried by many fleas,
ticks and lice, and
cause diseases in Rickettsia
humans such as typhus,
rickettsialpox, Rocky
Mountain spotted fever,
(Australian Tick Typhus)
Scrub typhus-Orientia
tsutsugamushi
VIROLOGY
Study of viruses-
Structure and classification
Replication
Viral diseases and pathogenesis
Transmission
Principles of laboratory diagnosis
Antiviral agents
Vaccines
Clinical /Applied Virology
Enveloped DNA viruses
Non-enveloped DNA viruses
Enveloped RNA viruses
Non-enveloped RNA viruses
Hepatitis viruses
Arboviruses
Oncogenic viruses
Slow viruses and prions
Influenza virus, rotavirus and Hepatitis B
virus
Mycology
Is the study of fungi structure and growth
Pathogenesis
Toxins and allergic conditions
Laboratory diagnosis
Antifungal therapy
Candida
Gram stain of vaginal smear. Epithelial
Causal agent of oral and

cells in the background


genital candidiasis
Commensal and part of
the gut flora
C. albicans lives in 80%
of the human population
without causing harmful
effects,
Candidiasis is often
observed in
immunocompromised
individuals such as HIV-
infected patients
Dermatophytes
Infections caused are known Epidermophyton

as ringworm or tinea
Dermatophytes cause
infections of the skin, hair
and nails due to their ability
to obtain nutrients from
keratinized material\
Toenail and fingernail
infections are
-onychomycosis.
Dermatophytes usually do
not invade living tissues, but
colonize the outer layer of the
skin. Sometimes they invade
the subcutaneous tissues,
resulting in a kerion lesion.
PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
Collection of clinical specimens
Must be relevant
Good quality
Must be properly labeled
Accompanied by relevant patient data
Transport of specimen
Transport medium esp. if over long distances
As soon as possible
Refrigeration for a few hours (depending on
specimen)
Package and label with biohazard material
sticker
Principles of laboratory diagnosis
Detection of infectious agents
The agent itself
Products-toxins/enzymes of agent
Components such as proteins and nucleic acid
Detection of changes in host cells
Inclusion body formation: Chlamydiae, viruses
Abnormalities in cell growth: tumor formation
Cell death: Viruses
Detection of host immune response: Detection
of antibodies, detection of cell mediated
immunity(CMI)
References
Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA, Jawetz, Melnick
& Adelbergs Medical Microbiology. Appleton
& Lange
Collee JG. Fraser AG, Marmion BP et al.
Mackie& McCartney Practical Medical
Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone
GreenwoodD, Slack R &Peutherer J. Medical
Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone
Koneman EW, Allen SD, janda WM, et al. Color
Atlas and Textbook of Diagnositc Microbiology.
Mims C, Playfair J, Roitt I et al. Medical
Microbiology. Mosby
References contd..
FLMs on Microbiology placed in Medical
Museum, IMU
Case studies/OSPE online
THE END
Thank you for listening
These notes are adapted from Dr Mala
Maungs notes
Thank you Dr Mala!!!!!!