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Ohms Law,

its Applications
&
Uses
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Ohms Law
The Current through an ideal conductor is
proportional to the applied voltage, provided
conditions remains constant
Conductor is also known as a resistor
An ideal conductor is a material whose resistance does not change
with temperature

For an Ohmic device,

Voltage Current Resistance


V = Voltage
I=V) R
V (Volts
I = Current (Amperes = A)
R = Resistance (Ohms = )
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Limitations of Ohms Law


Temperature of the conductor should
remain constant.

The conducting body should not be


deformed.

It takes place in metallic conductors


only.
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Current and Voltage Defined


Conventional Current: (the current in electrical circuits)
Flow of current from positive terminal to the negative terminal.

- It has units of Amperes (A) and is measured using


ammeters.

Eectronic Current: Flow of current from negative terminal to


the poaitive terminal.

Voltage:
Energy required to move a charge from one point to another.
- It has units of Volts (V) and is measured using voltmeters.
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Ohmic Resistors
Metals obey Ohms Law linearly so long as their
temperature is held constant
Their resistance values do not fluctuate with
temperature
i.e. the resistance for each resistor is a constant

Most ohmic resistors will behave non-linearly


outside of a given range of temperature,
pressure, etc.
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Voltage and Current Relationship for


Linear Resistors

Voltage and current are linear when resistance is held constant.


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Ohms Law continued


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Cont.
P=VI
P=V2/R
P=I2R
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Ohms Law continued


The total resistance of a circuit is dependant on
the number of resistors in the circuit and their
configuration

Series Circuit Rtotal R R1 R2 ...

1 1 1 1
Parallel Circuit ...
Rtotal R R1 R2
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Kirchhoffs Current Law


Current into junction = Current leaving junction
I in I out
The amount of current that enters a junction is
equivalent to the amount of current that leaves the
junction
Iin I1

I in I1 I 2 I out
I2 I1
I in I out 0
I2 Iout
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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law


Sum of all voltage rises and voltage drops
in a circuit (a closed loop) equals zero

Vin VoltageAcrossEachResistor
Vin V1 V2 ...
Net Voltage for a circuit = 0
V1 V2

V V1 V2
V V1 V2 0
V
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Series Circuit

Current is
constant
Why?
Only one path for the
current to take
V V1 V2 V3
V IR I I1 I 2 I 3
R R1 R2 R3
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Parallel Circuit

V I R
V V1 V2 V3
I I1 I 2 I 3 I1 I 23
Voltage is where I 23 I 2 I 3
constant 1 1 1 1
Why?
R R1 R2 R3
There are 3 closed
loops in the circuit
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Light bulbs and Power


Power dissipated by a bulb relates to the brightness
of the bulb.
The higher the power, the brighter the bulb.

Power is measured in Watts [W] 2


V
P I2 R V I
R

For example, think of the bulbs you use at home.


The 100W bulbs are brighter than the 50W bulbs.
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Light bulbs are not linear


The resistance of light bulbs increases with temperature


R Ro 1 T To

R Conductor resistance at temperature T []


Ro Conductor resistance at reference To []
Temperature coefficient of resistance [C 1]
T Conductor temperature [C ]
To Reference temperature specified for [C ]

The filaments of light bulbs are made of Tungsten, which is a very good
conductor. It heats up easily.
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As light bulbs warm up, their resistance increases.


If the current through them remains constant:
2
P I R
They glow slightly dimmer when first plugged in.
Why?

The bulbs are cooler when first plugged in so their


resistance is lower. As they heat up their resistance
increases but I remains constant P increases

Most ohmic resistors will behave non-linearly outside


of a given range of temperature, pressure, etc.
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Voltage versus Current for Constant


Resistance

The light bulb does not have a linear relationship. The resistance
of the bulb increases as the temperature of the bulb increases.
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Conclusion
Ohmic resistors obey Ohms Law linearly

V IR
Resistance is affected by temperature. The
resistance of a conductor increases as its
temperature increases.
Light bulbs do not obey Ohms Law linearly
As their temperature increases, the power dissipated
by the bulb increases
i.e. They are brighter when they are hotter
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Cont.
The relation V=I/R is
used for Ohmic and
non-Ohmic
cnductors. The value
of R is constant for
Ohmic conductors
but not so for non-
Ohmic conductors.
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The Rheostat
It is a device used to Types:
regulate current by 1. Series Rheostat;
alternating either the
resistance of the in this , the rheostat is
current or potential in wired in series with the
the part of the circuit. apparatus. If all the
It consist of a coil of wires in the rheostat
high resistance wire are included in the
wound onto an circuit, resistance is at
insulating block with
each turn insulated its maximum and
from adjacent turns. current at its lowest.
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In the physiotherapy 2. Shunt Rheostat; it is


wired across a source of
department, it is found potential difference and any
in the apparatus where other circuit has to be taken
off in parallel to it. This
an effect on the degree apparatus has a current
of heating is required. regulating mechanism in
which an electric current is
For example wax baths. applied directly to the
It is also known as patient, as the current
intensity can be increased
variable rheostat. gradually from zero to
maximum. It is also known
as potentiometer Rheostat.
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Thermistors
A thermistor is a heat sensitive device whose resistivity
changes very rapidly with the change of temperature.
The thermistor are usually prepared from the oxides of
Nickle, Iron, Cobalt etc.
These are generally in the form of beats, discs, or rods.
Pair of platinum leads is attached at the two ends of the
electronic connections.
This arrangement is sealed in a small glass bulb
A thermistor can have a resistance in the range of
0.1Ohm to 107 Ohm, depending upon its composition.
A thermistor can be used over a wide range of
temperatures.
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Applications
1. It can be used to detect small temperature
changes.
2. It can be used to safeguard the filament of the
picture tube of television set against the
variation of electric current.
3. It is used in temperature control units of
industry.
4. It is used for voltage stabilization.
5. It is used in the protection of windings of
generators, transformers and motors.
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thnx