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PhD Research Proposal

Idris Skloul Ibrahim


Supervisors:
Dr. Peter King Prof. Rob Pooley

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Proposal
Outlines:
Proposal Outlines
Problem Statement & Objective
Introduction
MANET-based Applications
MANET Routing Approaches
Related Work & Issues
Conclusion & Research Direction

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Proposal
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Outline

The Problem:
Routing (and adaptation) challenges in dynamic and mobile ad-hoc networks
(in addition to common constraints in a mobile ad-hoc environment);
extended to self-composable networks

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Proposal
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Objective:

Low overhead => few control messages


Provide a highly reactive service to help ensure successful
delivery of data packets in spite of node movement or other changes in
network conditions
Conserve battery power
by not sending periodic advertisements and by not needing to
receive them
Hosts wake-up from their sleep/standby modes to periodically
check for messages

Scalability and Zone Radius relationship in networks with


thousands of nodes e.g. WSNs (main objective)

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Introduction

Computer Network Classifications:

Wired Wireless

Wireless Communication 1 Wireless Communication 2


Infrastructure Non Infrastructure
Mobile Ad Hoc N.
(MANET)

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Introduction
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols

Infrastructure Based Networks


Uses fixed base stations (infrastructure) which are responsible for
coordinating communication between the mobile hosts (nodes)

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Introduction
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols

Ad-Hoc Networks
Consists of mobile nodes which communicate with each other through
wireless medium without any fixed infrastructure

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Wireless Net.
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Basic
Architecture

AP

Infrastructure Mode

Ad hoc Mode

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Introduction
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols

Meaning of the word Ad hoc is for this, means for this purpose
only, implies it is a special network for a particular application.

A mobile ad-hoc network is a self configuring network of mobile


routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless linksthe union of
which form an arbitrary topology.

The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves


arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and
unpredictably.

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


History
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Of
MANET

The first generation goes back to 1972.


1972 At the time, they were called
PRNET and were sponsored by DARPA

The second generation of ad-hoc networks emerged in 1980s,when


1980s the
ad-hoc network systems were further enhanced and implemented as a part
of the SURAN (Survivable Adaptive Radio Networks) program. This
provided a PSN to the mobile battlefield in an environment without
infrastructure. This program proved to be beneficial in improving the radios'
performance by making them smaller and cheaper

In the 1990s,
1990s the concept of commercial ad-hoc networks arrived with NBC.
NBC
and other communications equ. At the same time, the idea of a collection of
mobile nodes was proposed at several research conferences. The IEEE
802.11 subcommittee had adopted the term "ad-hoc networks".

Mobile ad-hoc network was also be named as MANET by IETF.


IETF

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Introduction

Why we are need to Use Ad-Hoc Network ?

Easy of deployment

Speed of deployment

Decreased dependence on infrastructure

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


MANET
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Characteristics &
Tradeoffs

Characteristics
Decentralized
Self-organized
Self-deployed
Dynamic network topology

Tradeoffs
Bandwidth limited
Multi-hop router needed
Energy consumption problem
Security problem

Why traditional routing protocols are not suitable for MANET networks ?

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


MANET
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Medium
Issues

Hidden Terminal Problem


Two nodes, out of each others radio range; simultaneously try to transmit
data to an intermediate node, which is in radio range of both the sending
nodes.
None of the sending nodes will be aware of the other nodes
transmission, causing a collision to occur at the intermediate node.

Receive Sende
Sende r
r r

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


The Hidden
Terminal
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols
Problem
Solution

RTS-CTS handshake protocol


A node that wishes to send data is required to ask for permission first, by
sending a RTS to the receiving node. The receiving node then replies with a
CTS message.
The CTS message can be heard by all nodes within radio range of the
receiving node, and instructs them not to use the wireless medium since
another transmission is about to take place.
The node that requested the transmission can then begin sending data to
the receiving node

RTS
Data
Receive Sende
Sende r
r r
CTS

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


MANET
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Medium
Issues

Exposed node problem


When a node overhears another transmission and hence refrains to
transmit any data of its own,
own even though such a transmission would not
cause a collision due to the limited radio range of the nodes.

Data
Y X S D

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Exposed
Node
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols
Problem
Solution

Directional Antennas / separate Channels


The exposed node problem is leads to sub-optimal utilization of the
wireless medium. Some proposed solutions are the usage of directional
antennas (instead of omni-directional antennas) or separate channels for
control messages and data.
A technique called transmission power control could serve a dual
purpose in this context. By adjusting the transmission power of nodes,
interference can be reduced at the same time as nodes save valuable
energy.

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols
MANET
Application

Personal area networking


Cell phone, laptop, ear phone

Emergency operations
Search and rescue
Policing and fire fighting

Civilian environments
Taxi cab network
Meeting rooms
Sports stadiums
Boats, aircrafts

Military use
On the battle field

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


The Simpson's
Be home early,
Homer.

Dad, you can use Yes. What are Hmm, A MANET


Nelson if I am you doing, makes sense.
too fast. Nelson?
Hi, Marge.
I miss you.
I can hear u, Lisa.
Can u hear me?

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Traditional routing
Adhoc routing
MANET DSDV
DSR Common
AODV DYMO

Difficulties for routing


limited connectivity due to
H transmission range of signal
E
Low bandwidth
Higher error rates
Vulnerable to interference
F Power consumption
No specific devices to do
routing
B
G Dynamic nature - high mobility
C and frequent topological
changes

X X
A
X D

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Traditional routing
Adhoc routing
MANET Routing Protocols Classification DSDV
DSR Common
AODV DYMO

Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)


Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) routing
Proactive protocol
routing Fisheye State Routing (FSR)
Distance Routing Effect Algo. for Mobility (DREAM) Location-based routing

Uniform Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol


routing Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)
Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV)
Reactive Location Aided Routing (LAR) Location-based routing
routing
Associativity Based Routing (ABR) protocol Link-stability based routing
protocol
Signal Stability-base adaptive Routing (SSR) Link-stability based routing
protocol
Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) Hybrid routing protocol

Zone-based Hybrid Adhoc Routing Protocol (HARP) Hybrid routing protocol


routing Zone-based Hierarchical Link State routing (ZHLS) Hybrid routing protocol
Grid Location Service (GLS) Location service
Non- Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)
uniform Cluster-based
routing Hierarchical State Routing (HSR)
routing
Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP)
Landmark Adhoc Routing (LANMAR) Proactive routing
Core-node
Source: MINEMA Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols
Core-Extraction Distributed Adhoc Routing (CEDAR) Proactive routing
Traditional routing
Adhoc routing
MANET Main Classification DSDV
DSR Common
AODV DYMO

Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Main Classification

Proactive Reactive
Table-Driven On-Demand Hybrid

DSDV DSR ZRP


WARP AODV HARP
DREAM TORA

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Related
Aim Of Proposed Protocol Work &
Issues

-Multipath Distance Vector Zone Routing Protocol MDVZRP

-Proactive Table Driven distance<=Zone Radius ,and reactive On demand


distance>Zones Radius

-Using Broadcast,
Broadcast and Unicast propagation techniques
-We assume a Symmetrical links network. Unidirectional Problem

-Node uses a Hello message to discover its zone (R. table driven)

-Node uses Route Request to discover any node outside


its zone. (on demand)

-Node should get Information from any route pass through it.

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Related
Aim Of Proposed Protocol Work &
Issues

-Node broadcasts a forward Update message when gets a


new route where one of hop < R only (to reduce No. of messages.)
-In case of broken link node generates Err msg.
msg Including
the Segment_No. (Route No.) to identify the right broken link.
-Any node effected by Err msg. Deletes the specific route
and Rebroadcasts Err msg. again and so on till reaches to a
node which has no that route ( to prevent flooding the network by Err msg.)
-Number of Optimum Routes depends on the Number of
neighbours where maximum number of routes from each
neighbour is less than or equal Radius Size

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Routing Algorithm Example 1

1-2-4-3-8
5 1-2-4-7-8
4hops
1-2-4-3-7-8
2 6 1-2-4-7-3-8
Source 1-2-5-4-3-8
1-2-5-4-7-8
1 4 1-2-5-4-3-7-8
1-2-5-4-7-3-8
1-3-8 2hops
7 1-3-7-8
3 1-3-4-7-8
1-4-7-8
3hops
1-4-3-8

8 1-4-7-3-8
1-4-3-7-8
Destination
Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols
Symmetric
Node's Zone & Radius metric Network

5 2
1

R>
3 2
6

R=1 4

R=2

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


A Simple network Example 2

2 1-
5 2
1
1-
3

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


Example2
Nodes Routing Tables ROUTING
Tables

Node(1) Node(2) Node(3)


Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 1 0 1-1 . 1 1 1 1-2 . 1 1 1 1-3 .


2 2 1 1-2 . 2 2 0 2-2 . 2 1 2 1-2 .
3 3 1 1-3 . 3 1 1 1-3 . 3 3 0 3-3 .
4 3 2 3-4 . 5 5 1 2-5 . 4 4 1 3-4 .
5 2 2 2-5 .

Node(4) Node(5)
Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1st No.h S_No .

1 3 2 1-3 . 1 2 2 1-2 .
3 3 1 3-4 . 2 2 1 2-5 .
4 4 0 4-4 . 5 5 0 5-5 .

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


ROUTING
A New Node Joins The Network TABLE
DRIVEN

Ds Nx No.h Seg_No
6 6 0 6-6 Initialization
5 5 1 5-6
2 1-
4 4 1 4-6 2-5 2 1
2 5 2 2-5 5 R.Upadte
3 4 2 3-4
1-
3
5-6
3
Hello

dte
3-4

pa
R.U
Hello
4-6 4

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


ROUTING
The New Nodes Routing Table TABLE
CREATION

Node(1) Node(2) Node(3)


Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1 No.h S_No .
st Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 1 0 1-1 . 1 1 1 1-2 . 1 1 1 1-3 .


2 2 1 1-2 . 2 2 0 2-2 . 2 1 2 1-2 .
3 3 1 1-3 . 3 1 1 1-3 . 3 3 0 3-3 .
4 3 2 3-4 . 5 5 1 2-5 . 4 4 1 3-4 .
5 2 2 2-5 . 6 5 2 5-6 . RUP 6 4 2 4-6 . RUP

Node(4) Node(5) Node(6)


Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 3 2 1-3 . 1 2 2 1-2 . 2 5 2 2-5 .A H M

3 3 1 3-4 . 2 2 1 2-5 . 3 4 2 3-4 .A H M


4 4 0 4-4 . 5 5 0 5-5 . 4 4 1 4-6 .A H M
6 6 1 4-6 . Hello 6 6 1 5-6 .Hello 5 5 1 5-6 .A
HM
6 6 0 6-6 .Initialization

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


ROUTE
Route Request ON-
DEMAND

Ds Nx No.h Seg_No
6 6 0 6-6
2 1-
5 5 1 5-6
2-5 2 1
5
4 4 1 4-6
2 5 2 2-5 1-
RRPL 3
3 4 2 3-4 5-6
3
1 4 3 1-3 Hello
RREQ
1 5 3 1-2 6 RREQ 3-4
Hello
RRPL4-6 4

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


ROUTING
New Nodes Entire Routing Table TABLE
CREATION

Node(1) Node(2) Node(3)


Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1 No.h S_No .
st Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 1 0 1-1 . 1 1 1 1-2 . 1 1 1 1-3 .


2 2 1 1-2 . 2 2 0 2-2 . 2 1 2 1-2 .
3 3 1 1-3 . 3 1 1 1-3 . 3 3 0 3-3 .
4 3 2 3-4 . 5 5 1 2-5 . 4 4 1 3-4 .
5 2 2 2-5 . 6 5 2 5-6 . RUP 6 4 2 4-6 . RUP

Node(4) Node(5) Node(6)


Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1 No.h S_No .
st Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 3 2 1-3 . 1 2 2 1-2 . 2 5 2 2-5 .A H M


3 3 1 3-4 . 2 2 1 2-5 . 3 4 2 3-4 .A H M
4 4 0 4-4 . 5 5 0 5-5 . 4 4 1 4-6 .A H M
6 6 1 4-6 . Hello 6 6 1 5-6 .Hello 5 5 1 5-6 .A H m
6 6 0 6-6 .Initialization
1 4 3 1-3 .RREQ
1 4 3 1-3 .RREQ

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


REER
Broken Link Error Error
Message

REER
REER
2-5 2 1-
5 2 1
E ER
R
ER
1-
RE

5-6 3

ER
3

RE
REER
6
4-6 3-4
RE
ER
4

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


ROUTING
TABLES
Nodes Routing Tables After RERR AFTER
RERR
Node(1) Node(2) Node(3)
Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1 No.h S_No .
st Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 1 0 1-1 . 1 1 1 1-2 . 1 1 1 1-3 .


2 2 1 1-2 . 2 2 0 2-2 . 2 1 2 1-2 .
3 3 1 1-3 . 3 1 1 1-3 . 3 3 0 3-3 .
4 3 2 3-4 . 5 5 1 2-5 . 4 4 1 3-4 .
5 2 2 2-5 . 6 5 2 5-6 . RERR 6 4 2 4-6 . RUP

Node(4) Node(5) Node(6)


Ds 1st No.h S_No . Ds 1 No.h S_No .
st Ds 1st No.h S_No

1 3 2 1-3 . 1 2 2 1-2 . 2 5 2 2-5 .RERR


3 3 1 3-4 . 2 2 1 2-5 . 3 4 2 3-4 .FULLD
4 4 0 4-4 . 5 5 0 5-5 . 4 4 1 4-6 .FULLD
6 6 1 4-6 . Hello 6 6 1 5-6 .RERR 5 5 1 5-6 .RERR
6 6 0 6-6 .Initialization
1 4 3 1-3 .RREQ
1 5 3 1-2 .RREQ

Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols


MDVZRP
Conclusion FOR
MANET

We proposed MDVZRP for MANET based on DV,AODV


Allows sending packets by alternative paths and backward
RERR to the source in case of unknown broken link
Number of Optimum Routes depends on the Number of
neighbours where Maximum Number from each neighbour is
less than or equal Radius Size
Low overhead and Faster than the standard protocols:
Latency is less than AODV (N( c/b +t ) t R)
Routing table size is less than DSDV (<DSDV messages)
No periodic route update packets.(< ZRP control traffic )
Network Performance v Radius size regarding to evaluation
metrics data throughput, packet delivery ratio, routing overhead and average packet delay.
Rajiv Ramdhany Adhoc Routing Protocols