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Discourses Types

Febe Batubara
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The Variety of functions and forms
To distinguish 3 main discourse types
Organon Model Functions Types
Symbol Information Informative discourse
Symptom Expressions Narrative discourse
Signal persuassion Argumentative discourse

Weakness: too simple to serve as a basic scheme for


covering all the varieties of discourse, seldom occur in
their pure forms, and many more functions are possible.
Roman Jakobson
Jakobson distinguished six functions that can also occur
in combination.
1. Context
Referential
2. Addresser 4. Message 5. Addressee
Emotive Poetic Conative
6. Channel, Contact
Phatic
6. Code
Metalingual
Classification of the variety of
discourse
Three approaches can be distinguished in the
classification of the variety of discourse.
Classification of Oral Discourse by
Steger et al (1 st
Approach)
The main division of oral discourse is monologue as
opposed to dailogue. The criterion is the absence of
interaction. Presentation Messag Report Public Conversation Interview
e Debate
Number One Speaker + + +
Of
Multiple + + +
Speakers
Speaker
Rank Equal + +
Unequal + + + +
Theme Theme + + + + +
Fixation Predetermine
d
Theme Not +
Predetermine
d
Method Of Descriptive + +
Theme
Argumentativ + + +
Treatment
e
Associative +
Werlichs Discourse Typology (2 nd

Approach)
The 5 basic forms are divided into 2 methods of
presentation: subject (the writers perception) and
objective (which can be verified by readers)
Basic Forms Subjective Objective
Descriptive Impressionistic Technical description
description
Narrative Report News story
Explanatory Essay Explication
Argumentative Comment Argumentation
Instructive instructions Directions, rules,
regulations and
statutes
Bibers Typology (3rd Approach)
Five sets of lexical and grammatical features is the basis
to distinguish a restricted set of text prototypes
The five dimensions of Biber (1989)

Involved versus informational production

Narrative versus non-narrative concerns

Elaboarated versus situation-dependent reference

Overt expression of persuasion

Abstract versus non-abstract style