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Microprocessor History (INTEL)

History of Microprocessor (INTEL)


Intel 4004
Year of introduction 1971
4-bit microprocessor
4-bit data bus and 12-bit address bus
4KB of memory
45 instructions
Clock speed:108 KHz
PMOS technology
Number of transistors:2300
Main problems:
Speed
word width
memory size
Intel 8008
Year of introduction 1972
8-bit version of 4004
16KB of memory
8-bit data bus and 14-bit address bus
48 instructions
Clock speed:800 KHz
PMOS technology
Number of transistors:3500
Main problems:
Require 20 or more additional devices to form a functional CPU.
Intel 8080
Year of introduction 1973
First modern 8-bit microprocessor
8-bit data bus and 16 bit address bus
Need only two additional devices to be a functional CPU
64KB of memory ( 4 times more than 8008 and address line 16)
Clock speed:2 MHz
Number of transistors:4500
NMOS technology (n-channel device is faster than p-channel device)
Main problems:
Needed three power supplies.
Intel 8085
Year of introduction 1975
Updated version of 8080
Last 8-bit microprocessor
8-bit data bus and 16-bit address bus
64KB of memory
Clock speed:3 MHz
246 instructions
NMOS technology
Number of transistors:6500
Use only one power supply
8086 / 8088
Year of introduction 1978 for 8086 and 1979 for 8088
16-bit microprocessors
Data bus width for 8086 is 16-bit and 8-bit for 8088
20-bit address bus
1MB of memory (20 bit address line)
Clock speed:4.4 MHz (8086), 4.47 MHz (8088)
6 byte instruction cache for 8086 and 4 byte for 8088
Number of transistors:29,000
NMOS technology
80186
Year of introduction 1982
16-bit microprocessor upgraded version of 8086
1MB of memory
Contained special hardware like programmable
counters, interrupt controller etc.
Ideal for systems that required a minimum of
hardware
NMOS technology
Number of transistors 29,000
80286
Year of introduction 1983
16-bit high performance microprocessor with memory
management and protection
16 MB of memory
16-bit data bus and 24-bit address bus
Concentrates on the feature needed to implement
multitasking.
NMOS technology
Number of transistors:134,000
Clock speed:12 MHz
80386
Year of introduction 1986
Intels first practical 32-bit microprocessor
32-bit data bus and memory address bus
4GB of memory
Memory management unit
Multitasking
CMOS technology (is used for less power dissipatation)
Number of transistors:275,000
Clock speed:16 MHz
80486
Year of introduction 1989
32-bit microprocessor
32-bit data bus and memory address bus
4GB of memory
8 KB cache
CMOS technology
Number of transistors: 1,200,000
Clock speed:25MHz
Pentium
Year of introduction 1993
32-bit microprocessor
64-bit data bus and 32 bit address BUS
4GB of memory
16KB of cache size
BICMOS technology
Number of transistor: 3,300,000
Clock speed:66 MHz
Intel Pentium Pro
Year of introduction 1993
32 bit micro processor
64 GB main memory
64 bit data bus and 36 bit address bus
16 KB L1 cache and 256 KB L2 cache.
BICMOS technology
Number of transistors: 5,500,000
Clock speed:200 MHz
Pentium II Processor
Year of introduction 1997
32 bit micro processor
64 GB main memory
64 bit data bus and 36 bit address bus
32 KB L1 cache and 256 KB L2 cache.
BICMOS technology
Number of transistors: 7,500,000
Clock speed:300 MHz
Pentium III Processor
Year of introduction 1999
32 bit micro processor
64 GB main memory
64 bit data bus and 36 bit address bus
32 KB L1 cache and 256 KB L2 cache.
BICMOS technology
Number of transistors: 9,500,000
Clock speed:500 MHz
Pentium 4 Processor
Year of introduction 2002
32 bit micro processor
64 GB main memory
64 bit data bus and 36 bit address bus
8 KB L1 cache and 512 KB L2 cache.
BICMOS technology
Number of transistors: 15,500,000
Clock speed:1 GHz
Pentium D Processor
Year of introduction 2005
32 bit micro processor
64 GB main memory
64 bit data bus and 36 bit address bus
BICMOS technology
Number of transistors: 47,500,000
Clock speed:3.6 GHz
Core 2/ Quad Processor
Year of introduction 2006/2007
32 bit micro processor
64 GB memory
64 bit data bus and 36 bit address bus
BICMOS technology
Number of transistors: 21,450,0000
Clock speed:3.6 GHz
Find out the details
Core i3 processor
Core i5 processor
Core i7 processor
Clock Speed
Also called clock rate, the speed at which a microprocessor executes
instructions. Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates
the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes all the
various computer components. The CPU requires a fixed number of
clock ticks (or clock cycles) to execute each instruction. The faster
the clock, the more instructions the CPU can execute per second.
Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).
Actually, There is a small quartz crystal inside of a CPU that vibrates
at a particular oscillation or frequency. This frequency sets the
"speed" of processes in the computer and is usually very high; So a
computer with a clock speed of 800MHz is running 800,000,000
cycles per second, while a 2.4GHz computer is running
2,400,000,000 cycles per second.
Uses of transistors in
computer
Transistors are the building block of computers. It is widely used in
CPU and memory.
The property of the transistor, being able to switch between two
different states (on-off) is very important for a computer's function. In a
computer the transistor can be made to switch between two binary
states called 0 and 1. The simple switch operation of transistors is what
enables computer to complete massively complex tasks. One computer
chip can have millions of transistors continually switching, helping
complete complex calculations.. In a computer it is not present as a
single isolated item, instead it is part of something that is called an
integrated circuit.
Every memory location will have a pair of transistors, so there are 16
of them for each byte, so 16 million of them for each megabyte of
memory.