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A 'heat exchanger' may be defined as an equipment

which transfers the energy from a hot fluid to a cold


fluid. Here, the process of heating or cooling occurs.
In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid
changes as it passes through the exchangers.
What are heat exchanger for?
To get the fluid streams to the right
temperature for the next process
To condense vapors
To evaporate liquids
To recover heat to use else where
To reject low grade heat
To drive a power cycle
General design of heat exchange equipment :
The design of heat exchange equipment is based on
general principles.
From mass and energy balance HT area is calculated.
Quantities to be evaluated are U,LMTD.
In simple devices these quantities can be calculated
accurately but in complex processing units the
evaluation may be difficult and the final design is
always a compromise based on engineering judgment
to give best overall performance.
TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS:
1.Doble pipe heat exchangers:
It consists of concentric pipes with standard return
bends.
One fluid flows through inside metal pipe and the
second fluid flows through the annulus between the
outside pipe and inside pipe.
The flow directions may be either parallel or counter
fashions.
These exchangers are used when heat transfer area
required is not more than 150 sq.ft
Advantages;
1. Simple in construction
2. Cheap
3. Very easy to clean
4. Very attractive when required Heat transfer areas are small.

Disadvantages:
1. The simple double pipe heat exchanger is inadequate for
large flow rates
2. If several double pipes are used in parallel, the weight of
metal required for the outer tubes becomes so large.
3. Smaller heat transfer area in large floor space as compared
to other types
4. Leakage are more.

Shell and tube heat exchanger :


The simple double pipe heat exchanger is inadequate
for large flow rates. If several double pipes are used
in parallel, the weight of metal required for the outer
tubes becomes so large.
When large areas are required we go for shell and
tube heat exchangers.
It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil
refineries and other large chemical processes.
Shell and tube heat exchanger consists of a shell
with a bundle of tubes inside it.
One fluid flows through the tubes (the tube side)
and the other fluid flows outside the tubes but
inside the shell (the shell side).
Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other
through the tube walls, either from tube side to
shell side or vice versa.
The fluids can be either liquids or gases on either
the shell or the tube side.
Construction and parts:

Shell:
It is usually a cylindrical casing through which one of
the fluid flows. Shell is commonly made of carbon
steel. The minimum thickness of shell made of
carbon steel varies from 5 mm to 11 mm depending
upon the diameter.
Tubes:
Standard heat exchanger tubes which are used in
many industrial processes may be of various sizes
and lengths.
The wall thickness of tubes is usually expressed in
terms of Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG).
The thickness depends upon material of construction
and diameter.
Standard lengths of tubes for heat exchanger
construction are 8, 12, 16 and 20 ft.
Tube pitch:
The shortest centre-to-centre distance between the
adjacent tubes is called as tube pitch.
Tubes arranged in a triangular or square layout,
known as triangular or square pitch.
Square pitch gives lower shell side pressure drop
than triangular pitch.
Square pitch is good for easy cleaning whereas
triangular pitch gives more number tubes for same
space available
Unless shell side fluid fouls badly, triangular pitch is
used.
TEMA standards specify a minimum center to
center distance 1.25 times outside diameter of the
tubes for triangular pitch and a minimum cleaning
lane of inch for square pitch.
Tube sheet:
It is essentially a flat circular plate. A large number
of holes are drilled in the tube sheet according to the
pitch requirements.
Baffles:
The baffles are installed in the shell
1) To increase the rate of heat transfer by increasing the
velocity and turbulence of the shell side fluid
2) It helps as structural supports for tubes and dampers
against vibration.
3) The baffles cause the fluid to flow through shell at
right angles to the axes of the tubes (Cross flow).

OR
They promote cross flow
To avoid the bypassing of the shell side fluid the
clearance between the baffles and shell, and baffles
and tubes must be minimum.
The centre-to-centre distance between adjacent
baffles is known as baffle spacing or baffle pitch.
The baffle space should not be greater than the inside
diameter of the shell and should not less than the
one-fifth if the inside diameter of the shell.
The optimum baffle spacing is 0.3 to 0.50 times the
shell diameter
25% cutoff baffles
Single pass 1-1 exchanger:
Limitations:
It occupy more space
Cannot obtain high velocities hence low heat transfer
coefficients.
No solution for expansion problems.
MULTI PASS HEAT EXCHANGERS:

Multi pass construction decreases the cross section


of the fluid path and increases the fluid velocity and
corresponding HT Coefficient

Advantages:
1) High velocities
2) Short tubes
3) Solution to expansion problems
Disadvantages:
1) Exchanger is more complicated
2) Friction loss are increased because of high velocities,
longer path ,multiplication of entrance and exit losses
1-2 heat exchangers:
2-4 Heat exchangers:
1-2 heat exchanger has an important limitation.
Because of parallel flow pass ,the exchanger is
unable to bring one of the fluid very near to the
entrance temperature of the fluid.
OR
The heat recovery is poor.
So we go for 2-4 heat exchanger
It gives high velocity and large HTC than 1-2
Exchanger with same flow rates.
Heat transfer coefficients in shell and tube heat exchangers:

In a shell-and-tube exchanger, the shell-side and tube


side heat transfer coefficients are of comparable
importance and both must be large if a satisfactory
overall coefficient is to be attained.
D
Gc m / S c Sc PDs 1 o
p

Gb

Gb Gc
CONDENSERS
Condensers liquefy vapors by removing
their latent heat.
The latent heat is removed by absorbing
it in a cooler liquid(coolant).

TYPES:
Shell and Tube Condensers
Contact Condensers
Extended Surfaces
The term extended surface is used to depict an
important special case involving heat transfer by
conduction (and/or radiation) from the boundaries
of a solid.
For an extended surface the direction of heat
transfer from the boundaries is perpendicular to
the direction of the principle heat transfer in the
solid .
To conserve space and to reduce the cost of the
equipment, extended surfaces multiply the outside
area of the tube, by fins, pegs, disks &
appendages.
Assume a structural element connecting two
walls at different temperatures
T2 qx2
x T2

T,h
qconv

T1 T(x)
T1 qx1
T1>T2> T Causes the gradient |
dT/dx| to decrease with
increasing x

When such an extended surface is used to enhance the heat transfer


between the solid and the fluid then the extended surface is called a
FIN
How to improve heat
transfer?

T, h

Increase h

q=hA(Ts-T)
Ts, A
Increase the difference between
Ts and T
How to improve heat
transfer?

T, h

q=hA(Ts-T)

Increase the area !


The fluid stream having the lower coefficient is
brought into contact with the extended surface
and flows outside the tubes. The fluid having
high coefficient flows through the tubes.

The outside area in contact with the fluid made


much larger than the inside area.
Examples of fins
Automotive radiator
Inside your computer
In heat exchangers
In A/C evaporators and condensers
Refrigerators
Types of Extended surfaces:
Longitudinal fins:
When the direction of flow of the fluid is
parallel to the axis of the tube
Transverse fins:
When the direction of flow of the tubes is
across the tubes
Straight fin- uniform Straight fin- non- annular fin- uniform
CSA uniform CSA CSA

Pin fin- uniform CSA Pin fin- nonuniform


CSA
dAs dqconv

qx+dx
x
qx

Ac(x)
dx
qx qx dx dqconv

dT
qx kAc
dx
dqx
qx dx qx dx
dx
Fouriers law

dT d dT
qx dx kAc k Ac dx
dx dx dx
Infinitesimal thickness
assumption
qx qx dx dqconv

dT
qx kAc
dx
dqx
qx dx qx dx
dx

Substitute dT d dT
qx dx kAc k Ac dx
dx dx dx

dqconv hdAs T T
d dT h As
Ac T T 0
dx dx k dx

d 2T 1 dAc dT
1 h dAs
2
T T 0
dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx
Temperature Distribution
Carry out the appropriate
simplifications on the energy equation
Solve the differential equation
Apply the appropriate boundary
conditions
Uniform CSA Fins
Straight fin- uniform CSA

for rectangular
configuration

Pin fin- uniform CSA

Uniform CSA means Ac is


Constant
As = Px Equation for
P depends on
is involved for circular configuration
configuration
Straight Fin
T,h

qconv
Tb

t
qf
L w

x Ac=wt

P = 2w+2t
Pin Fin
T,h

qconv

qf D
Tb

Ac=D2/4
x

P=D
Since As =
0, Ac = const Px =>dAs/dx
=>dAc/dx = 0 =P

d 2T 1 dAc dT
1 h dAs
2
T T 0
dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

The equation simplifies to

d 2T hP
2
T T 0
dx Ac k
d T hP
2

2
T T 0
dx Ac k

Define the excess T ( x) T


temperature as :
i.e
Substituting T ( x) T

d hP
2
gives
2
0
dx Ac k Where we
define
hP
m 2

d 2 kAc
2
m 0
2

dx
A general solution for this
d 2
ODE
2
m 2
0
dx

is ( x) C1e mx C2e mx

Apply The Boundary Conditions

The first boundary condition is (0) Tb T b

The second B/C is dependent on the assumptions made about the


end (tip) of the fin.
BOUNDARY CONDITION 2

CASE1- Assume that the heat is convected away from the tip then for
this tip condition

dT
kAc
i.e from the surface at the end of dx
hAc T ( L) T
xL

the fin with area Ac and with


convective heat transfer
magnitude

This convected heat is equal to equal to that conducted to the tip

dT
i.e. hAcT ( L) T kAc
dx xL

d
And in terms of the excess hAc ( L) kAc
temperature dx xL
General solution ( x) C1e mx C2 e mx
To process the first boundary condition
Substitute x=0

Then
substitute

gives
The boundary conditions are
(0) b b C1 C2

d
hAc ( L) kAc
dx xL
To process the second boundary condition

Substitute x=L

General solution ( x) C1e mx C2 e mx

d
The derivative of the mC1e mx mC2e mx
general solution wrt x dx
Then
substitute

The
d
second
hAc ( L) kAc (0) b
boundary dx x L
condition
is
b C1 C2
After all substitutions the
and
two resulting B/C
equations are h C1e mL C2 e mL km C2e mL C1e mL

Which can be solved simultaneously for


C1 and C2

Substituting C1 and C2
back into the general
solution gives the excess
temperature distribution

h
cosh m L x sinh m L x
mk

b cosh mL
h
sinh mL
mk
h,T
qconv Hence the excess temperature profile is given
by

h
cosh m L x sinh m L x
mk

b cosh mL
h
sinh mL
mk
x

b It can be seen that the excess temperature


gradient decreases with increasing x as
increasing heat is convected away from the
0 fin with increasing x
0 L X
h,T One way to solve for the total flux through
qf
the fin is by noting that
qb The total the transfer from the fin
qf passes through the base of the
fin qb
i.e.

dT d
qf qb k k
dx x 0 dx x 0

0 h
cosh m L x sinh m L x
mk
0 L X
b cosh mL
h
sinh mL
mk

Take the derivative d/dx


Substitute in the derivatiave
then substitute the derivative in Fouriers Law
h
sinh mL cosh mL
This gives the total q f hPkAcb mk
flux for the fin h
cosh mL sinh mL
mk
The other way to solve
for the total flux through
the fin is by noting that
qf h T ( x) T
Af

all the flux through the fin


is convected away i.e or

Where Af is the total fin Area


qf h ( x)
Af
= As+Ac
h
b cosh m L x sinh m L x
qf h ( x)
cosh mL
mk
h
sinh mL
Af
mk

h
Substitution for also sinh mL cosh mL
gives the equation for
q f hPkAcb mk
the total flux from the h
fin cosh mL sinh mL
mk
BOUNDARY CONDITION 2
CASE 2 - If we assume that the heat convected away from the tip is
negligible then the problem can be approached by assuming that the
area Ac is insulated i.e.

qf

d qb
i.e. 0
dx x L
Adiabatic
end
condition
Substituting zero for
the derivative of the d
general solution with mC1e mx mC2 e mx
respect to x dx

Then dividing by m gives C1e mx C2 e mx 0


Using the equations b C1 C2
C1e C2e
mx mx
0

We can solve for C1 and


C2 and then substitute
the results in the general cosh m L x

solution which gives the b cosh mL
excess temperature field

And the heat


transfer rate
q f hPkAcb tanh mL
BOUNDARY CONDITION 2

CASE 3- If we prescribe a temperature at the tip

We can solve for the qf


excess temperature field
in a similar fashion qb

L
sinh mx sinh m L x
b TL

b sinh mL L L

L
hPkAcb cosh mL
b
And the heat qf
transfer rate sinh mL
Finally If we assume a very long fin

qf

qb

The excess
temperature e mx
field b

And the heat


transfer rate q f hPkAcb
How do we assess fin
performance ?
qf
f Heat transfer from the fin
hAc ,bb
Heat transfer from the body if the
fin did not exist

Fin effectiveness

Heuristic f 2 Otherwise the fin


is difficult to justify
For the very long fin assuming the convection coefficient is the same
with and without the fin the effectiveness is given by
Fin Performance is enhanced by using higher
conductivity material although cost must also be
taken into account
1/ 2
kP Fin Performance is enhanced by using a larger
f perimeter to CSA i.e. the thinner and closer the
hAc fins the better
Fins are more effective where the convective
coefficient is smaller which is the reason why
fins are on the air side of an auto mobile radiator.
Because of the infinite length assumption this
equation gives an upper limit for the effectiveness
of a fin.
How do we assess fin
performance ?
qf
f Heat transfer from the fin
hAf b
Heat transfer from the body if the
entire fin was at the base
temperature

Fin efficiency
Hot process fluids in the tubes at temperatures
from 212 to 750F can be cooled to about 40F.

Heat transfer areas based on outside surface of


the tubes range from 50 to 500 m2. Fins multiply
this by a factor 7 to 20.

Air flows between the tubes at velocities 3 to


6m/s.
The pressure drop and power consumption are
low.