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CHAPTER 4

consciousness

psychology
fourth edition
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
4.1 What does it mean to be conscious, and are there different levels of
consciousness?
4.2 Why do people need to sleep, and how does sleep work?
4.3 What are the different stages of sleep, including the stage of dreaming and
its importance?
4.4 How do sleep disorders interfere with normal sleep?
4.5 Why do people dream, and what do they dream about?
4.6 How does hypnosis affect consciousness?
4.7 What is the difference between a physical dependence and a psychological
dependence on a drug?
4.8 How do stimulants and depressants affect consciousness and what are the
dangers associated with taking them, particularly alcohol?
4.9 What are some of the effects and dangers of using hallucinogens, including
marijuana?
4.10 How can the workings of our consciousness explain supernatural
visitations?
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Consciousness
LO 4.1 Consciousness and Levels of Consciousness

Consciousness
a persons awareness of everything that is
going on around him or her at any given
moment
Waking consciousness
state in which thoughts, feelings, and
sensations are clear and organized, and the
person feels alert

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Consciousness
LO 4.1 Consciousness and Levels of Consciousness

Altered state of consciousness


state in which there is a shift in the quality or
pattern of mental activity as compared to
waking consciousness

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Necessity of Sleep
LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works

Circadian rhythm: a cycle of bodily rhythm


that occurs over a twenty-four-hour period
circa: about
diem: day

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Necessity of Sleep
LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works

Hypothalamus: tiny section of the brain


that influences the glandular system
suprachiasmatic nucleus
deep within the hypothalamus
the internal clock that tells people when to wake up
and when to fall asleep
Hypothalamus tells the pineal gland to
secrete melatonin
melatonin makes a person feel sleepy

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Necessity of Sleep
LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works

Microsleeps: brief sidesteps into sleep


lasting only a few seconds
Sleep deprivation: any significant loss of
sleep
results in irritability and problems with
concentration

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Figure 4.1 Sleep Patterns of Infants and Adults

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Necessity of Sleep
LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works

Adaptive theory: theory of sleep proposing


that animals and humans evolved sleep
patterns to avoid predators by sleeping
when predators are most active

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Necessity of Sleep
LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works

Restorative theory: theory of sleep


proposing that sleep is necessary to the
physical health of the body and serves to
replenish chemicals and repair cellular
damage

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Stages of Sleep
LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming

Rapid eye movement (REM): stage of


sleep in which the eyes move rapidly
under the eyelids and the person is
typically experiencing a dream
NREM (non-REM) sleep: any of the stages
of sleep that do not include REM

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Brain Wave Patterns
LO 4.2 Why Sleep and How Sleep Works

Electroencephalograph (EEG)
allows scientists to see the brain wave activity
as a person passes through the various stages
of sleep and to determine what type of sleep
the person has entered
alpha waves: brain waves that indicate a state of
relaxation or light sleep
theta waves: brain waves indicating the early stages
of sleep
delta waves: long, slow waves that indicate the
deepest stage of sleep
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Figure 4.2 Brain Activity During Sleep

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Stages of Sleep
LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming

N1 (R&K Stage 1): light sleep


may experience:
hypnagogic images: hallucinations or vivid visual
events
hypnic jerk: knees, legs, or whole body jerks
N2 (R&K Stage 2): sleep spindles
sleep spindles: brief bursts of activity only
lasting a second or two

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Stages of Sleep
LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming

N3 (R&K Stages 3 and 4): delta waves


pronounced
deepest stage of sleep: 50 percent or more of
waves are delta waves
body at lowest level of functioning
time at which growth occurs

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
REM Sleep and Dreaming
LO 4.3 Stages of Sleep and Dreaming

REM sleep is paradoxical sleep (high level


of brain activity)
If wakened during REM sleep, sleepers
almost always report a dream.
REM rebound: increased amounts of REM
sleep after being deprived of REM sleep
on earlier nights

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Figure 4.3 A Typical Nights Sleep

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Sleep Disorders
LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep

Nightmares
bad dreams occurring during REM sleep
REM behavior disorder
mechanism that blocks the movement of the
voluntary muscles fails
allows the person to thrash around, or even
get up and act out nightmares

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Stage Four Sleep Disorders
LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep

Sleepwalking (somnambulism)
episode of moving around or walking around
in ones sleep
occurs in deep sleep
more common among children than adults

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Stage Four Sleep Disorders
LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep

Night terrors
the person experiences extreme fear and
screams or runs around during deep sleep
doesnt wake fully
relatively rare disorder

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Sleep Disorders
LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep

Can sleepwalking be a defense against


criminal charges?
Kenneth Parks case
Scott Falater case
Brian Thomas case

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Problems during Sleep
LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep

Insomnia: the inability to get to sleep, stay


asleep, or get a good quality of sleep
Sleep apnea: disorder in which the person
stops breathing for nearly half a minute or
more
continuous positive airway pressure device
(CPAP)

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Problems during Sleep
LO 4.4 Sleep Disorders and Normal Sleep

Narcolepsy: sleep disorder in which a


person falls immediately into REM sleep
during the day without warning
cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Dreams
LO 4.5 Why People Dream and What They Dream about

Freud: dreams as wish fulfillment


manifest content: the dream itself
latent content: the true, hidden meaning of a
dream

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Dreams
LO 4.5 Why People Dream and What They Dream about

Activation-synthesis hypothesis: dreams


are created by the higher centers of the
cortex to explain the brain stems
activation of cortical cells during REM
sleep periods

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Figure 4.4 The Brain and Activation-Synthesis Theory
According to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming, the pons in the brainstem sends random signals to
the upper part of the brain during REM sleep. These random signals pass through the thalamus, which sends
the signals to the proper sensory areas of the cortex. Once in the cortex, the association areas of the cortex
respond to the random activation of these cortical cells by synthesizing (making up) a story, or dream, using
bits and pieces of life experiences and memories

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Dreams
LO 4.5 Why People Dream and What They Dream about

Activation-information-mode model (AIM)


revised version of the activation-synthesis
explanation of dreams
information that is accessed during waking
hours can have an influence on the synthesis
of dreams

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Hypnosis
LO 4.6 Hypnosis and How It Works

Hypnosis: state of consciousness in which


the person is especially susceptible to
suggestion

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Hypnosis
LO 4.6 Hypnosis and How It Works

Four elements of hypnosis:


1. hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is
being said
2. person is told to relax and feel tired
3. hypnotist tells the person to let go and
accept suggestions easily
4. person is told to use vivid imagination
Hypnotic susceptibility: degree to which a
person is a good hypnotic subject
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Theories of Hypnosis
LO 4.6 Hypnosis and How It Works

Hypnosis as dissociation: hypnosis works


only in a persons immediate
consciousness, while a hidden observer
remained aware of all that was going on
Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis: people
who are hypnotized are not in an altered
state, but are merely playing the role
expected of them in the situation

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychoactive Drugs
LO 4.7 Physical and Psychological Dependence on a Drug

Psychoactive drugs: drugs that alter


thinking, perception, and memory
Physical dependence
tolerance: more and more of the drug is
needed to achieve the same effect
withdrawal: physical symptoms resulting from
a lack of an addictive drug in the body
systems
can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and
high blood pressure
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychoactive Drugs
LO 4.7 Physical and Psychological Dependence on a Drug

Psychological dependence: the feeling


that a drug is needed to continue a feeling
of emotional or psychological well-being

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Stimulants
LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?

Stimulants: drugs that increase the


functioning of the nervous system
amphetamines: drugs that are synthesized
(made in labs) rather than found in nature
cocaine: natural drug; produces euphoria,
energy, power, and pleasure
nicotine: active ingredient in tobacco
caffeine: the stimulant found in coffee, tea,
most sodas, chocolate, and even many over-
the-counter drugs
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Nicotine
LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?

The harmful effects of nicotine are now


well known, but many people continue to
smoke or chew tobacco in spite of
warnings

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Depressants
LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?

Depressants: drugs that decrease the


functioning of the nervous system
barbiturates: depressant drugs that have a
sedative effect
benzodiazepines: drugs that lower anxiety
and reduce stress
Rohypnol: the date rape drug

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Alcohol
LO 4.8 How Do Stimulants and Depressants Affect Consciousness?

Alcohol: the chemical resulting from


fermentation or distillation of various kinds
of vegetable matter
often mistaken for a stimulant, alcohol is
actually a CNS depressant

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Narcotics
LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana

Narcotics
opium-related drugs
suppress the sensation of pain by binding to
and stimulating the nervous systems natural
receptor sites for endorphins.
opium: substance made from the opium poppy and
from which all narcotic drugs are derived
morphine: narcotic drug derived from opium; used
to treat severe pain
heroin: narcotic drug derived from opium that is
extremely addictive
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Hallucinogens
LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana

Psychogenic Drugs
drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana
that produce hallucinations or increased
feelings of relaxation and intoxication
hallucinogens: drugs that cause false sensory
messages, altering the perception of reality
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide): powerful
synthetic hallucinogen
PCP: synthesized drug now used as an animal
tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant,
narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Hallucinogens
LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana

Psychogenic Drugs (contd)


MDMA (Ecstasy or X): designer drug that can have
both stimulant and hallucinatory effects
Stimulatory hallucinogenics: drugs that produce a
mixture of psychomotor stimulant and
hallucinogenic effects

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Marijuana
LO 4.9 Dangers of Narcotics, Hallucinogens, and Marijuana

marijuana (pot or weed): mild hallucinogen


derived from the leaves and flowers of a
particular type of hemp plant

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.
Hallucinations
LO 4.10 How can the workings of our consciousness explain supernatural visitations?

Hypnogogic hallucination: hallucination


that can occur just as a person is entering
N1 sleep
Hypnopompic hallucination: hallucination
that happens just as a person is in the
between-state of being in REM sleep (in
which the voluntary muscles are
paralyzed) and not yet fully awake

Psychology, Fourth Edition Copyright 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White All rights reserved.