Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 54

An Overview of Reservoir Engineering

Dr Nejat Rahmanian
An overview of Reservoir Engineering
Part I
Scope of Reservoir engineering
Basic concerns of Reservoir Engineering
Define SPE (Society of Petroleum Eng. ) definition of
reserves and reserves categories

Part II
Concept of Stack Tank Oil In Place, Recovery Factor

Part III
Hydrostatic pressure, Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Part
I
Scope of Reservoir engineering

Basic concerns of Reservoir


Engineering
Define SPE definition of reserves and
reserves categories
Describe general terms for
reserves estimation.
What is Reservoir Engineering?

4
Reservoir Engineering
Aims:

5
Reservoir Engineering
Aims (Contd):

6
Reservoir Engineering

The phase of engineering which deals with the transfer of fluids


to, from or through the reservoirs

Goal of reservoir engineering


Discover productive reservoir
Set up development project
Attempts to optimize hydrocarbon recovery
Derive information required to optimal production from the
reservoir
Works with others

Exploration/
Petropyhsics
Geophysics/Geology

RESERVOIR
ENGINEERING
Production
Process
Economics
Engineering

General Engineering/
Platform topside
Design 8
Where is Reservoir Engineering?

Geology

Geophysics
Exploration
Exploration Well

Discovery Well
Reservoir Engineering
Well Location
Well Assessment
Reservoir Assessment
Development
Development Plan
Production
Transport

9
Basic Concerns of Reservoir Engineers

How to calculate the volume of the


initial hydrocarbon present in the
reservoir ?
How much of the initial fluids have
been recovered ?
How much is left ?
How to increase recovery economically?
What data are needed?

10
Good Reservoir Engineer
Understand geology & geological process that
give rise to the reservoir.
Understand the nature of reservoir fluid
and rocks
Be familiar with fluid mechanics
& mathematical methods to solve problem.

11
Activities of Reservoir Engineering

Reserve
Estimation

Development
Planning

Production
and
Optimization
12
PART II
PART II

Describe basic concept of STOIIP

Explain what is FVF (Formation Volume


Factor)
Explain what is RF (recovery Factor)

Highlights different between reserves & STOIIP

Calculate STOIIP

14
Stock Tank Oil Initial In Place (STOIIP)

Same as STOOIP
Refer to oil in place before the commencement
of production
Depends on
Volume of rock containing oil
percentage porosity of the rock in the reservoir
percentage water content of that porosity
amount of shrinkage that the oil undergoes
when brought to the Earth's surface

15
The volume of oil and gas in-place

Depends on area coverage of the reservoir


~A
The
The thickness of the reservoir ~ ~ hn
pore volume
Pore space occupied by Oil ~ S0 or (1-
Sw)

16
Stock
Tank

reservoir
17
What is Formation Volume Factor (FVF)?

Dimensionless factor for the change in between


volume reservoir and standard conditions at
surface
What
Highhappen?
reservoir temperature and pressure decreases
Gas bubbles out of the oil
The volume of the oil decreases
Stabilized oil under surface conditions = stock tank oil
Oil reserves are calculated in terms of stock tank oil volumes
rather than reservoir oil volumes

18
Recovery Factor (RF)

RF ~ indicates the proportion of the in-place HC expected to


be recovered.
Vary greatly among oil fields.
Depends on drive mechanism.
Change over time based on operating history and in
response to changes in technology and economics.
May rise over time if additional investment is made in
enhanced oil recovery techniques such as gas injection,
water-flooding or microbial enhanced oil recovery.

19
What is the different between reserves
and oil in place?

Toconvert in place volumes to reserves we need


to multiply the STOIIP by the recovery factor

Reserves = (STOIIP) (RF)

20
Example
(a) Calculate the original-oil-in-place for a reservoir with
4000 acres and thickness of 115 ft. The following
conditions are reported for this reservoir, pressure of
3000 psia, the formation volume factor is 1.43 bbl/STB,
water saturation (Sw) is 30% and porosity is 21%.

(b) Determine reserve in place if Recovery Factor is 28%

(a) N=Ah(1-Sw)/Bo=(4000*7758)(115)(0.21)(1-0.3)/1.43
N=3.7 108 STB
(stock tank barrels refers to the volume of oil after production, at surface pressure and
temperature (as opposed to reservoir conditions).
NB: Conversion factor (acre-ft * 7758 = barrels)

(b) Reserve in place=N*RF=(3.7 108 )(0.28)=1.034 108 Barrel


Evolution of the Reserve Estimate

Suggest
OWC
F1 Oil

Water

cross section view of a reservoir structure

Where do we locate the first exploration well and get


involved in large exploration expenditure costs ?
22
F2

Oil

Water

Alternative locations of Exploration Wells


23
F3

Confirm
OWC
Oil

Water

Interpretation after Exploration Well drilled and cored.


24
What can you see?
Exploration well has been drilled and a core recovered
The structure of the field with respect to formations
and contacts redefined
Now we can see an estimate of reserves according
to, proven, probable and possible

25
F4
Probable Probable

Possible Possible
Confirm
Oil

Confirm
Water
OWC

After the Exploration well was drilled.


26
What is next ?
Appraisal wells are now drilled to give better definition
of the reserves of the field.
Various reserve estimates, that is, proven, probable and
possible can be further determined.

27
Top Structure Map
(typical)

28
PART III
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Define lithostatic pressure, hydrostatic

pressure and hydrodynamic pressure.

Describe briefly and sketch the


pressure gradients associated with
overpressured and underpressured
reservoirs.

Understand drive mechanism in a


30
reservoir.
Lithostatic pressures
Pressure / stress imposed on a layer of rock
Caused by the pressure of rock which is
transmitted through the sub-surface by grain-to-grain
contacts
Sometimes called geostatic or overburden pressure
Unit is psi.
Pressure gradient varies according to depth, the density of
the overburden, and the extent to which the rocks are
supported by water pressure

(z) is the density of the overlying rock at depth z and g is the


acceleration due to gravity. p0 is the datum pressure, like the
pressure at the surface. 31
Hydrostatic pressure
Pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the force
of gravity
Imposed by a column of fluid at rest
Depends on the density of the water (w) which is affected
by salinity
Column of fresh water ~ 0.433 psi/ft
With 55,000 ppm of dissolved salts ~ 0.45 psi/ft

Pressure gauge
H is the total height of the liquid column above the
test area the surface, and patm is the atmospheric
pressure. 32
33
Hydrodynamic pressure
Fluid potential pressure gradient which is caused by
fluid flow
In a normal situation the water pressure at any depth is

http://publications.iodp.org/preliminary_report/308/p

rel34.html
34
Example

If the average pressure gradient in a reservoir section


is
0.47 psi/ft,

a)Calculate the pore pressure in a normally pressurized


formation at 7400 ft.

b) Express the pressure gradient in kPa/m?

35
Solution
1 foot = 0.3048m

Pressure in formation = 0.47 * 7400 = 3478 psi


Converting to kPa = 3478 / 0.145 = 23986 kPa
Converting to MPa = 23986 / 1000 = 23.99 MPa
Pressure gradient = psi/ft = (0.47 / 0.145) kPa/ft =
0.47 3.2414 kPa/ft
= (3.2414 /0.3048) kPa/m
= 10.63 kPa/m

36
Fluid Pressures in Hydrocarbon Systems

Typica
l

The composition of the respective fluids gives rise


to different pressure gradients.
Gradients will be determined by the density of the
fluids which result from the specific composition of the
fluids.

37
38
Data used for these fluid contacts
comes from.
Pressure surveys
Equilibrium pressures from well tests
Flow of fluid from particular minimum and maximum
depth
Fluid densities from reservoir samples
Saturation data from wireline logs
Capillary pressure data from cores
Fluid saturation from cores

39
DRIVE MECHANISMS
Drive Mechanisms

Definition

A reservoir drive mechanism is a source of energy for driving


the fluids out to the wellbore.
Types of Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

Depletion drive
Solution gas drive
Gas Cap drive
Liquid expansion
Water drive
Compaction drive
Gravity drainage
drive
Combined drive
Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

Energy sources are from:


Expansion of reservoir fluids, oil, gas & water
Liberation, expansion of solution gas
Expansion of reservoir rock and reduction of pore
volume.
Gravity forces.
Depletion Drive Reservoirs

Depletion drive occurs in a closed reservoir, i.e. no aquifer.

Impermeable
rocks

Impermeable
rocks

Seal
ed
barri
ers
Depletion Drive - Solution Gas Drive

Above bubble point:

Evacuation of fluids during production causes oil, connate


water and pore space to expand. The expansion is small due
to the low compressibility. Consequently, there is a rapid
decline in pressure.

Low recovery
Depletion Drive - Solution Gas Drive

When pressure drops below the bubble point


Dissolved gas is liberated and expands
Liquids and rocks continue to expand
When there is a good vertical permeability, the freed gas
moves up the structure to form a secondary gas cap.

Solution gas drive:


Petroleum commonly has gas
dissolved in it. One of the major
constituents is carbon dioxide (CO2).
As the pressure in the reservoir
decreases, this gas exsolves from
the oil and expands. The expansion
of this solution gas helps maintain
reservoir pressure.
Depletion Drive - Gas Cap Drive

Where there is already


free gas in the reservoir.
Compared to the initial
undersaturated condition
for solution gas drive,
energy is from very high
compressibility of gas cap.
Some energy from
solution gas drive which is
also present.
Oil expansion is
insignificant
Depletion Drive - Gas Cap Drive

Gas cap drive: Often, there


is a layer of natural gas above the
oil. It may be in either liquid or
gaseous form. As the oil is
extracted, the gas expands
because of the extracted oil. This
expansion helps to maintain
natural drive.

The oil rate will not decline as steeply but will depend also on
the placement of the well with respect to the gas cap.
Water Drive Reservoirs
A water (aquifer ) drive reservoir is a reservoir in contact
with a supporting aquifer.

The aquifer may be a water reservoir with a finite size.

It can also be replenished by some source, e.g. rainwater and so


behaves as an infinite reservoir.

The oil rate will remain fairly stable until the water reaches the well.
This image cannot
currently be displayed.

This image cannot


currently be display ed.

Water drive: As oil


is
extracted from the reservoir,
pressure in the layer of
water below the oil forces
the oil up into the reservoir
and hence into the wellbore.
This is the most efficient of
the primary recovery drives.
Compaction Drive

Unconsolidated rocks will have a bigger compaction effect


than consolidated rocks.

When fluids are removed from the pores, the pressure in the
sand grains causes the grains to expand, thereby pushing
out fluids.
Gravity Drainage Drive

Due to the density of the fluids and high vertical


relative
permeabilities.
Commonly occurs in heavy oil reservoirs.
Combined Drive

Most reservoirs have a combination of drives during production


period.
Reservoir Performance

The production characteristics of reservoirs.


Oil-gas ratio
Pressure decline
Water production
Can give indications of drive mechanism
Q&A?