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ULTRASONIC

TESTING
Basic Principles
Frequency

Time

From the duration of one oscillation One full


T the frequency f (number of
oscillations per second) is
oscillation T
calculated:
Basic Principles

star
t of o
scil
T la ti o n

distance travelled
Basic Principles
Properties of Sound
A sound wave is generated due to
mechanical vibrations.
When a sound wave travels through the
medium, the medium particles vibrate. A
vibration is periodic phenomenon.
Vibration is a back and forth movement
and vibration is energy in motion.
The transmission of ultrasonic vibrations
through material is related to the elastic
properties of the material.
When particle vibrates, its displacement
( movement from normal position )
Properties of Sound
wave
Properties of Sound
A sound wave is generated due to mechanical
vibrations.
The VELOCITY ( V )
The velocity ( V ) of sound propagation in material is
entirely decided by mechanical properties of the
material. Usually this is constant at a constant
temperature and does NOT change with the frequency
of the wave. The only way to change the velocity is to
change the properties of the material. It is the rate at
which a point on a wave travels per unit of time. It is
expressed as mm/sec, cm/sec, n-/sec etc.

The AMPLITUDE ( A )
The WAVELENGTH ()
The PERIOD (T )
Properties of Sound
wave
Properties
The AMPLITUDE of
( A )Sound
The Amplitude ( A ) is the maximum displacement of a
particle on the medium from its rest position. It is
related to the amount of energy received by the pulse.
A pulse with high energy will have large amplitude.
Properties of Sound
wave
Properties
The of ()
WAVELENGTH Sound
Pronounced as `lambda' is a length of a complete
cycle and is equal to the distance between two
successive similar corresponding ) positions in the
wave. A wave has repeating pattern and the length
of one such repetition ( cycle ) is the wavelength.
It may be measured in mm, cm, m.
Properties of Sound
wave
Properties
The of(f)Sound
FREQUENCY
The velocity of the sound wave is
mathematically related to the frequency and
wavelength of the wave. It is important to use
correct unit when using this equation.
Frequency is always taken in Hz.
V ( velocity ) = f ( frequency ) X
( wavelength )
f ( frequency) = 1 / T ( period
- seconds )
Properties of Sound
wave
Sound
Sound Waves
waves are produced by mechanical
vibrations or mechanical oscillations. One
vibration or oscillation is called a cycle. The
number of cycles per second (cps ) is called
frequency of the sound waves. One cycle per
second is called a Hertz ( Hz ). Sound waves
with frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 KHz are
audible. Frequencies below 20 Hz are called
'sub-sonic' or `infrasonic' waves, frequencies
above 20 KHz are not audible and are called
`ultrasonic' waves. In UT ultrasonic waves are
used. Frequencies from 0.5 MHz to 6 MHz are
most commonly used in UT. In special cases
frequencies as low as 0.2 MHz to as high as
Properties of Sound
wave
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Wave
waves Generation
are generated by the
transducer ( probe / search unit ) when it is
connected to Ultrasonic Flaw Detector (UFD -
UT machine ). The waves are generated not
continuously but in small bursts or pulses.
The pulses are sent into the test object by
placing the probe in contact with the test
object. The waves travel through the material
and are reflected back by the far surface
( back surface ) as well as by any
discontinuities in the material. The reflected
waves ( or the echoes) are received by the
same probe. The probe converts the sound
waves back into electrical voltages. These
Types of wave modes
There are different types of ultrasonic waves
and are called as wave MODES. These wave
modes are categorized based on the
distinguishing characteristics. One of the
characteristic is the direction of movement of
the individual particles of the medium relative
to the direction that the waves travel.
LONGITUDINAL or COMPRESSIONAL WAVE
TRANSVERSE or SHEAR WAVE
SURFACE or RALEIGH WAVE
PLATE or LAMB WAVE
Properties of
Sound wave
LONGITUDINAL or COMPRESSIONAL
WAVE
In this wave the particles of the medium vibrate
parallel to the direction of propagation of wave.
The particles of the medium are displaced in a
direction parallel to the direction of energy
transport. The region where particles are pressed
together in a small amount of space is known as a
compression. Longitudinal wave travels through
air, liquid and solid.
Properties of
Sound wave
TRANSVERSE or SHEAR WAVE
In this wave the particles of the medium vibrate
perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave.
The particles of the medium are displaced in a
direction perpendicular to the direction of energy
transport. Longitudinal wave has an alternating
pattern of crests and troughs. Transverse wave requires
relatively rigid medium in order to transmit energy
that is why transverse wave travels through solid only.
Properties of
Sound wave
SURFACE or RALEIGH WAVE
In this wave the particles of the
medium move in elliptical path. These
waves travel only on the surface of solid
Properties of
Sound wave
PLATE or LAMB WAVE
In this wave the particles of the medium move
in circular path. These waves travel in a plate
where thickness is smaller than the
wavelength. It travels through solid. The
mode in material differ widely depending on
frequency, incident angle and material
thickness.
Properties of
Sound
WAVE
wave
Of these four wave modes longitudinal and
shear wave modes are most widely used in UT.
Each of these modes have different velocities.
These velocities depend upon the physical
properties of the material. For a given
material, longitudinal waves have the greatest
velocity. Shear velocity is smaller than
longitudinal velocity, it is usually 50 % or half
of the longitudinal velocity for a given
material. Surface wave velocity is smaller
than shear wave velocity, it is 90 % of shear
velocity ie 45 % of longitudinal velocity. As far
as lamb waves are concerned the mode in
Properties of
Sound wave
WAVE BEHAVIOR
As a sound wave travels through a medium, it
often reaches the end of the medium or encounter
a discontinuity or another medium through which
it could continue to travel. When one medium
ends and another medium begins the interface of
the two media is referred to as the boundary and
behaviour of a wave is described as boundary
behaviour. There are four possible boundary
behaviours by which a sound wave could behave
REFLECTION ( bounce off the surface ),
DIFFRACTION ( bending around the discontinuity
without crossing over the boundary ),
TRANSMISSION ( crossing over into new material
- straight / normal beam) and REFRACTION
Properties of
Sound wave
ACOUSTIC IMPADANCE
When sound wave strikes an interface, some
energy of sound wave will be transmitted at
point of incidence and some energy will be
reflected. The amount of energy reflected will
depend upon the acoustic impedance ratio of
the two mediums. `Acoustic Impedance' is a
material
Z=Vxp Z =property
acoustic and is defined as a product
of sound velocity and density of the material.
impedance.
V = velocity of
sound wave.
p = density of
medium. Transmission Factor ( T) = ( 100 - R )
Properties of
Sound wave
ACOUSTIC IMPADANCE
Reflection factor gives amount of wave energy is
reflected and Transmission factor gives amount of
energy transmitted into new medium.
Table 1
Impedance Values for Typical Materials

Z Velocity Density
Sr # Material
gm/cm2-sec cm/sec gm/cm3
1 Air 0.000033 x 106 0.33 x 105 0.001

2 Water 0.149 x 106 1.49 x 105 1.00

3 Aluminum 1.72 x 106 6.35 x 105 2.71

4 Steel 4.56 x 106 5.85 x 105 7.80


Sound wave
Characteristics
REFLECTION
A sound beam approaching an interface is
referred to as an `incident beam' or incident wave.
Sound beam strikes the material surface and like
light beam gets reflected from the surface it
strikes. A line is drawn perpendicular to interface
from point of incidence of sound beam, and is
called normal.

i = Angel of Incidence r = Angle of Refraction


Sound wave
Characteristics
REFLECTION
Incidence angle is always equal to reflected angle and
beam angles equals. The angle between incident beam
and normal is the angle of incidence and angle
between reflected beam and normal is the angle of
reflection. In case of a normal probe the incident beam
strikes surface at 90 degrees i.e. perpendicular to
surface of material. Incident beam and normal lie in
one line and angle of incidence is Incident beam and
normal lie in one line and angle of incidence is zero. At
this interface sound beam has been reflected and
transmitted.

i = Angel of Incidence r = Angle of Refraction


Sound wave
Characteristics
REFRACTION & MODE CONVERSION
Mode conversion takes place when sound beam
( longitudinal wave ) strikes an interface between two
different media at an angle other than-90 degrees.
Transmitted wave undergoes a change in direction in
material and is known as ' refraction'. In fact the sound
beam inside a material splits into two distinct waves
namely longitudinal wave and shear wave. This
phenomenon of conversion of one mode of waves into
another due to refraction is called a mode conversion.
Sound wave
Characteristics
REFRACTION & MODE CONVERSION
This phenomenon of conversion of one mode of waves
into another due to refraction is called a mode
The angle of refraction
conversion. 0 is given by (Snell's
Law)

i = angle of incidence.
= angle of refraction.
V I = velocity of sound in medium
V2 = velocity of sound in medium

Mode Conversion of Sound


Sound wave
Characteristics
1 CRITICAL ANGLE
ST

The velocity of longitudinal wave is


greater than the velocity of the shear
wave, the refracted angle of
longitudinal wave is always greater
than that of shear wave. If incident angle is
increased, the refracted angles of both the wave
inside that material will also increase and at
particular incident angle the refracted angle of
longitudinal wave will be 90 degrees and
longitudinal wave will come to the surface of the
material and thus only shear wave will be present in
the material. This corresponding incident
Sound wave
Characteristics
1
ST
CRITICAL ANGLE

First Critical Angle


Sound wave
Characteristics
2 CRITICAL ANGLE
nd

On further increase of first critical


angle, refracted angle of shear wave
will continue to increase and will
reach 90 degrees and shear wave will
come to the surface of the material
and inside the material, there will be
no wave. This corresponding incident
angle for which refracted angle of
shear wave is 90 degrees is called a
(second critical angle). The shear
waves which come to the surface and
Sound wave
Characteristics
2 CRITICAL ANGLE
nd

Second Critical Angle

In case of an angle probe the longitudinal wave produced by


probe is incident through a plastic wedge at an angle to the
material surface. Since mode conversion will introduce two
waves of different velocities and angles into the test material,
the results will be misleading. Therefore one of the waves has
For angle beam scanning
to be eliminated.
the incident angle should be between
Sound wave
Characteristics
Beam Spread
Due to fundamental phenomenon called diffraction, the
ultrasonic beam gradually spreads out as it propagate,
becoming broader as it gets farther from the transducer.
Because of no energy added as the beam propagates, the
spreading out decreased the intensity of the beam. beam
spread is largely determined by the frequency and
diameter of the transducer. Beam spread is greater when
using a low frequency transducer than when using a high
frequency transducer. As the diameter of the transducer
increases the beam spread will be reduced.
Sound wave
Characteristics
Near Field/Far Field
As the beam travels away from the search unit, it develops
zones that have different characteristics. One is called
near field (Fresnel zone) and the other is the far field
(Fraunhofer zone). Since the ultrasound originates from a
number of points along the transducer face, the
ultrasound intensity along the beam is affected by
constructive and destructive wave interference as shown
in below figure due to wave interference. These are
sometimes also referred to as diffraction effects. This wave
interference leads to extensive fluctuations in the sound
intensity near the source and is known as the near field.
Sound wave
Characteristics
Attenuation
The reduction in energy of an
ultrasound wave as it propagates
through material is called attenuation,
which is material related parameter. In
addition beam spreading, scattering
and absorption of the sound are the
major mechanisms responsible for
attenuation.
Sound wave
Characteristics
Mode conversion
When sound travels in a solid material, one form of wave
energy can be transformed into another form. For
example, when a longitudinal waves hits an interface at an
angle, some of the energy can cause particle movement in
the transverse direction to start a shear (transverse) wave.
Mode conversion occurs when a wave encounters an
interface between materials of different acoustic
impedances and the incident angle is not normal to the
interface. From the figure below, it can be seen that since
mode conversion occurs every time a wave encounters an
interface at an angle, ultrasonic signals can become
confusing at times.
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
BLOCK DIAGRAM
The most common technique employed in a UT is pulse
echo technique. First commercial UFD made in year 1942
was based on this principle. The basic system of
construction of UFD has not changed since beginning.
The basic components are cathode ray tube ( CRT ),
Pulsar, clock, sweep generator and amplifier.
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
CRT (CATHODE RAY TUBE)
The area where the electron beam strikes the screen will
be seen as a luminous spot. `HH' and `VV are two sets of
electrodes. If a voltage is applied to 'HH' plates the
electron beam will be deflected horizontally and if a
voltage is applied to the `VV plates the electron beam will
be deflected vertically. In a flaw detector, the horizontal
deflection is used-to measure time. Hence, voltage
varying linearly with time is applied to these plates. Such
voltage is called `sweep voltage'. When one cycle of sweep
voltage is applied, the electron spot will travel at uniform
speed from left to right and instantaneously reach back to
its starting point. Since the speed is uniform, the distance
of the spot along X-axis is proportional to time. If this
cycle is repeated number of times in a second, a
continuous line is seen on the CRT screen due to
persistence of vision. Simultaneous with sweep voltage, if
transient voltage appears on the `VV' plates, the trace on
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
FLAW DETECTOR
Pulsar `P' gives out a high voltage electric pulse of short
duration. Electric pulse excites the transducer `T' and the
transducer generates a short pulse of ultrasonic waves. The
waves travel into the specimen material under test and get
reflected by a discontinuity in the material or the back
surface.

The reflected wave returns to the transducer


and get converted into an electric voltage.
This voltage is amplified by amplifier (A) and
fed to the vertical deflection plates (VV) of
the CRT. This will cause a `pip' on the CRT.
When pulsar emits a pulse, the sweep circuit
(S) is simultaneously activated and this
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
SYNCHRONIZER
A part of the pulse emitted by the
transducer is also reflected from the
front surface of the specimen material
and returns to the transducer. Since
the pulses and sweep generate
voltages periodically, these must be
made to act in unison i.e. the time
difference between the start of high
voltage pulse and start of the sweep
should be zero or constant or pulsar
and sweep circuits must be
synchronized. This is done by the
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
EQUIPMENT CONTROLS
SWEEP CONTROL

The sweep voltage deflects the electron


beam horizontally. Hence all the sweep
controls will affect the CRT screen picture
only in the horizontal direction. Sweep delay
available which can change the delay
between the pulsar and the sweep circuit
and is known as delay control or zero shift
control or horizontal position control. The
delay control shifts the whole trace bodily to
left or right. Since the sweep rate is not
changed the horizontal distances between
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
EQUIPMENT CONTROLS
SWEEP CONTROL

Sweep Delay Adjustment Sweep Length Adjustment


ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
EQUIPMENT CONTROLS
PULSAR CONTROL

Pulsar control changes the height and the


shape of pulses. Ultrasonic pulses are
generated by giving short duration electric
pulses to the transducer. If the voltage is
higher, the ultrasonic vibrations will have
higher amplitude and hence the energy
content of the ultrasonic pulse will also be
high. Pulse control increases or decreases
the voltage applied to the transducer. The
increase in the pulse energy due to
application of the higher voltage, increase
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
THICKNESS MEASUREMENT
Two different techniques are employed for
thickness measurement by ultrasonic, pulse
echo technique and resonance technique.

Pulse Echo Technique : The distance between


initial pulse and the reflected pulse, measured
along the X-axis on the CRT, is proportional to
the distance between the reflector and the entry
surface. Thus the thickness of an object can be
measured from the position of the back echo on
the X-axis of the CRT. In order to get accurate
reading, obtain multiple echoes and use lower
range and bringing the back-wall echo within
ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
THICKNESS MEASUREMENT
Pulse Echo Technique :

Thickness Readings on CRT Scale


ULTRASONIC FLAW
DETECTOR
THICKNESS MEASUREMENT
Resonance Technique :
When continuous ultrasonic waves are generated by the
probe, the reflected waves will meet the incident waves
and these two will interfere. When the thickness `T' of
the object happens to be an integral multiple of the half
wave length of the ultrasonic waves, a phenomenon
called resonance takes place. Standing waves are set up
in the material under these conditions and higher
current is drawn in the circuitry of the equipment. Thus
by varying the frequency of the ultrasonic waves and
noting the frequency at which resonance takes place,
thickness of the material can be calculated. In equipment
operating on a resonance principle the thickness is read
on a calibrated scale. This technique was developed when
pulse echo technique was unable to give accurate
readings for thin sections. However with developments in
technology pulse echo technique has been able to match
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT
For producing ultrasound in megahertz range for UT a
phenomenon called `piezoelectric effect' is made use of.
Only certain materials exhibit this characteristic of
piezoelectric effect. When these materials re compressed,
a voltage appears across its faces. If compression is
changed to expansion the voltage still appears but the
polarity changes. This is called piezoelectric effect.
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT
An alternating voltage will make the crystal vibrate with
the frequency of the applied voltage. This is called
reverse piezoelectric effect, and is made use of in
generation of ultrasound and piezoelectric effect is made
use of in receiving ultrasound. An electric pulse of very
high frequency and short duration is applied to the
piezoelectric element. Transducer element ( crystal ) is
activated by this pulse and it vibrates at its natural
frequency. Natural frequency depends on its thickness. f
= V / 2T, where V is the sound velocity, T is thickness of
the transducer element. Thus, higher-the frequency
thinner the piezoelectric element.
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
CURIE TEMPERATURE
For every piezoelectric material, there is a temperature
above which the material loses its piezoelectric property.
This temperature is called the `curie temperature'. All
piezoelectric materials are not similar in their properties.
Crystal Material

Quartz: mechanically rugged, high wear


resistance, electrical and thermal stability; but
poor transmitter of energy
crystal axes
x-cut: longitudinal waves
y-cut: transverse waves

Lithium Sulfate: excellent damping, excellent


receiver, low noise, excellent for immersion; but
fragile, limited to low temperatures, water soluble
Polarized Ceramics
Barium Titanate: mechanically rugged; but noisy,
efficiency varies with temperature, depolarizes
with age
Lead Zirconate: mechanically rugged, stable,
excellent transmitter, functions well at
moderately elevated temperatures, excellent for
contact testing; but noisy
Lead Metaniobate: excellent for contact testing,
good tolerance to elevated temperatures,
excellent damping
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
PROBES or SEARCH UNIT
The probe is the most critical part of the ultrasonic test
system. Its abilities and limitations define all aspects of
UT, from instrument design to test specifications.

Normal Probe.
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
TYPES OF PROBES
Normal Beam Probe or Straight Beam probe : the beam
is parallel to the normal to the surface on which it is
incident. The beam is perpendicular to the surface on
which it is incident.

Normal Probe.
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
TYPES OF PROBES

Angle Beam Probe : The sound beam enters the surface


at an angle, angle being measured with reference to a
normal.

Angle Probe
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
TYPES OF PROBES
Dual Probe : A normal probe but with separate crystals
for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic sound waves.
These probes are widely used in detecting discontinuities
close to the surface and thickness testing of thin
sections.

Dual Probe or Twin Crystal probe


ial Type Probe : Mosaic, array or matrix ; wheel probe for plate testing e
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
CONSTRUCTION OF PROBES
The piezoelectric element ( crystal ) is coated on
both sides with thin conducting layers. The
conducting layer on top is connected to central
contact of the probe connector. The voltage pulse is
applied from the instrument through the cable to
this point. During scanning the probe has to be
protected against damage. A thin layer of very hard
material is bonded to the metallised crystal, which
can withstand abrasion from moderate rough
surface. Wear membrane made of special grade of
plastic is stretched over probe contact surface with
some oil in between. Probes are usually specified by
size ( diameter or side of square or rectangle ) and
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
PROFILE OF ULTRASONIC BEAM

A circular piezoelectric transducer


gives a cylindrical beam which
converges up to a certain distance
and then diverge. The region from
the probe up to the `neck' of the
beam from where it starts diverging
is called the `Near Zone' or 'Fresnel
Zone', denoted as N.
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
PROFILE OF ULTRASONIC BEAM

Beam Profile
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
FAR FIELD

The region beyond near zone is called the `Far


Zone' or 'Froanhofer Zone'. In the far zone beam
diverges and it appears as if the beam comes from a
point source at the center of the crystal with the
semi-cone angle .
Sin = 1.2 / D = Half angle of
Beam Spread.
The strongest intensity of the sound beam is along
its central axis, with gradual reduction in amplitude
away from the axis. Sound intensity varies
irregularly in near zone and then decreases
uniformly there after. So discontinuities of same
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
FAR FIELD

Beam Spread
ULTRASOUND GENERATION &
PROBES
GENERATION AND RECEPTION OF
ULTRASOUND
WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIAL
Beam divergence is not the only reason for the reduction
in intensity of the beam as the distance increases. In a
real material, a sound wave also continuously loses a
parts of its energy through conversion into heat and this
is called 'absorption'. In addition a part of the sound
wave is scattered from microscopic interfaces in the
material and this is called `scatter'.
The ultrasonic beam adopts a characteristic shape which
is regulated by the size and the frequency of the
transducer. Transducer diameter has a definite influence
on the sound beam transmitted through a medium. For a
given frequency, a smaller transducer has a greater beam
spread angle than a larger diameter transducer.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
IMMERSION TECHNIQUE

In immersion testing probe head and test piece are kept


immersed in water. The probes used for immersion
testing are water proof and are basically normal beam
longitudinal wave probes. The couplant used is usually
water with a wetting agent added. These probes need not
have wear resistant front face. The probe head is
positioned at a distance, known as water path, from the
front face of the test piece. A manipulator handles the
movement and angulations of the probe. The immersion
techniques are mainly used in large installations carrying
out automatic ultrasonic testing of same type of
specimen.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
IMMERSION TECHNIQUE
TESTING TECHNIQUES
PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE
In this technique short evenly-timed pulses of ultrasonic
waves are transmitted into the material being tested.
These pulses reflect from the discontinuities in their path
or from any boundary of the material on which they
strike. The received reflections or indications are then
displayed on a CRT. The CRT furnishes data as to the
relative amplitude of the reflections and their travel time
through the material. A single transducer is used as both
transmitter and receiver ; although sometimes two
transducers are used, one acting as transmitter and other
as the receiver. The advantages of pulse echo technique
over through transmission technique are :
TESTING TECHNIQUES
PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE
The advantages of pulse echo technique over through
transmission technique are :
1. Time taken for the pulses to return can be measured
and hence the distance of the discontinuity ( depth at
which the discontinuity is located ) can be measured,
2. Access to one side of the object is sufficient,
3. The transmitter can act as the receiver also since it is
not continuously transmitting ; thus one probe is
sufficient,
4. The problem of precisely aligning two probes is
eliminated.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE
TESTING TECHNIQUES
THROUGH TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE
In through transmission technique a continuous beam of
ultrasonic energy is sent into material. It requires the
use of two transducers, in which case both sides of the
job are accessible. One transducer is used solely as
transmitter while the other is used as the receiver. The
receiving transducer is aligned with the transmitting
transducer to pick up the sound waves which pass
directly through the material. Any discontinuity will
reflect the incident ultrasonic waves and thus cause
reduction in the transmitted energy. Thus the
discontinuity is detected by reduction in transmitted
energy. The main disadvantage of this system is its
inability to give information about the exact size and
location of the defect.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
THROUGH TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE
TESTING TECHNIQUES
RESONANCE TECHNIQUE
If the thickness of material equals the half of the
wavelength of sound or its multiple, resonance takes
place. Resonance occurs because the reflected wave is
exactly in synchronization with the transmitted wave
i.e. the particle motion in both the transmitted and the
reflected wave are in the same direction at exactly the
same time: This synchronization of the two sound
waves has the effect of intensifying the energy of the
wave. In the resonance technique an ultrasonic beam
is applied torn the test material through a transducer
as in other testing methods. The frequency of the
continuous longitudinal wave transmitted in the
material is varied till standing waves are set up in the
material.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
RESONANCE TECHNIQUE
TESTING TECHNIQUES
COUPLANT
To transmit vibrations of the probe into material the.
probe is kept in contact with material. If there is a very
thin air gap between the probe and the test material
all the vibrations will be reflected back from material
surface into the probe. To avoid this and thus to
improve the transmission of the waves into the
material, a thin layer of liquid ( oil, water, glycerin,
grease ) is applied on the test surface. This material is
called 'couplant'.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
COUPLANT
The primary purpose of a couplant is
to provide a suitable sound path between the
transducer and the test surface.
A couplant must effectively wet or totally contact both
surfaces of the transducer and test part.
A couplant must exclude all air from between the
surfaces as air is very poor conductor of sound.
The couplant fills in and smoothes out irregularities on
the surface of the test part. The couplant aids in the
movement of the transducer over the surface in
contact testing.
A practical couplant must be very easy to apply and
easy to remove. It must be harmless to the part
surface.
TESTING TECHNIQUES
COUPLANT

Effect of Surface on CRT Presentation


METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS

Information obtained by a pulse echo system


contains data on the range and amplitude of
the signal and is processed in different ways
to produce three types of displays or
presentations namely
A - scan,
B - scan and
C - scan.
D- scan
METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS
A SCAN PRESENTATION
A - Scan is a data presentation method that displays the
returned signals from the material under test on CRT
screen. The horizontal base line on the CRT screen
indicates elapsed time ( from left to right ), and
vertical deflection shows signal amplitudes. For a given
ultrasonic velocity in the specimen, the sweep can be
calibrated directly, across then screen, in terms of
distance or depth of penetration into the specimen.
The height of the indications represent the intensities
of the reflected sound beams. These may be used to
determine the size of the discontinuity, the depth or
the distance to the discontinuity, from the front or
back surface.
METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS
A SCAN PRESENTATION
METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS
B SCAN PRESENTATION
B - Scan shows cross section of the test object on the
screen after the probe has been moved on a scanning
track, running across the test object. The probe
movement' is mostly displayed in X-0 direction while
the distance of flaws encountered is displayed in Y -
direction. This technique of presentation is used
generally for- semi- or fully automatic testing. Portions
of test object that are behind any large reflecting
surface ( flaw ) come under shadow and do not show in
the display. In this technique the depth of the flaws
beneath the surface and their size in the lateral
direction are indicated. This technique is particularly
useful where the distribution and shape of large
discontinuities within a specimen cross section is of
interest.
METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS
B SCAN PRESENTATION
METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS
C SCAN PRESENTATION
The C-scan presentation registers the presence and
amplitude of the reflected signals from discontinuities.
The result is plan ( top) view display. It projects the
internal details of a material into a plane as if sliced
through the specimen at the depth of the discontinuity.
If a discontinuity exists, the plan view are of the
discontinuity is revealed. In C-scan front and back
surface reflections are not used, only the reflected
energy from the discontinuity is used. Normally the
depth of the flaw is not indicated.
METHOD OF PRESENTATIONS
C SCAN PRESENTATION
Phased array PAUT
Phased array has four advantages : the
beam may be (1) electronically steered, (2)
electronically swept, (3) electronically
scanned, and/or (4) electronically focused.
The piezocomposite configuration and a set
of focal laws govern which elf these
advantages will be employed. Beam
steering, for example, 35 to 75, used in
sectorial scanning allows a single PA probe
to selectively insonify a specimen volume
Typical PA probes operate at 2 MHz to 10
MHz and contain 16 to 128 elements
Phased array
Focal Law, An individual clement must be
connected to a11 active channel in the
test equipment for it to be excite d;
grouping and precise timing of active
channel excitation produce a sound field
of interest (Figure 12.22).
The set of active channel delays for a
group is known as a focal law
there is a finite spacing between the
centers of adjacent elements, referred to
as pitch
TOFD
Time of flight diffraction
EMAT
Electromagnetic acoustic trasducer

Laser ultrasonic
12.5 GUIDED WAVE TESTING
Guided wave (GV) testing is an NDT method
that uses a type of ultrasonic wave mode that
propagates under the guidance of one or more
boundaries.
The structure in which a guided wave may
propagate is called a waveguide.
Many everyday structures are natural
waveguides, for example:
Surface of a billet, casting, or forged structure.
Plate or thin sheet.
Bar or rod.
Tube or pipe
several types of guided waves are used in
nondestructive testing, namely:
Lamb waves in plates, classified as either
symmetric or asymmetric based on their
displacement fields.

Shear horizontal (SH) guided waves having


particle motion only in the direction that is
perpendicular to the wave propagation direction
and parallel to the surface in a plate.

Wave modes in tubular structures in either the


axial (longitudinal, torsional, or flexural mode) or
circumferential (lamb-type and SH-type)
directions.
Dispersion as Main Principle,
Dispersion means the wave velocity is a
function of frequency.
Because of boundary constraints, many guided
wave modes may exist in a plate.
Each mode is represented with a curve
showing the relationship between wave velocity
and frequency, The set of curves of possible
guided wave modes plotted together is called a
dispersion curve plot.
Dispersion curves for a given material can be
plotted to show the relationship of velocity to
frequency and test-object thickness.
Advantages of Guided Wave.
the capability to propagate sound waves
over a comparably long range with no
need for scanning, as all data are
acquired from a single probe position.
It may be used to inspect areas not easily
accessible with other methods as well as
thin structures with improved sensitivity
over conventional UT.