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Basic

Counseling
Skills
Dr. Aida Abd El-
Razek
*Associate Professor of Maternal and
Newborn Health
Philadelphia University
Learning objectives
ILOs
At the end of this
lecture the students
will be able to
A. Knowledge and
Understanding
Understand the

counselling
Explain Qualities of a

good counsellor
B. Cognitive Skills
Explain values and attitudes of a
counsellor
Explore basic counselling

process
Classify barriers to effective

counselling
C. Interpersonal Skills and
Responsibility
A Comprehensive basic
counselling skills
Applying a Practical
sessions on
counselling
Outline
Understand counselling.
Qualities of a good
counsellor.
Values and attitudes of
a counsellor.
Counselling process.
Explore basic
counselling skills.
Barriers to effective
counselling.
Practical sessions
on counselling
Summary
Definition Of
Counseling
A supportive and empathic
professional relationship
that provides a framework
for the exploration of
emotions, behaviors, and
thinking patterns, and the
facilitation of healthy
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changes.
Counseling is
directed towards
people experiencing
difficulties as they
live through the
normal stages of life-
span development.
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Counseling
Functions
Remedial
Functional Impairment
Preventive
Anticipate and
Accommodate
Enhancement
Human Potential
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Counseling And
Theory

Negligible differences
in effects produced by
different therapy types

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Common elements between
theories
Responding to feelings,
thoughts and actions of the
client
Acceptance of clients
perceptions and feelings
Confidentiality and privacy
Awareness of and sensitivity to
messages communicated in
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counseling
Characteristics Of
Effective Helpers
Self-awareness and
understanding
Good psychological health
Sensitivity
Open-mindedness
Objectivity
Competence
Trustworthiness
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Components Of The
Counseling Process
Relationship Building
Assessment
Goal Setting
Intervention
Termination and Follow-
Up
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What Works in Treatment:
A Review of 40 Years of Outcome Research

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Relationship
Building

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Conditions Of An
Effective Therapeutic
Relationship
Accurate Empathy
Genuineness/Congruence
Positive Regard/Respect
Clients perception of relationship is
what counts!

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Counselor Skills
Associated With
Facilitative Conditions
Nonverbal and verbal attending behaviors
Paraphrasing content of client
communications
Reflecting client feelings and implicit
messages
Openness and self-disclosure
Immediacy
Attending to Client's Theory of Change
Interactive vs. Didactic Approach
Promoting Hopefulness
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Functions Of A
Therapeutic
Relationship
Creates an atmosphere of trust and
safety
Provides a medium or vehicle for
intense affect
Models a healthy interpersonal
relationship
Provides motivation for change
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WAYS OF
LISTENING
"Are you listening to me?"
People like to be heard. To be heard
helps reduce insecurity. It gives us a
feeling of peace. And when someone
really listens to us, we often discover
something about ourselves. Often we
solve problems just when we are
really listened to and feel heard. In
this handout I will explain two ways
of listening and encourage you to try
to listen better to those around you.
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ANALYTIC
LISTENING
This is the kind of listening we
usually do. During Analytic Listening
I am evaluating in my mind as I
listen to you. I am busy judging and
deciding what to say. I am analyzing.
As a result, you don't feel heard. You
may repeat yourself, or feel
annoyed. Maybe I can even repeat
back to you what I "heard" but it just
doesn't feel like I listened to you.
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DEEP LISTENING
This is a rare talent. In deep listening,
my mind is very quiet when I listen to
you. My feeling is peaceful and curious.
I don't take anything personally. I don't
judge or decide or figure anything out. I
don't try to remember anything. My
mind is quiet and open. As a result, you
find you don't repeat yourself as much.
You feel a connection. You are likely to
say, "I don't know why, but I really felt
you heard me." Your feelings will
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become more peaceful.
Effective counselling
skills
Active listening: Poor listening
Paying attention: habits
Not paying attention
Eye contact, Assuming in advance that
nodding, etc. the subject is unimportant.
Mentally criticizing.
Hearing before
Permitting the speaker to
evaluating. be inaudible or incomplete.
Listening for the Pretending to be attentive.
whole message. Hearing what is expected.
Paraphrasing what Feeling defensive.

was heard. Listening for a point of

Probe for causes disagreement.


Rehearsing.
and feelings.
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Effective Counselling
Skills
Reflection feeling and meaning:
recognizing clients feelings and
letting him know you have
understood their feeling.
Questioning: Asking openended
questions which allow for more
explaining. Help the client to go
deeper into his problems and gain
insight.
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Paraphrasing: Repeating
in ones own words what
the client has said.
Interpretation: Giving
back to the client the
core issue that he is
struggling with.
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Assessmen
t

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Session Rating Scale
(SRS V.3.0)
Name ________________________ Age (Yrs):____ ID# _____________Sex: M / F Session # __ Date:___________________

Please rate todays session by placing a mark on the line nearest to the description that best fits your experience.

Relationship
I did not feel heard, understood, and respected. I felt heard,
understood, and respected.

I-------------------------------------------------------------------------I
Goals and Topics
We did not work on or talk about what I wanted to work on We worked on and talked about what I
wanted to work on
and talk about and talk about.

I------------------------------------------------------------------------I

Approach or Method
The therapists approach is not a good fit for me. The therapists approach
is a good fit for me.

I-------------------------------------------------------------------------I
Overall
There was something missing in the session today. Overall, todays
session was right for me.

I------------------------------------------------------------------------I

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Purposes Of
Assessment

Systematic way to obtain


information about the clients
problems, concerns, strengths,
resources, and needs.
Foundation for goal-setting
and treatment planning.
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Assessment
Considerations
Assessment is always an ongoing
process, changing as you learn
more about the client.
Who is complaining or alarmed?
Who thinks there is a problem?
What is the person complaining
about?
What is the person motivated for?
What does he or she want?
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What does the person do well?
(Find contexts of competence.)
Skills, hobbies, sports, activities,
avocations, life experiences, etc.
Exceptions/previous solutions/times
when situation was better
Best coping moments
What are the goals? How will we
know when we are done?
Get specific about the problem-free
future.
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What are the patterns of the
problem? How is it
performed? Search for
regularities of action and
interaction, time, place, body
behavior, etc. Get specific (so
could imagine seeing/hearing
the problem on a videotape)
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Scan for potentially harmful
actions of clients or others in
clients' lives (e.g., physical
violence, drug/alcohol abuse,
sexual abuse, self-mutilation,
suicidal intentions/attempts,
etc.) that may not be obvious or
may be minimized during an
initial interview.
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Assessment Tools
Intake forms
Intake interview
Clinician questions
Formal instruments
ASAM PPC
DSM IV
DrInc
SASSI
SOCRATES
..

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Assessment Tool Rules Of
Thumb
Never diagnose with a test or screening
instrument only.
Tests are useful in validating information
provided by the client in the subjective
interview.
Testing tools should only be used by
those with training in using that tool.
All testing tools have limitations.
Never replace the expertise, training, and
experience of the clinician with a test.
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Stages of Change
(Meeting the client
where they are)
Precontemplation - "I really
don't want to change.

Contemplation- I'll consider it."

Preparation- "I'm making a


plan for it."
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Action- "I'm doing it, but
not regularly."

Maintenance- "I'm doing it."

Termination- "I have no


desire to go back to my own
ways."

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Extratherapeutic
Factors
These factors exist prior to
and are independent of
participation in treatment
Client factors
Strengths
Resources
Areas of Competence
Chance factors
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Goal-
Setting

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Goal Functions
Define desired outcomes
Give direction to the counseling
process
Specify what can and cannot be
accomplished in counseling
Client motivation
Evaluate effectiveness of counseling
Measure client progress
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Seven Qualities Of Well
Formed Treatment Goals*
Saliency to the Client/Collaborative
Small
Concrete, Specific, and Behavioral
The Presence Rather Than the
Absence of Something
A Beginning Rather Than an End
Realistic and Achievable Within the
Context of the Clients Life
Perceived as Involving Hard Work
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Interventio
ns
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Categories Of
Counseling
Interventions
Affective
Cognitive
Behavioral
Interpersonal/Systemic

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Affective
Models
Person-centered therapy
Gestalt Therapy
Body awareness therapies
Psychodynamic therapies
Experiential therapies

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Models
Rational-emotive
therapy
Information-giving
Problem-solving and
decision-making
Transactional Analysis
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Behavioral
Models
Behavior therapy
Reality therapy
Cognitive-
behavioral therapy
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Systemic
Models
Structural therapy
Strategic therapy
Intergenerational
systems
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Collaborative
Therapy
A collaborative therapy is
one in which:
The expertise of clients is given
at least as much weight as the
expertise of therapists.
Clients are regularly part of the
treatment planning process.
Clients are consulted about goals,
directions and responses to the
process and methods of therapy.
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The therapist asks questions and
makes speculations in a non-
authoritarian way, giving the client
ample room and permission to
disagree or correct the therapist.
Therapists give clients many options
and let them coach the therapist on
the next step or the right direction.
Client status is elevated from
passive needy recipients to active
expert contributors.

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art of therapy revolves arou
ping clients to bow out of th
symptoms gracefully

- Milton Erickson

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Terminatio
n and
Follow-Up

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Indicators Of
Counseling Success
Clients own their problems and
solutions
Clients develop more useful insight
into problems and issues
Clients acquire new responses to old
issues
Clients learn to develop more
effective relationships
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Accountability For
Mental Health
Professionals
Continuing education
Paying attention to relevant
research findings
Applying research findings to
clinical practice
Validating efficacy of our work
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Outcome Rating Scale (ORS)
Name ________________________Age (Yrs):____ Sex: M / F Session #____Date:_______________________

Who is filling out this form? Please check one: Self _______Other_______ If other, what is your relationship to
this person? ____________________________

Looking back over the last week, including today, help us understand how you have been feeling by rating how well
you have been doing in the following areas of your life, where marks to the left represent low levels and marks to
the right indicate high levels. If you are filling out this form for another person, please fill out according to how you think he or she
is doing.
Individually
(Personal well-being)
I----------------------------------------------------------------------I
Interpersonally
(Family, close relationships)
I----------------------------------------------------------------------I
Socially
(Work, school, friendships)
I----------------------------------------------------------------------I
Overall
(General sense of well-being)
I----------------------------------------------------------------------I

Institute for the Study of Therapeutic Change


www.talkingcure.com
2000, Scott D. Miller and Barry L. Duncan

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Qualities of an
Effective Counselor
Positive regard or respect for people.
Open, non judgmental and high
level of acceptance.
Caring and empathetic.
Selfaware and selfdisciplined.
Knowledgeable/informed about
subject and awareness of resources
available within the community.

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Qualities of an
Effective Counsellor
Culturally sensitive.
Patient and a good listener.
Ability to maintain
confidentiality.
Objective and having
clarity.
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Summary
The session defined counselling
as a face-to-face
communication between a
counsellor and client which aims
at helping the client understand
their problems and make
informed decisions for change.
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Qualities of a good counsellor, skills
in counselling and barriers to
effective counselling, which
included physical barriers,
differences in social and cultural
background, non-verbal
communication, and barriers
caused by clients are also detailed.

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