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WHAT IS

CONSERVATION
Ar. LUDIVINA ABAYA LOZANO, MArch
What is CONSERVATION?

It is an action taken to
prevent decay.
What is CONSERVATION?

It embraces all acts that


prolong the life of our
cultural and natural
heritage.
What is CONSERVATION?

In doing so, we present to


those who use and look at
historic buildings with
wonder the artistic and
human messages that such
building possesses.
WHY CONSERVE HERITAGE
ITEMS AND PLACES?
provide a link to the past
and help people
understand connections
to their local history.
WHY CONSERVE HERITAGE
ITEMS AND PLACES?
provide examples of
craftsmanship and
materials which are
becoming increasingly
rare.
WHY CONSERVE HERITAGE
ITEMS AND PLACES?
provide examples of
craftsmanship and
materials which are
becoming increasingly
rare.
WHY CONSERVE HERITAGE
ITEMS AND PLACES?
provide identity and
meaning to the town.
a magnet for tourism
that promotes local
economy.
WHY CONSERVE HERITAGE
ITEMS AND PLACES?
provide identity and
meaning to the town.
a magnet for tourism
that promotes local
economy.
LEGAL BASES
ICOMOS (International
Council on Monuments
and Sites) is a non-
governmental professional
organization formed in
1965, with headquarters in
Paris.
LEGAL BASES
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
1.Society for the Protection of
Ancient Building's Manifesto,
1877
- "put protection in place of
restoration"
- marked the starting point for
the many later policy
statements.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
2.Athens Conference of 1931
(Athens Charter)
- organized by the International
Museums Office, established
basic principles for an
international code of practice
for conservation.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
3.2nd International Congress of Architects
and Technicians of Historic Monuments,
Venice, May 1964

-stresses the importance of setting,


-respect for original fabric,
-precise documentation of any intervention,
-the significance of contributions from all
periods to the building's character,
-the maintenance of historic buildings for a
socially useful purpose.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
4.The Florence Charter on Historic Gardens
(1982).
- definition of the term historic garden
- architectural compositions that constitute
the historic landscape.
- the need to identify and list historic gardens,
and
- provides philosophical guidance on
maintenance, conservation, restoration and
reconstruction.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
5.The Washington Charter on the Conservation of
Historic Towns and Areas (1987).
- considers broad principles for the planning and
protection of historic urban areas.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
6.Charter for the Protection and Management of the
Archaeological Heritage (1990).
Considers the subject of archaeology under the
following headings:
- definitions,
- integrated protection policies,
- legislation,
- survey,
- maintenance and conservation,
- presentation,
- re-construction, and
- international co-operation.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
7.Resolution of the Symposium on the Introduction of
Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of
Buildings (1972).

-Stresses the need for appropriate use of mass, scale,


rhythm and appearance, and the avoidance of imitation.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
8.The Charter on Cultural Tourism (1976).

-Considers the positive and negative effects of cultural


tourism on historic monuments and sites.
CULTURAL HERITAGE
CHARTERS AND STANDARDS
9.Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China

The China Principlesnational guidelines for the


conservation and management of cultural heritage.

sites in Chinawas first issued by China ICOMOS in 2000


with the approval of China's State Administration of
Cultural Heritage.
PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION
ARTS AND CULTURE
SECTION 14. The State shall foster the preservation,
enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national
culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a
climate of free artistic and intellectual expression.
SECTION 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of
the State. The State shall conserve, promote and
popularize the nation's historical and cultural heritage
and resources, as well as artistic creations.
SECTION 16. All the country's artistic and historic wealth
constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall
be under the protection of the State which may regulate
its disposition.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10066
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10066
National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009.

AN ACT
PROVIDING FOR THE PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF
THE NATIONAL CULTURAL HERITAGE, STRENGTHENING THE
NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR CULTURE AND THE ARTS
(NCCA) AND ITS AFFILIATED CULTURAL AGENCIES
Philippines Natural & Built
Structures Inscribed in the
UNESCO Worlds Heritage List
Sto. Tomas de Villanueva, Miag-ao, Iloilo (1993)
San Agustin, Paoay, Ilocos Norte (1993)
San Agustin, Intramuros, Manila (1993)
Nstra. Sra. De la Asuncion, Sta. Maria, Ilocos Sur (1993)
Tubattaha Reef National Marine Park, Palawan (1993)
Banaue Rice Terraces (1995)
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (1999)
Vigan Heritage Village (1999)
Properties submitted on the
Tentative List (29)
Jesuit Churches of the Philippines (1993): (a) Guiwan,
Samar; (b) Maragondon, Cavite; (c)
Baclayon, Bohol; (d) Loboc, Bohol
San Sebastian Church (2006)
Angono Triglyphs (1993)
Spanish Colonial Fortifications of the Philippines (2006):
(a) Fuerza de Capul, Samar, (b) Dauis
watchtower,Bohol,(c)PuntaCruzFortification,Maribojoc,(d
) FuerzadeSanAndres,Romblon,
(c) Fuerza de Sta. Isabel, Taytay, Palawan
Batanes Protected landscapes and seascapes (1993)
The Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun (2006)
Paleolithic Archaeological Sites in Cagayan Valley (2006)
Kabayan Mummy Burial Caves (2006)
Butuan Archeological Sites (2006)
Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) (2006):
(a) Church complex of Patrocinio de Maria, Boljo-on
(Cebu), (b) Church of La Inmaculada Concepcion, Guiuan
(Samar), (c) Church complex of San Pedro Apostol, Loboc
(Bohol), (d) Church complex of San Isidro Labrador, Lazi
(Siquijor), (e) Church of San Mattias, Tumauini (Isabela),
The Maranao Settlement of Tugaya (2006)
Petroglyphs and Petrographs of the Philippines (2006)
Neolithic Shell Midden Sites in Lal-lo and Gattaran
Municipalities, Cagayan (2006)
Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary (2006)
Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (2006)
Ligawasan Marsh, Provinces of maguindanao, Sultan
Kudarat and Cotabato (2006)
Taal Volcano Protected landscape, Batangas (2006)
Panglao Island, Bohol (2006)
Mt. Matutum Protected Landscape, Tupi, Tampakan, Pomolok, South
Cotabato, and Malungon, Sarangani Province (2006)
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park, Misamis Occidental (2006)
Mt. Pulag National Park, Benguet, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya
Provinces (2006)
Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary, Sulu (2006)
Apo Reef Natural Park, Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro (2006)
El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area, Municipalities of
El Nido and Taytay, Palawan
(2006)
Coron Island Natural Biotic Area, Palawan (2006)
Mt. Iglit-Baco National Park, Occidental and Oriental Mindoro (2006)
Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and outlying areas inclusive of
the buffer zone (2006)
Mount Apo Natural Park, Davao City and Bansalan, Digos and Sta.
Cruz, Davao del Sur in Region
11 and Makilala, Magpet and Kidapawan, North Cotabato in Region
12, Mindanao (2009)
Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Davao Oriental,
Mindanao(2009)
PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION
The basic purpose of preservation is
not to arrest time but to mediate
sensitively with the forces of change.
It is to understand the present as a
product of the past and a modifier of
the future.
John W. Lawrence, 1970
Let us, while waiting for new
monuments, preserve the
ancient monuments. Victor
Hugo, 1832
The best way of preserving
buildings as opposed to objects is
to keep them in use a practice
which may involve what the
French call mise en valeur, or
modernization with or without
adaptive alteration. Conservation
of Historic Buildings, Bernard
Fielden, Butterworths, 1982
The minimum effective
intervention is always the best.
Conservation of Historic Buildings,
Bernard Fielden, Butterworths,
1982
A nation can be a victim of amnesia.
It can lose the memories of what it
was, and thereby lose the sense of
what it is or what it wants to be.
Sidney Hyman, in With Heritage So
Rich, 1966
Restoration must never be (1) an
imitation, (2) a falsification, or (3)
in competition with the original.
Prof. Umberto Baldini, 1983
It is better to preserve than
repair, better to repair than to
restore, better to restore than
reconstruct. A.N. Didron, Bulletin
archeologique, vol. 1, 1839
We do not restore the
monument, but we restore the
materials of the monument. Dir.
Prof.Francesco Gurrieri, 1983
BURRA CHARTER
BURRA CHARTER
The Australian national set of
principles and guidelines on
heritage conservation and
management. It represents best
practice for all people who provide
advice, make decisions or carry out
works to places of heritage value.
Burra Charters Conservation
Principles

Before preparing a development


proposal, consider these following
recommendations:
Burra Charters Conservation
Principles
retain what is important about a place;
provide for current and future maintenance;
respect original fabric, past uses, associations
and meanings;
understand and retain evidence of changes
which are part of the history;
understand the place before making decisions
use traditional techniques and materials to
conserve original materials
retain the use of a place if it is important, or
ensure a compatible new use;
Burra Charters Conservation
Principles
involve minimal change to allow new uses,
respect the original fabric, associations and
uses;
retain an appropriate visual setting for
heritage places
keep a building, work or other component in
its historical location, because the physical
location of a heritage item or place is part of its
cultural significance. Do not relocate unless
this is the only practical means of ensuring its
survival.
Burra Charters Conservation
Principles
keep contents, fixtures and objects which
are part of a places cultural significance at
that place.
retain related buildings and objects as
they are also important, and
enable people who have special
associations and meanings with a place in
its care and future management to be
involved.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
Conservation is not just about preserving
or restoring a building to its former details,
but also ensuring that heritage values are
not lost or eroded in the process.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
Cultural Significance means
aesthetic,
historic,
scientific,
social or
spiritual value for past, present or future
generations.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
Cultural significance is embodied in the
place itself,
its fabric,
setting,
use,
associations,
meanings,
records,
related places and related objects.
Places may have a range of values for different individuals or
groups
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
1.Aesthetic Value
-encompasses works representing rare and
outstanding contributions in national
architecture that are reflected in its design,
style, construction, and age.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
Other criteria may include consideration of
architectural design,
form,
scale,
color,
texture,
material used and
the aesthetic value of a building or groups of buildings that
relates both to location and
context.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
2.Historical Value
- a place that has influenced, or has been
influenced by, a historic figure, event, phase
or activity.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
3.Scientific/technological value
Recognizing the rarity and quality of
technology available at the time of
construction and to the degree which a
building, structure, or monument reflects a
certain period.
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
4.Social Value
- embraces the qualities of which, as a site
has become a focus for a spiritual, political
or national cultural sentiment
UNDERSTANDING HERITAGE
VALUE
5.Religious Value/ Sacred Value/ Symbolic
Value
- embrace the qualities of which, as a site
has become a focus for a spiritual and
religious practice.
Loss of heritage value
-lack of maintenance
- badly designed alterations
- incorrect , inappropriate subdivisions
which detract from the setting of a building,
and
- unsympathetic colour schemes
ORIGINAL FABRIC
The physical material of a building or place
(known as fabric) contains evidence of its
history and how it may have changed.
ORIGINAL FABRIC
Care and skill are needed to make decisions about the care and
management of a heritage building or place:
Understand the properties of traditional materials before
making changes, for example use correct mortars with old
bricks.
Obtain advice from Council who can provide access to a
Heritage Advisor/Officer and can offer information on traditional
materials such as metal and timber.
Seek advice from skilled tradesmen with heritage experience,
Beware of irreversible changes such as painting of brickwork.
Consider a range of solutions when planning upgrades for
safety, fire protection.
And remember that regular maintenance is essential to look
after an old building, and can prevent more costly repairs.
SEVEN ASCENDING DEGREES
OF INTERVENTION:
1.PREVENTION OF DETERIORATION
2. PRESERVATION OF EXISTING STATE
3. CONSOLIDATION OF THE FABRIC
4. RESTORATION
5. REHABILITATION
6. REPLICATION/REPRODUCTION
7. RECONSTRUCTION